Newspaper Page Text
VOL. 2 NO 51.
BLOOMSBURG, PA., FRIDAY, DEC. 18, 1868.
PRICE FIVE GENTS
STOVKS AND TINWAItE.
J Ht niwvo court house,
LleaterlnstoTesA tlUTrnro. Main
ilocS, Main si., west of Market. ' M-lill
. i.vi'f.MnEItrl. merchant tailor. Main!., "il
), door above Aineilcan homo, vt-n 13
t w clIF.MnKKLIN, svholesaleond retail ileal.
J, erln olotlilnx.olc.; Hnrtninn's bulldlnirMatn
rUHUaS1 CHEMICALS, AC.
wiiVKit. ilrtircUt and anotheearv. II jr
LniTO block .Main ftt. vl-fill
tTp I.UT7., tlmdKht and apothecary, Htipert
F hiV. Main t.. west ofMarket. vl-MlS
l(, - .; . . . .
CLOCKS, BATCHES, AC.
tienf MnitheiwtVnrner Main and Irousts.vl.nl i
JTT'MVVAtlK. deater in clorka, watches and
w.lry, Mftin At., Just below Ainrrlrnn
r.-.TirriAiiT. u-nleh nnd clock maker. Marktt
.if' l.plowMatn. vl-n.3
HOOTS AND SHOES.
. i iimUVV. boot and alioemaker.Mnln street
".opjwMU Cmut Hmno. vl-nl?
7 0lXKIKU.manuf.icturer and dealer In boots
ii'-'Vti; KMSIM manufacturer and dealer In
lKtms.mil shoes, sjimcnes eu, imi iwmmy
iitt Mnlu st, yl-nL
DlVIH IlKTZ, boot and hocmnkrr, Mnlu M.,
jclow H.utmauVMoro, west of Marketslrcet,
i:VANS, M, D. surireoii and physician south
J tjc Mnll st., below Market.
M vr'iiiiout pain.
1 K. II. F.
'. Klnnev surtreon dent 1st, teeth extract
tiout rain. Malu At., nearly opposite,
failicnpat Church. v -nw
ill. JPKIH.VY, M. I'. wrwm anil physician
J north side Main sl below Market, vl-nll
TiTlTirrrilU, M. D. surgeon nml Physician,
J M-rketst., above Main, vl-nll
rill. II. U. HOWKH, surgeon dentist, Main st,
lulsivo court house. vl-nll
I 11. IIOUISON, Atlornc.T-at-Law,01!lce Harl
,1, ami's building, Main SJtrest. v.-n-.i)
MH.lInEHY A FANCY GOODS.
Ilin 1.17-ZIi: BAltlvLKY, milliner, Kamsey
Jlliullohm. Main st, vi-nw
Mls A. I). WKIW, fancy goods, notions, liooks,
stationery, north sldo Main street below Mar-
PnTKIlMAN, millinery ami fancy goods op
. poslte Kplseopal church, Main st, vl-n11
lilts. .IIJLIA A. A HADD nAItlCtXT, ladles
-tr.-lr- n..., .I.n.a da I l.fn I .(111 I h n h t COT IM r
Vain an.l n-ct st. Tl-nll
III- M. DnilltlCKSO.V, millinery ami fancy
llorli Malnt.,nppolle Court House,, vl-nll
lllll. M. II. KUHMAN, milliner, Main at., below
,U Martinan'ri More, we of Mirrkrl t. vi.
IrlriMISMM HAltMAM millinery and fancy
1 'Kls,Maln Mrecljust below American house,
I10TKI,S AND SALOONS.
I I.KACOCK.OT.leranil eatlnir saloon. Amerl-
tj can House, Main St., Ilaltror Leucock auperln;
l'Il).MVi:il & JACOHV, confecllonry, bakery,
1 Hii.l tiyster shIihiii. wluilesnle and retan. Kx-
change block, Main at. vl-ull
rox A WlCnll, confectionery, bakery, nml oys
r ler saloon, wholesale anil retail. Main St., Just
liXCHANOi: HOTKI., by Koons A Clark, Main
list., opposliu court houso. v l-nn
MKUICAN HOUHi:, hj Joim Lbacock, Mdln
Trp.st of Imn Atrect.
