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THE COLUMBIAN, BLOOMSBURG, COLUMBIA COUNTY, PA.
tlou which hU report roominiunds.
While In 1900 sixteen thousand threo
hundred moil cost the nation $10, 172,000,
thu sum of $0.,0s2,000 Is estimated as
necessary for tli support of tlio rmy
during tho tl'wl yer ending Juiiu 30,
1870. Tho estimates of th War Depart
uiuutfor the last two fiscal yen" were,
from 1807, 433,81 1, 101, nnil for 1809, $2o,
203,0(1!). The actual expondlturesdurlng
the eame perlodi were, respectively,
sa.VJ'l.tir, uu'l 41S1.210.018. Tho es-
tlmito submitted in December last Jut
tho lWeal year ending June 30, 1809, was
77.i''i.7m; tlm (xnendltures lor hic
first quartor.cniltnstho 30th of Septem
her hut. were $27,210,1 17, ami thu Secre
tary of thu Treasury gives r0,OU0,UOOu
the amount which will pruuauiy
mlrixl .lurliiL' tho remaining three
manors. If tliero Hhoulil b no rednc
tlon of tho army making Its aggregati
ons! for tlio year considerably In excess
of nlnely-threo millions. Tlio timer
am between the intimates ami expen
dlturos for the threo tonuA yean which
h.ivn lit'un mimed It thus shown to he
tl75,fil3,33 for tills single branch of tho
Thu report of the Secretary of tho
Nuvv exhibits tho operations oi mai
Dmi.irtiiiimt and of the navy during
the year. A considerable reduction of
thu foreo has been ilfeetod. Thcro ate
forty-two vessels, carrying four hun
dred and eleven guns, in the six squar-
(Irons which aro established In different
l.artsof tho world. Tho total number
of vowels In tho navy Is two hundred
mid t.v. mountlmr seventeen hundred
.uil forty-throe guns. KIglity-ono ves
sels of every description aro In ase, arm
ed with six hundred and nlnety-slx
guns. Tho mi anborof enlisted men in
the service, including apprentices, bas
been riduced to eight thousand live
The Postmaster General's report film
ishes a full and elo.ir exhibit of tho op
orations and condition of the postal
service. The ordinary postal revenue
for tho Used year ending Juno 30, 1808,
was $10 .202,000, and tho total expend!
tures, embracing "11 tho scrvico for
which special appropriations liavo been
made by Cougresj.uinounted tof-iijoU,
502. showing an excess of expenditures
of $0,137,991. Deducting from expen
dltures tlm sum of $1,800,523, tho
amount of appropriations for ocean
btcauishtp and otherspeclalser vice, the
excels of expenditures was $1,511,400.
By ming an unexpended balunco In
th Treasury of $3,800,000, the actual
sum for which a special appropriation
is required to meet thu deficiency is
$711, 1C0. The causes which produced
this largo excess of cxpendlturo over
revenue were the restoration of service
in the late Insurgent States, and tho
nuttin'' Jnto operation of new service
established by acts of Congresl, which
amounted, within tho last two years
aad a half, to about -13,700 miles equal
to more than one-third of the whole
amount of the service at the close of the
Our ralatlons with Mexico daring the
yaar have been marked by an lncrea
ing growth of mutual confidence. The
Mexican Government has not yet acted
upon the three treaties celebrated htrt
last summer for establlshlnc the rights
of naturalized citizens upon n liberal
and just bails, for regulating consular
powers, nnd for the adjustment of mu
1IAYTI AND HT. D011ISGO.
I hivobecn reluctantly obliged to ask
explanation and satisfaction for nation
al Injuries committed by tho President
of llayll The political and sociil con
dition of tho Republics of llayll and
St Domingo Is very unsatisfactory and
pilnful. Tho abolition of slavery,
which lias been carried into effect
throughout tho island of SI. Domlntfo
nnds.hu entire West Indies, except the
Spanish Islands of Cuba and Porto Rico,
has been followed by a profound popu
lar conviction of tho rightfulness of re
publican Institutions, and an Intense de
sire to secure them. The attempt, how
ever, to establish republics there en
counters many obstacles, most of which
may be supposed to result from long
ludulgcil habits of colonial stiplneness
and dependence upon European mon
archical powers. While tho United
States have, on all occasions, professed
n decided unwillingness that any part
oi this continent or of Its adjacent Is
lands sliull ! made a theatre for a new
establishment of monarchical powers,
too little has been tlono by us, on thu
other baud, to attach tho communities
by which wo are surrounded to our own
touutry, or to lend even amoral sup
port to the efforts they aro so resolutely
and to constantly making to secure re
publican institutions for themselves. It
Is, Indeed, a question of grnvo consider
ation whether our recent and present
example is not calculated to cheek tho
growth and expansion of free principles,
and mute those communities distrust,
If not dred, a government which at will
consigns to military domination States
that are Integral parts of our Federal
Union, and, while ready to resist any
attempts by other nations to extend
to this hemisphere thu monarch
ical Institutions of Kurope, assumes to
establish over a Isrgo portion of Its peo
ple n rulo more absolute, harsh and tyr
anlcal l han any known to civilized
Tlis acquisition of Alaska was made
wllli a view of extending national Ju
risdiction and republican principles In
the American hemisphere. Bcllovlng
that a further step could bo taken In
the samo direction, I last year entend
iiuo a treaty with thoKIngofDcnmaik
for tlie purchnsu of the Islands of ..
Tlioina3 ami St. John, on tin1 best isun's
then attainable, nnd with the express
consent of tho people of thoce Island.
This treaty .still remain uudrr consiu
oration in tho Senile. A now conven
tion hue been entered Into with Den
mark, enlarging tho time filed for final
ratification of the original treaty, Cora
prvhetisive national policy would teem
to sanction the acquisition and Incorpo
ration into our Federal Union of the
several udjacunt continental and Insular
communities as speedily at It can be
done peacefully, lawfully, and without
any vlolslion of national Justice, faith,
or honor, Foreign possession or eontrol
of those eoiuinui lllibhns hitherto hin
dered tho growth and Impaired tho in
fluence of thu United Slates. Chronic
revelation and anarchy there would be
equally Injurious. Kach oue of them,
when (Irmly established as nn Indepen
dent republic, or when Incorporated In
to tlio.Unlted Slates, would be a now
ouice of strength and power. Confor
ming my administration to these prin
ciples, 1 have on no occasion lent sup
port or toleration to anlawful expedi
tions n't on font upon the plcaof repub
lican propagaudlsm, or of national ex
tension or A(f rnndlzcmcnt. The ne
cessity, however, of repressing such un
lawful movements ele.irly indicates the
duty which rests upon us of adapting
our legislative action to the now cir
cumstances of a decline of European
monnrchlat power and influence, nnd
lie increase of American republican
I leas, Interests, nnd sympathies. It
. sunot he long before it will become no
crssary for this government to lend
omeeffectlvc aid to the solution of tho
oolltici! and social problems which nro
continually kept before tho world by
thetworepabllcsof tho Island of St.
Domingo, nnd which aro now disclos
ing t hems t Ives moro distinctly than
heretofore In tho Island of Cuba. The
subject Is commended to your consider
ation with all the moro earnestness, be
came I nm satisfied that tho time has
arrived when oven to direct a proceed
ing as a propo-ltlon for an annexation
of tho Island of St. Domingo would
not only reccivo tho consont of the peo
ple Interested, hot would also glvo sat
isfaction to alt other foreign nations. -I
am awaro that upon tho question of
urthcr extending our possessions It is
apprehended by sonic that our political
system cannot successfully bo applied to
an area more oxtended tha'i our conti
nent; but tho conviction is rapidly
gaining ground in tho American mind
that, witli the Increased facilities of in
tercommunication between all portions
of the earth, tho principles of free gov
ernment at embraced In our Constitu
tion, If faithfully maintained and car
ried out, would provo of sufficient
strength mid breadth to comprehend
within their sphere and intlucnco the
civilized nations of the world.
THE SANDWICH ISLANDS.
Tho attention of the Senate nnd of
Congress is afiitn respectfully called to
the treaty for tho establishment of com
mercial rociproslty with tho Hawaiian
Kingdom, ontered Into last year, and
already ratified by that government.
The attitude of tho United Slates to
wards these islai.ds is not very different
from that In which they stand towards
the West Indies. It Is known and felt
by the Hawaiian Government and peo
ple that their government nnd Institu
tions aro foeblo and precarious; that the
United States being so near a neighbor,
would bo unwilling to tee tho Islands
past uader foreign control. Their
prosperity is continually disturbed by
expectations and alarms of unfriondly
political proceedings, a:, well from the
United States as from tho foreign pow
ers. A reciprocity treaty, while it could
not materially diminish tho revenues of
tho United States, would bo a guaran
teoof tho good will naa forbearance of
all nations until the people of tho islands
shall of themselves, at no distant day,
voluntarily apply for admission into
The Emperor or Russia has acceded
totho treaty negotiated hero in January
last for th security of trade-marks In
the interest of manufacturers and com
merce. I havo invited his attention to
the Importance of establishing, now
whlltf It seems easy and practicable, a
fair and equal regulation of tho vast
fisheries belonging to tho two nations
In the waters of tho North Pacific ocean.
RIGHTS OF NATURALIZED CITIZBNS.
The two treaties between tho United
States and Italy for the regulation of
eon-u'nr powers and the extradition of
criminals, n rgotlatcd and ratified here
duri iik tho lust session of Congress, havo
been accepti-d nnd confirmed by tho
Itallaa government. A liberal consular
conventlon which has boen nogotl.ited
with Belgium will bo submitted to the
Senate, the very important treaties
which wert) negotiated between the
United States nnd North Oermany and
Bavaria, for the regulation of the right,
of naturalized citizens, have been duly
ratified and exchauged, and similar
treaties havo been enteral into with tho
Kingdoms of Belgium nnd Wurtem
berg, and with tho Grand Duchies of
Had en and Hesse-Darmstadt. I hope
soon to bo sblo to submit equally satis
factory convsnttons of tho same charac
ter now in the courso of negotiation
with the respective Governments of
Spain, Italy, and the Ottoman Emplie.
Examination of claims against the
United States by the Hudson't Day
Company and tho Pugct's Sound Agri
cultural Company, on account of cer
tain possessory rights In theStute of Or
egon nnd Territory of Washington, al
leged by thoso companies In virtue of
provisions of tho treaty between tho
United States and Great Britain of June
15, 1310, has been diligently prosecuted,
under the direction of the Joint Inter
national commission to which they
were submitted for adjudication by
treaty between tho two governments of
July 1, 1803, nnd will, It Is expected, bo
concluded at an early day.
No practical regulation concerning
colonial trade and the fisheries cau bo
accomplished between thu United States
and Great Britain until Congress shall
havo exprctrcdtholr Judgment concern
ing tho principles involved. Throo oth
er questions, howovcr, between the U.
S., and Oreat Britain remain open for
adjustment. These ore tho mutual
rights of naturalized citizens, the boun
dary question Involving tho tlUo to tho
island of San Jnan, on thoPncillc ecost,
and mutual claims arising sinctt the
year 1853, of tho citizens and subjects of
the twocountrlos for injuries nnd dop-
i editions committed under authority of
their respective governments. Negoti
ations upon thoso subjects are pending,
and 1 am not without hopo of being
able to lay before tho Senate, for its con
sideration during tho present session,
prou cols calculated to bring to an end
inme justly-exclting'snd long-existing
I'ltOl'OSKD AMENDMrKTHTO T1IKCON
STITUTIOM I renew the recommendation contain
ed In my communication to Congress
dated tho ldth July last a copy of
which uccnmpanlett this message that
the Judgment of thopeoplo should bo
taken on the proprloty of bo nmcndlng
tho Federal Constitution that it shall
1st. For an election of President and
VIco-PrcnIilent by a direct vote of the
people, Instead of through tho agency
of electors, and making them Ineligible
for re-election to a second terra,
2d. For a distinct designation of the
person who shall discharge theduticHof
I'MwIdeut, In the event of a vacancy in
that ofllce by the death, resignation or
removal of both tho President nnd Vice
President. 3d. For the election of Senators of tho
United States, directly by tho pcoplo of
tho several States, Instead of by tke
1th. For tho limitation of period of
years of tho terms of Federal Judges.
Profonndly Impressed with the pro
priety of making theso Important modi
fications In the Constitution, I respect
fully submit them for tho early nnd
maturo consideration of Congress. We
should as far as possible rcmovo all pre
text for violations of the organic law
by remedying such Imperfections as
tlmo nnd oxperleiico may develop, ever
remembering that ''the Constitution
which ntnny time exists, until changed
by an explicit nnd authentic net of tho
wholo people, Is tacredly obligatory up
In the performance of n duty Imposed
upon mo by the Constitution, I have
thus communicated to Congress Infor
mation of tho stato of tho Union, and
recommended for Its consideration sncli
measures as have seemed to mo necess
ary and expedient. If carried Into ef
fect, they will hasten the accomplish
ment of thu great and beneficent pur
pones for which the Constitution was
ordained, and which it comprehensively
states wero "to lorm a moro perfect
Union, establish Justice, iusuro domes
tic tranquility, pro vide for tho common
defence, promote tho general welfare,
and secure tho blessings of liberty to
ourselves and our posterity." In Con
gress aro vested all legislative powers,
ami upon them dcvols-es tho responsi
bility as well for framing unwiso and
expensive laws, ns for neglecting to do
vlso and adopt measure absolutely de
manded by the wanttof tho country.
Let us earnestly hopo that before the
expiration of our respective terms of
service, now rapidly drawing to a close,
an all-wise Providence will so galdo our
eounscls ns to strengthen and preserve
the Federal Union, inspire roTcrcnce
for tho Constitution, rettoro prosperity
and hnpp ness to our wholo people, and
promote "on earth peace, good will to
ward men." Anduew Johnson.
Washington, December 0, 1808.
rniDAT BionxiNo, dec. is, isos.
-Tnn f.csiniAN has tin, Lsmti
SrenlaNan In Columbia anil ailjolnlnt;
eaunllcs sf snr natier nubllthf dilicre. and
Bs iIid a mneh larger sheet than any of
Kaeatempararleii and Is therefore the licit
medlunt far adrevUelng In (his section of
The President's .Jttcssafo, and the
Last week wo gavo a synopsis of
this Important document, and this week
we give it entire, with tho exception of
a small portion giving details of ex
penditures in tke Depart incuts, and rc
vlowlng our foreign relations.
Andrew Johnson has not been intim
idated by tho success of tho minority
Itadical party. Ho arraigns them moro
strongly than ever for their extrava
gance, corruption, und disobedience to
the Constitution. His last annual mes
sage is a complete vindication of him
self, and the petty efforts made In Con
gress to suppress It, will only eauao it
to bo moro widely read.
That portion of it which claims tho
most attention is his so-called "Repu
diation scheme." Thy President says
that "it cannot be donied that we nre
paying nn extravagant percentage
for tho money borrowed, which
was paper currency greatly do
picciated below tho vuluo of
coin. This fact Is made apparent when
wo consider that bondholders receive
from the Treasury, upon each dollar
lioy own in government securities,
feix per cent, in gold, which is nearly or
qtilto equal to nine per cent. In curren
cy; that the bonds aro then converted
Into eapllul for tho national banks, up
on which thoso institutions Issiio their
circulation, bearing six percent, inter
est; und that they aro exempt from
taxation by tho government nnd tho
States, and thereby enhanced two per
cent, in tho hands of tho holders. Wo
thus havo an nggregnto of seventeen
per cent, which may bo received upon
each dollar by tho owners of govern
ment securities. A system that produ
ces such results is Justly regarded as
favoring a few at the expense of tho
many, nnd has led to tho further inqui
ry whether our bondholders, In view of
tho largo profits which they havo enjoy
ed, would themselves be nverso to a
settlement of our indebtedness upon a
plan which would yield them n fair re
muneration, and nt tho samo tlmo bo
Just to tho tax-payers of tho nation. Our
national credit should bo Hncredly ob
served; but In making provisions for
our creditors wo should not forget what
Is duo to tho masses of tho people. It
may Ik) assumed that tho holders of our
securities hnvo already received upon
tneir liomls a larger amount than their
orlglnnl investment, measured by n
gold standard. Upon this statement of
facts It would seem but Just and equita
ble that tho six per cent, interest now
paid by tho government should bo np
piled to tho reduction of thu principal
beml-annual Instalments, which lu six
teen years and eight months would
liquidate thu entiro national debt. Six
per cent, in gold would nt present rates
bo equal to nino per cent, lu curroncy,
and equivalent to tho payment of tho
debt one und n half times inn fraction
less than seventeen years. This, in con
nection with all tho other advantages
derived from their Investment, would
afford to tho public creditors a fair nnd
liberal compensation for the use of their
capital, nnd with this they should bo
Wo nro not prepared to endorse this
scheme, but havo no hesitation In say
ing thut tho proposition of paying off
tho principal of the 6-20 bonds In gold
Is a monstrous fraud on tbo people.
These bonds were bought and paid for
In currency, and by what right, either
legal or equitable, do their holders
claim gold ? Lot us illustrate i In 1801
a British nobleman tent to this country
$10,000 in gold. Itwasthonat a pre
mium of 2.75, and with it ho bought
$27,500 In greenbacks. With theso ho
bought $27,600 of 5-20 bonds. The In
terest recelvod to this time alono
amounts to $10,000, and yet that Eng
lishman prated about repudiation, aud
days ho must have besides this enor
mous Interest $27,600 lu gold for the
principal, which ut pre sent rotes would
be in currency $30,123,001 AAA $10,000
for I tcrest received and t his bond-holder
by his Investment In gold four years
ago of $10,000 realizes $40,123,00.
TaKonnothcrllluslrntlon, Just previous
to fho war, nnd boforo the passage of tho
Legal Tender Act, ft man purchased n
farm for $30,000 In gold. The vendor
not wishing tho money Immediately,
took n nolo therefore. In 1803 he called
upon thopurehascrforhls$30,000. That
gentleman quietly sold the coin for $00-
000 In currency, compelled tho vender
to tnko $30,000 of currency In paymont
and had Just $30,000 left I This we
shotiltl call rank rcpadlatlon,yct it was
legalized by an act of Congress.
Again, Pennsylvania had, previous to
the war, n number of bonds outstand
ing payablo In gold, many of them bo
Ing held by widows and orphans, When
tho Legal Tender Act was passed, our
Legislature not only paid tho Interest
in currency, but the principal. If that
was fair andjust then, ft i'j now.
Wo aro In favor of ouo currency for
tho pcoplo and tho bondholder. If tho
one gets gold, let tho other have it, if
the one pays taxes on his property, lot
the other do so. All that we nsk is equal
nnd exact Justice among all men, and
we shall oppose to the uttermost all
legislation creating a moneyed monop
oly. Minerity Representation.
The Sunbury Gazette has n very time
ly arttclo on the subject, advocating its
application to the election of members
of tho Legislature. Wo do not think
the remedy consist! in trebling tho
present number of Representatives.
Senator Buckalcw's plan of Cumulative
Voting Is the only one that seoms to
us practicable and fair. It gives to each
party, representation In proportion to
its numbers, and voters In minority
districts do not throw away their votes
as Is now the case. Wo nre glad to seo
tho opposition press discussing the sub
ject, becauso tho reform must be inau
gurated by them.
We would not limit the prlnelplo to
tho election of members of tho Legls
laturo; but would extend it to County
Commissioners, to tho election of U. S.
Senators, and of members of the lower
House of Congress.
Court ?r:cea1ags Continued.
Com. ts David P. Thomas. Indict
mcnt Assault with Intent to commit n
Rape. A true bill.
In tho matter of the Proof of contract
in the estate of Henry II. Fritz deceas
ed. Court appointed Chrlstlau L.Moore,
Guardian ad litem of Emanuel Moore,
Margaret Fritz, Guardian of nd litem of
Emma Fritz, Tllla V. rritz, James M.
Fritz, Maggie C. Frlta and Clara J,
David Brobst vs Joseph Witts, Jacob
S. Evans and Stephen Knorr. In this
case moved J.G. Freczethe substitution
of Jacob S. Evans and Stcph en Knorr
who aro sureties in this case to the
right of David Urobst'as plaintiff.
Com. vs William C. Coxey. Indict
mcnt assault with an Intent to commit
a Rape. Recognizance of Defendant nnd
his ball forfeited to be respited on ap
pearance of Defendant at next Sessions.
Com. vs. Philip C. Evans. Indict
ment Larceny and receiving stolen
goods. A true bill.
Com. vs Jasses F. Kilo and Jcsso
Indictment refusing to open n Public
Rond. Defendants plead not guilty.
Jury called nud sworn. Verdict guilty
in manner nnd form as they stand In
dicted. Com. vs Allen Mann. Indictment
Fornication nnd Bastardy. A true bill.
J. B. Huzlton vs H. C. Hartmnn,
civil suit for damages. Knorr and Whit-
mover for Plff. Clark fork Deft. It is
agreed that Judgment be entered ia
tho above case for one hundred dollars,
that II. C. Hartmnn deliver all tho fur
niture Photographic goods nnd materi
als nnd stock that where In the gullery
nt the tlmo II. C. Hartmantook posses
sion thereof to J. B. Hazelton nt tho
Lnckawana Depot, in good order for
II. C. Hartmnn, J. B. Hnzctou.
Tho above Judgment was Immediate
ly upon the rendering of the same as
signed to Samuel Knorr.
Com. vs Wm. C.Coxcy. Recognlzanco
assault with intent to commit a Rape.
Bail In tliis caso rcnowed.
In tho matter of tho exceptions to tho
aecountof Charles II. Hess dee'd. who
was Admlstrator of E. 11. Hess, as filed
by Samuel Creasy Andmr.of C.H.Hess
dee'd. Oil motion of 13. II. Llttlo Esn.
Col. John G. Freeze appointed Auditor
In the matter of tho account of Silns
Jackson dee'd. On motion ofMr.Frcezo.
C. W. Miller Esq. appointed Auditor
to distribute fund under tho will to
legatees and distributees,
Geo. Sault vs Sarah Sault. (Dlvorco
enso) Publication ordered, nud on mo
tion of Mr. Abbott.C.B. Brockway Esq.
appointed to take depositions in this
In tho matter of the estato or Georgo
Cramer Into of Bloom twp. deu'd. On
motion of Mr. Clnrk.C. Q. Barkloy Esq.
appointed Auditor to mako distribu
tion of the balanco In tho hands of John
R. Moyer Adosr, of said dee'd. among
Com. vs Mathlas Shaffer. On motion
attachment awarded against J. B. liar
man and M. Keller as witnesses.
Com. vs Napoleon Sampsel. Indict,
mcnt Larceny and recclvlsg stolen
goods. A true bill.
Com. vs Conrad Frolnnd. Recog
nlzanco selling Liquor on Sunday with
out n license. BUI, Ignored and Proso
cutor Jeremiah Snyder to pay tho costs.
Com. vs Martin Walsh. Indictment
assault and battery. Bill ignored, and
Martin Muldoon to pay tho cost.
Com. vt John Sogllnger. Indictment
soiling LIquer on Sunday. Bill ignor
ed and Conrad Froland, Prosecutor, to
pay tne costs.
Eliza Martcooy by her noxt friend
John Vanpelt. vs Daniel Martceny,
Subpoena lu Divorce. On motion of
Wm. If. Abbot Esq, appointed Com
mitsioner to taku Impositions,
Com. vs William H. Reinbold. In
dictment receiving tax not assessed. Bill
ignored and Daniel T. M'Kernan,I'rose-
cutor, to pay mo costs.
Com. vs Humphrey Parker. Indlot
went selling Liquor without Lieciiso.
A true bill. Don, pleads not guilty.
Jurors culled and sworn. 10 Deo ver
diet of Jury finding Doft. guilty lu man
ner and form as hu stands indicted.
John Trembly vs Fonstormachor Crev
vcllag fc Co. Judgement. On Petition of
Andrew Groveling Court grant a rulo
to show causo why tho Judgment
should not bo stricken off.
Joseph Polio vs Fcnstcrinachcr Crev-
ling A Co. Judgment. On Petition of
Androw Crovollng Court grant a rule
to show causo why the Judgment should
not bo stricken off.
In tho matter of the Estato of C. II.
Hcsi dee'd. On motion tho Court grant
a rulo upon tho parties Interested to
appear in Court on the first day of next
Term and accept or refuso tho real estato
of said dee'd. at the valuation, or show
cnuso why tho samo should not bo sold
In case the s.tld parties should refuse or
neglect to tnko nnd accept the lame as
Com. vs Humphrey Parker. Sentence
of tho Court is that Deft, pay a fine of
ten dollars and costs of Prosecution, nnd
stand committed until tbo sentenco of
tho Court Is compiled with.
Com. vs JohiiM'NInch. Recognizance
Malicious Mischief, Cause settled by
Com. vs Harry Parker. Indlclme.it
selling Liquor without License. Deft,
pleads guilty. Sentence of the Court is
that Deft, pay a flno often dollars and
costs of Prosecution, and stand com
mitted until sentence Is compiled
Com. vs John Brehcuey. Indictment
Perjury. Deft, being nrraigned pleads
not guilty, Clark and for Freezo Com.
Broikway & Llttlufnr Deft. Jury called
and sworn. Dec. 10. Verdict of tho
Jury Is that thoy find tho Deft, not
guilty, and that ho pay tho costs of pro
secution. Sentence of tho Court, Is that
Deft, pay the costs of prosecution and
stand committed until the sentence Is
Com. vs Allen Mann. Indictment
Fornication and Bastardy. Allen Maun
nnd Moses Schllchcr his bail euch tent
In $000 00 for appcarauco of Deft, at
Judgments taken at this period on
motion for want o appeaiancoand affi
davits of defence.Sherlffs Deed, to Par-
vluEves for two tracts of land situate
in Greenwood twp. consideration $3700.
Sold by order of Court ns tho property
of Joseph Pllklngton dee'd.
Com. vs James Kelly. Indictment
assault and Battciy, a truo bill. De
fendant being arraigned pleads not
guilty. Clark for Com. Abbott fo.-
Deft. Jury called nnd sworn. Ve:ditl
of tho Jury is that thoy find the Deft
guilty In manner nud form ns he stands
indicted. Sentence of the Court Dect 12
Is that you, James Kelly pay a flno of
$-jO,00 und undergo nn imprisonment in
the County Jail for a period of threo
calendar mouths, und pay the costs of
prosecution and stand committed un
til the Lentcnco bo complied with.
Com. vsIIonryAlo. Indictment ob
structing a Public Highway .a true bill
Deft, being atrnlgned pleads notguilty.
Jury called and sworn.
Court adjourned until 9 o'clock Fil
Finn w Morning,
Tho above trial still In progress. Jury
reported that they could notagreo. Jury
discharged by tho Court. 12 Dec. Doft.
and his bail Geo. Cavenco each sent in
$200,00 for uppearanco of Deft, at next
Com. vs Thomas Donahoc, John
Duffy and Michael Prior. Warrant for
commitment of Defts. to thu custody of
thu Sheriff of Columbia co signed by
Hon. James Ryan Prest. Judge of Scuyl-
klllco. filed Dec. 10th 1808, same day
indictment against tho prisoners for the
murder of Alexander W. Rea returned
n truo bill. John Duffy one of tho
prisoners being brouglit personaley into
court, the District Attorney declares
that tho Commonwealth is ready to pro
ceed with the nrrlgnement and trial of
all the prisoners, whereupon John W.
Ryan Esq. in behalf of tho prisoner8
moves tho Court to postpone tho
arraigmcnt and trial until next term,
after n hearing motion of prisoners sus
tained und ease continued until next
term. Prisoner John Duffy reniauded
to tho Custody of tho Sheriff and Jailor.
In tho matter of the Petition of
Bloom twp. fur extending Fourth St.
In Bloomsburg. On motion of Samuel
Knorr Esq. order appointing viewers
It ia ordered that there bo two weeks
Court at February Term. That thore
bo a venire issued in tho Oyer nnd
Terminer nnd also tho Quarter Sessions
for drawing aud Summoning fifty
Petit Jurors for the first week, and that
similar venires bo Issued for tho second
week for a like number of Petit Jurors,
nnd nlso a venire in tho costmon Plena
for thu second week for a Hko number
of Jurors. It Is further ordered that
ono and tho samo panel for each week
bo added to each of said venires for tho
Cora, vs David P. Thomas. Indict
ment with intent to commit a rape.
Deft, being arraigned pleads not guilty.
Jury called and sworn. Verdict finding
Deft, not guilty and County to pay
Com.vs Joseph Vanslckle. Indictment
Larceny. Indictment found ot Septem-
bcrSessions lust. Deft, arraigned pleads
not gutlty. Jury called and sworn.
Verdict finding Deft, not guilty.
Com. vs John Mussclmanaud Joseph
Fnusoy indictment Larceny and receiv
ing stolen goods, Defts. arraigned plead
severally not guilty. Jury called nnd
sworn. Verdict finding Defts. guilty
in manner and form ns thoy stand in
dicted. Sentenced to pay a fine of $50,00
each, undergo imprisonment for six
months In tho County Jail, pay thocoJts
of prosecution, restoro tho property sto
len if not already restored and bland
committed until sentenco bo complied
Com. vs P. C. Evans. Recognlzanco
Larceny Deft, tent in $00 00 for his np
penrauco ut noxt Sessions.
Com. vs Napoleon Sarapsol. Indict
ment Larceny. Doft. urrulgncd pleads
not guilty. Jury called and sworn.
Verdict finding Doft. not guilty.
Frederick Michael vs Henry Fedder
and Bowman Trpwbrldgo. Civil suit.
On motion of O.W. MlllorEsq. Atty.for
Plff. court allow an nmmendment by
striking off tho name of Bowman
Com. vs Mathlas Shaffer. Indict
ment compounding felony. Deft, ar
raigned pleads not guilty. Jury called
and sworn. Vordlct finding Deft, not
guilty and prosecutor Jesse D. Rico to
pay the costs.
John J. Hhiink vs John Cain, civil
suit in debt, ury called and sworn, jury
withdrawn uud Judgment for pill', by
sonsent for $18.38.
Conynghan twp. vs Peter L, Kline,
John L. Kllnoand Win. Goodman, civ
il suit on contract, Jury called & swora,
Dec, 12 plaintiff couYisol nsks
leavo to amend the declaration, leavo
granted. Defts allege surprlso Jurors
withdrawn causo continued.
Anron Recso ono of tho Jurors In tke
nhovo caso withdrawn by consent of
In tho matter of tho account of Sol.
Buss Adm'r of John Pcalcr, Jr., dee'd.
On motion of Mr. Wirt, C. G. Bnrklcy,
Esq., appointed Auditor to mnko dls
trlbutloa of tho balanco In the hands of
lu the matter of tho account of Jac.
Fritz and Samuel Achonbach.oxccutors
of tho last will andtestamontof Wm
Frits, lnte of Orange twp. dee'd. On
motion of Mv. Clark, Attorney for est.,
thoappelntmentof E. H. Little, Esq.,
ns auditor to mako distribution of the
balanco In tho hands of said executors
among creditors, Contlnud.
In tho matter of tho partition anu
valuation of tho real estato of Wm.
Clark, late of Montour twp., deceased.
Return of Inquest coiiflrmedubsolutely,
nnd on motion of Mr. Clark, Attorney
forest. Court granted rulo upon the
heirs and legnl representatives of said
deceased to appear in said Court on (ho
first Monday of February next, nnd ac
cept or refuso the said real estato ut the
valuation or show causo why tho same
should not bo sold. Personal notice to
bo given to nil tbo parties named In tho
said writ six weeks before tho return
Rudolph Shumaii vs Geo. Shtiman et
nl. Summons in partition In common
pleas. On motion of Mr. Clark, Judg
ment quod partltio flat Inter parties
Flora Shuman et nl vs Andrew Clark
Summons In partition common pleas,
Return of Inquest confirmed absolutely
and on motion of Mr. Clark, Atty. for
tho plff., Court grant n rulo on all par
tics named in the Wilt, commanding
them to appear on tho first Monday of
Febrniry next nnd accept or refuso tho
said real estato described In said writ nt
tho valuation or show causo why tho
same should not bo sold. Personal uo
tlco to bo served on tho said parties six
weeks beforo tho return day of tho said
In the matter of the aecountof John
B. nnd Isaiah Dcltlcrlch Admr. of thu
estate of John Deltlerlch Into of Mon
tour twp. dee'd. Account confirmed
absolutely, nnd on motion of Mr. Clark
Atty. for tho est. Court appointed J. G.
Freeze Esq. Auditor to ascertain debts
against sold decedent, nnd the indebt
edness of tho heiis of said dee'd to said
decedent, and distribute) tho money In
tho hands of said Admistrutors, and in
tho hands of Isniah Dletterlch to whom
tho real estate of said dee'd was award
ed by the Court, to tho creditors nnd
heirs and legal representatives of said
dee'd. and mako report to tho next
General Orphan's Court to bo held at
Bloomsburg in nnd for said county,
In tho matter of tho Partition nnd
valuation of tho real estate of Solomon
Hartmnn Into of Fishingcreek twp,
dee'd. Rulo returned served personal
ly on all tho parties and nouo of thom
appearing to accept, or refuso tho snld
real est, nt tho valuation. Thu Court on
motion of Mr. Chirk Atty. for said est.
direct thu Admr. of said est. to sell the
real estate at Public Salo upon tho
premises, upon tho following terms to
wit: Ten percent of one fourth of tho
purchnso money to bo paid on day of
side. One fourth less tho ten per cent
on thu confirmation of the salo, and thu
balance In ono year from tho first day
of April next, with Interest from tho
first day of.Aprll next. Admlnstrator
to glvo ball in tho sum of doublu the
amount of tho appraised value. Wm.
B. Koons approved us security.
It Is ordered that the number of per
sons to bo selected as Jurors for tho en
suing year bo fixed at four hundred.
Michael F. Eycrly appointed Auditor
to Audit and report accounts of Pro
thonotary, Register nnd Recorder nnd
Sheriff with tho commonwealth nnd
On motion of court appoint
Robert F. Clark, J. B. Robison and
John G. Freeze Esquires, u committee
to serve as committee of tho law Li
brary of tho said court In pursuanco of
the Act of Assembly passed tho third
day of March A. D. 1800 entitled "nn
Act rclattvo to tho establishment of a
law Library In tho county of Colum
bia." In the matter of tho Bond of Philip
Mowry for tho support of his wife. It
is ordered that Philip Mowry bo releas
ed from tho bonds entered into for
thu support of his wife.
Overseers of tho Poor of Bloom twp.,
vs Overseers of tho Poor Hemlock twp.
Appeal by Bloom twp., from tho order
of removal in tills case, continued.
P. A Sell vs Norman Hondorshott,
certiorari to bu glvou to plff.
A Dcnlus vs John Christian, certiora
ri, no notlco to plff. continued.
Fred. Miller vs David Yeager, certio
rari, proceedings reversed and set aside.
Poor Overseers of Centro twp.,vs Jno.
Stlncr and BenJ. Stinor, rulo on defend
ants to show causo why thoy should
not support their mother, nrguod Dec.
In tho matter of tho report of n road
lu Briarcreek twp., near Evans Mill, ar
gued Dec. 7, Dec. 9, proceedings sot
Robert Gorrell vs Bernard M'Dreurty
In tho matter of tho report of road
In Hemlock twp. near Wanich's bridge,
exceptions sustained und report set
aldo Dec. 12 1808.
Reuhunllceser vs James Thomas, case
in slander, exceptions to plff, bill of
costs, to bo taxed beforo Prothonotary.
Conynghnm twp., vs F. R, Wohlforth,
ensostutod, argued Dec. 7.
Stephen Thomas vs John L. Kline,
Supervisor of Conyiigham twp., rulo to
show cause, continued.
In tho matter of tho petition for the
removal of the school Directors of Con
ynghnm twp. rule granted toshow cause
etc. Not served.
In thu matter of tho account of Chas.
H. Hess Adm'r. of 15. II. Hess, dee'd.
as filed by Samuel Creasy, Adm'r, of
Chas, II, 1 less dee'd. Audltornppoiutud,
In the matter of thb report of a road
In Hemlock twj)., near Andrew Ohl's,
confirmed finally Dec. 12, 1808.
Martin Moiiaghan vs Conyiigham
twp certlomi. No. 75 to 133 Doc. T. 1603.
Diminution of record suggested.
In tho matter of a report of aroadjn
Groenwood twp.,tiear Catharlnu Tiiom
Jacob Shoemaker vs Michael Coon,
Excoptlous to auditors report distribut
ing money arising from Sheriffs salo of
Dxift. ral estate. Argued Dec. 12, 1803.
' TlttAIi LIST.
Samuol Pclfer for tho use of Peter
Schug ts William A. Cnse-atid Robert
S. Howell. Appeal. Continued.
The West Branch Insurnnco Company
vs Simon O. Shlvo. Assumpsit. Con
Edward McCall el nl vs John Sweeny
F. II. Person vs. John cam, Trespass
Thomas J. Vandersllco vs Robert
Howell. Caso for deceit. Continued.
John Coleman vs Michael Cronnti.
J. B. Hazleton vs W, C. Hartinan.
Dec. 9, 1803 Judgt. for Plff for ono hun
dred dollars nnd cause settled ns per
John Cooper vs Daniel iiower et ni
John Qllroy vs William E. Stonier.
Isaac Togcly vs James W. Bankoy.
Gilbert Fowler vs Reuben Miller,
debt Judg't for plff. as per writing filed
for $127 and costs.
Joshua Davis vs Parvln Eves Jr., nnd
Geo. M'Ewen, Trespass on tho caso ote.
Ellas George vs Aaron Person, Sci Fa
Sur Mechanics lien, Judg't. for plff. by
coascnt for $393.19 and costs Dec. 8, 1608
stny of execution ono year.
Chns. R. arecn vs. Peter Schug, tres
pass Malicious prosecution, continued.
Samuel Bcnncr vs. John Hinterlitcr,
Lucas N. Moyer vs G. W. Collamcr,
Scl Fn Sur Mechanics lien, continued.
David Lewis Guardian of Sarah, Ma
rin and Bcrliuda Hoss, heirs of John
Hess, dee'd. vs Collins Sutliff, nppeal
Wm. Ikclcr vs John S.tvage and Jno.
Held, debt, continued.
Joseph Thomas vs John Itaup, reple
Christiana Fox vs John Jones, debt
Henry J. Ycaplo vs Isaac Driimm,
with notlco to Samuel Thomas, tcrro
tenant, Scl Fa, coutln ued.
Samo vs samo Scl, Fn, continued.
Ellas Snyder vs Adam Schuyler nnd
Lewis II. Schuyler, appeal, continued.
Frederick Michael vs Henry Fedder,
and Bowman Trowbridge, appeal, con
John Applcgato vs Titos. Folk, two
cases In ejectment, continued.
Charles Krclsher by his next friend
nnd father vs Henry Knnpp, slander,
Geo. Kinly vs Geo. Vanslckle, appeal,
Simon C. Shlvo vs Hannah E. Arm
strong, appeal, continued.
Dec. 11, 1808, Martin W. B. Yorksnp
pointed guardian of the minor children
of Wm. T. Caudeman, dee'd.
Dec. 7, 18C8,on petition Wm, Kramer
appointed guardian of tho minor clill
drcn of Mathlas Crossloy, dee'd.
Dec. 8, ou petition Geo. Marklo up
pointed guardian of Franklin P. Mar
Dec. 8, on petition Geo. Marklo ap
pointed guardian of Cclestla Agues
Dec. 7, on petition Henry Holllngs
head appointed guardian of Geo. Sharp
Dec. 7, on putltlon, Harriet Kclfsny
der appointed guurdUu of Sarah Relf-
Dec. 7,on petition Harriot Reifsnyder
appointed guardian of Ellen Reifsnyder
Dec. 7, on petition Harriet Reifsny
der appointed guardian of Georgo W
Dec. 7, on petition Elwood Hughes
discharged from his guardianship us
guardian of Robert Kinney, Setli Bow
crand Alfred Kester.
uec. on pennon James Koclicr ap
pointed guardian of Setli Bower and
Dee. 7, on petition James Koclior np
pointed gunrdinn of Alfred Kester,
Dec. 7, on petition Samuel Yotter
chosen nnd appointed guardian of Mary
and Lewis Yettcr, Ellos Weaver cho
sen nnd appointed Guardian of Miles
mid Harriet Yetter.
Dec. 12, on petition salo of tho real
estnto of Gideon Stecker ordered for
payment of debts.
Dec. 8, on petitions citations in spc
ciflc performance of contract order in t ho
estate of Henry II. Fritz, deceased bo
tween Henry H. Fritz & Jesse II. Fritz
Henry H. & Joslah R. Frltx, Henry II,
& Qeo. Fritz, Henry II. & Maria Fritz
lu the matter of tho citation in spe
cific performance of contract between
tho Administrator and heirs of Chas
11. Hess, dee'd., and Jeremiah and Ml
chael Hess. Leroy Thompson appoint
ed a commissioner to tnko testimony in
tho caso aud report tho samo to the next
On petition M. E. Jackson appointed
Trusteo of tho estato of Samuol Blank
and snlo of said deceased's real estate or
Dcc.7, on petition, R. II. Eaton, Esq,
appointed auditor to report facts in tho
matter of tho petition of M. P. Fowler
guardian of tho minor children of Silas
E. Fowler, dee'd.
Dec. 7, on petition citation awarded
against Anron Boon, guardian of Sam'l
W. Boon to fllo his uccount.
Dec. 9, on petition Court order nnd
direct that an allowance of ten dollars
per month bo granted for tho support
and education of tho minor children of
Charles H. Warner, nnd tho Guardian
Is hcrsby directed to appropriate tho
said 'Aim of ten dollars to tho purpose
aforesaid. Said allowance to date from
Juno 8, 1607.
Dee. 9, on petition Court order and
direct that an allowance of eight dollars
per month bo granted for tho support
and education of tho minor children of
George A. Deuel, dee'd, and the Guar
dian Is hereby directed to appropriate
tho said sum of eight dollars to tho pur
pose aforesaid. Said allowance to date
from April 12, 1807.
Dec. 7, on petition Inquest awarded
In tho estate of John Hess lato of Fish
ing Creek twp., dee'd.
Dee. 7, On petition Inquest awarded
lu the estato or Peter Miller latoof Cen
tre twp. dee'd.
Dec. II, On petition inquest awarded
In the estate of Jacob Marklo late of
Fishing Creek twp. dee'd.
Doc. 12, On petition inquest awarded
in the estate of Daniel Yetter lato of
Hutu twp. dee'd,
Dec. 7, Return of Inquest ou estato of
John Bltnor dee'd, confirmed nisi,
Dec. 0, Recognisance of Wm, UaupA
Wesley Perry, his burcty approved k
Dec. 7, Report of sale of real estato of
Mary John n lunatic, confirmed nisi.
Dec, 7, Report of sale of real estate
Daniel G Ent, do'd, confirmed nisi.
Doc h, iicport of sale of real cstnii,
Lnvlna Hutchison dee'd, confirmed ni
Dec 8, neport of salo of real estate
Peter Melick dee'd, confirmed nisi,
Dec 10, llcport of salo of real o.-ttnf
John Baylor due'd, confirmed nisi.
Doc 10. nn lietlllnn tlm -.l nii..
Jonathan Knlttle, into of snld county
dee'd, ordered to be sold for payment of
Deo 7, Report of salo of tho real est.
of Peter Weaver dee'd, confirmed nM.
Dec 7, Ileturn of Inquest on estate of
Wm. Myers dee'd, confirmed nisi.
Dee 7, Return of inquest on estnto of
Deborah Myers dee'd, confirmed nisi.
Deo 7, Return of Inquest on estate of
Fredcrlch Rohr dee'd, confirmed nisi.
Road Petitions and Rki-ohth.
Dec. 7, Report on thu division of
Briarcreek twp. filed; further order con
tinued to noxt term If no excoptlons
y tutu nino election win uo ordered.
Dec. 0, Report of n Private road In
Catawlssa twp. from C. B. Ludwig's to
James Reader's, confirmed nisi und
width fixed at twenty feet.
Dec. 0, Report of a Public road In
Benton twp. from no.ir S.imuel Krlck-
bnum's to Elizabeth Kline's confirmed
nisi, and width of road fixed nt thirty
T M T - L - f .... .. . .
ijvk. u, neiiori oi n ruuiic road in
Montour twp. at Rupert on land of
Lloyd Paxton Confirmed nisi nud width
of road fixed at thirty-three feet.
Dec. 7, Report of roviuwers of Public
road In Madison twp. from near the
houso of John Chlstians to near Widow
Ruichard's. Confirmed nisi and width
of road laid fixed at thtrty-thrco feet.
wee. u, iteport or viewers of u Public
road In Orcenwood twp. on lino be
tween Jackson Robbln's and Chandler
Evil'rt. nnd ntultnrv nt mrnnr nf tnn,l f
A. P. Heller. Confirmed nisi nnd width
of road fixed nt thlrty-tbreo feet.
Dec. 7, Roport of rovlew of ti Public
road In Greenwood twp. nearThcodoro
Lemons and ending at David C.Albert
son's. Confirmed nisi,
Dec. 7, Report of revlowers of a Pub
lic road In Sugarloaf and Benton twp.
from ueurEzcklclCole's to Bridge across
tiihlngcrcck nt Edson's. Confirmed
Dec. 7, Roport of vlowcrs of a Public
road in Centro two. from iwnr .lim
Hill's. Confirmed nisi und width or
road fixed nt thirty-three, feet.
Dec. 7. Report of viewers of n Public
road in Catawlssa twp. from Soutii St.
in tho town of Catawlssa aud to end at
the corner or Intersection of Second St.
and Lumber St. Confirmed nisi ami
width of road fixed nt thirty-three
Dec. 7, Report of reviewers of a Pub
lie road in Conyiigham twp. from the
Borough llneof Centrallaata road lead
ing from John M'Donald's and ending
at ii roud leading from Ccntrnlla to Ilig
ni i no Run. Confirmed nisi nud width
of rond fixed nt thirty threo feet.
Dec 7, Report or n review of a road
in Fishing Creek twp from n road near
Still Water church and to Intersect a
road between Joseph Fullmcr's and No
ah Drake's, confirmed nisi and width
of road fixed at 33 feet.
Dec 7, Report of viewers on vacating
a road in Juckson twp from Cole's S.uv
mill in Sugarloaf twp to Union School
Houso in Jackson twp, confirmed ul-l,
Dec 7, On application the viewers ap
pointed to view n road In Fishiugmck
twp. from near tho house of Daniel Do
Dec 7, Report of viewers appointed
on petition to vaeato a roud from near
Andrew Freas'Ac. confirmed nisi.
Dee 7, Report of viewers of a road In
Benton twp from the residence of .Silas
Knrns &c, confirmed nisi.
Dec 7, Depositions filed In tho ca-o of
a road view In Briar Creek twp.
Doc 10, On petition John Lore, Im
Purscl and John Whitmlre appointed
viewers for road in Madison twp. from
tho house of Jacob KIsncr to near tlio
houso of John D Esslcks.
Dee. 10, On petition John Allen, Ja
cob Swisher and JohnSinitii appointed
viowors of a Road lu Greenwood twp.
at or near tho houso of Frederick lienglo
to near tho houso or Charles Brumstet
lcr. Dec. 10, On petition Joseph Lilly,
Usui Ent and Samuel Kline appointed
viewors for road In Centro twp. near
Adam Hill's tc,
Dec. 11, On petition Win. Howell,
Goo. Oman aud Erl Ikeler appointed
viewers forn rond lu Mountpleasiint and
Madison twps. near Savlll's Factory Ac,
Doc. 10, On petition of commissioners
John C. Dfity, Peter Caso and John C,
Wenner appointed viewers to view
workmanship or Bridge built by W.A.
Kile, over Coles creek in Sugarlo.d
Dec. 10, On petition of commlssloncH
John C. Doty, Fotcr Caso and Joint
C. Wenner appointed viewers to view
workmanship of Bridgo built by Ell
Mcndcnhnll over West creek in Bcntun
Dec. 10, On petition of commissioners
Hiram R.KIino, David Achenbach nnd
John Megnrgell appointed viewers to
vlow workmanship of u Bridgo built
by Daniel M'Honry ovor Raven crock
In Fishingcreek twp.
Dec. 10, On petition LucnsFiihrlnger,
Jacob Stlne and John Yeager appoint
ed viowers to view and vacate n road In
Catawlssaand Franklin twps.from near
tho Foundry of Geo. Hughes & Son to
land or John Hower.
Dec 10, On petition Washington Purr
Joseph Kistler and Hamilton F. Clark
nppointed viowers to vlow and vacate
a road in Locust two rrom near A S
Dec 10, On petition, Lewis Yetter,
Stephen Baldy and James MeNiiuhi
appointed viowers to view n road in Lo
cust twp. on lunds or Philip Frofly and
Deo 10, On petition Lewis Yetter, Sto
plien Baldy and James McNinch , up
polntsd viewers to vlow nud vacate a
road In Locust twp rrom near the saw
mill of Philip Proffy.
Deo 11, On petition Win Campbell,
John Ilerneranil Mnyberry Snyder ap
pointed viowers to vlow and vacate a
road in Conyngham twp from Centra
11a to Llttlo Mluo Run.
In tho matter of the roport or view
ers or a road in aroenwood twp from
near tho houso or Catharine Thomas,
returned May 6, 1808 and confirmed ni
si. Exceptions filed May 0, 1608, refer
red back Sept 10 1803. continued Deo
Deo 11. Rcnort of vlowcrs of a road
in Mlfllln twp from near Yohe's Grist