POUKH IIUTEL, by O.W. Mavokr, cwit etui of
f Main t. vl-nll
I HTOHNRH, refrcnliment R(loon(Maln st.,Jmt
J)(nlove court houso. vl-ul'J
t'OONS A CI.AHIC, refrchracnt Kftloon, V.x-
cliHiixu hotel. vl.nlt
IV It. (IILLMOHR. rrrrenhment gftloon, Kblvo'n
If block nouth Ride Mnlu at, vl-nll
MHUOHANTfl AND GUOCnHS.
njAUOHH, Omli-ctloncrj, roccilr ( tu Muln
., uliovu 0in t lie use,
H.MILLUH, ilenler In irj k""1', urorcrlrs,
LxctiHURft blKk, MuliiHtreft,
siucensivan, nour, mal, ftii
ll'KKLVT NIIAL A To., ilfftlern In
31 igrocf rim, flour, li, alt, flnli. lion, nalN,
imrlluft'st corner Mafnnntl Mnikt-t tvlul.l
HC. HOW'int, hftl nntl mv, boots unrt hhofH.
Main tt.t abo e Court lIou. vlti Hi
ft U, MAItlt, ilry Koodsntul notloiifi, nmtliwt'iHt
I, corner Main una Iron mtv vl-ull
J J. HHOWIIH. dry Kodn, (iioctrU. etc,, north'
. nem comer Malu una Iron nt. lnU
, latloneis , loulhwl corner Market ami
KTH.MAM KUASMim, confectloucrle, MhIh
V t., near the railroad. vl-ni.!
) MK.N'UKNI.AIJJtjtcni'ml atiH-k of inerchun
j, dlseaml I u m bo r. corner of Mttlu street ana
'rwlcfc road, vl-n-1.1
I J. ItonittNK. dfalerlndrvKocHliiircerlefttc.
I Hhl e'a block, Main fct., below Iron vl-ms
K. OtllTON. (Irorerlcft A l'rovlfclons. south
wcMt corner Mftln andiron HUtets. vlnU
1 1 w.nniiir.u, iiarmrure, cuutry, boom, eic.
Jt Main hi., below Iron. l-iiU
1 J. HLOAN. ilt-alerln choice Utt Lrooda. HoUhH-
A ket nliitfL'oodii. fit nil uroeerlti. etc.. etc. Main
ojipohito court houne. v-lnlt
JK. 1IYKH, if-rocrhB a
Main bt., abuo West,
rocrhs and Beueral merchandise
T. HHAU'L14H, dry K'HhIp, urorerlfH,
li. Rhoea. etc,
ivuiert uiock. j am at,
Q CltAMKH i A, S HAYltUltHT. lfthrt In
n- Orocerlea. Confectlonerle and Notion'..
hrottown. Roiith side, two doori aboo lirobHt'tt
wat'onmaKerhnop, v -nn,
TOHS M flUCJFX, Mlin. Ornamental imd Pcco
u tatle (winter Hcottown.cor Uh A U Ut, l-41
U, brick on Mam Ht wrst nf Market irt, vlniJ
J.TJIUHNTOS.wall prr. window .Imde,
and fixtures, Rupert block, Main st. l-im
II IIOHF.NHTOCK. i.holoirrat.ber. Kxcbanue
,1, i'i.ich., iuniu ni oppuHiiu i-ouri House, Vl-llll
T F. TirtOAIlT. rhiitoeranher. llarllnan'a build
iJ lag norttieustcuruer Muln und Market st. viul3
Ii I. lUIILRMAN, Agent Mrilieon'fc Copper Tu
li bularl.lublnlngnoil. Mi-ull
I Jl, 1'IIIlMrl.I.. saddle, Innik and harness
u maker, Main st below court, house, vl-nt4
(1 roM'F.It. lllue Maker, and While and fancy
W, Tanner.rM-ottown. Vl-nl7
B.(M)MHIIUfl(l I.UMIIKH CO., manuracturera
and dealers tn Lumber, of all kinds, planing
UUU sear the rail-road. vl-mB
. ...... .v, .. . .. . TT. . '
II t near suuthwe.t corner Main und Market at,'
marble worka, near, koutliwcut
A corner Main und Market att.
H.KINGI.EIt, dealer In planoa, ort,'nns and
luelodeona, at O, V. Core 11 'a furniture rooms
. aewlini machine. Main at.. Hartman'i build
&, up atalra. vl-nU
DW, UOHIIINH, liquor dealer awond door from
, northwMt corner Main and Iron sta. vl-nttf
l'KACOCK. Notary l'ubllc, northeast corner
Malu aud Market st, vl-ntf
ll.HK A.FUNHTON.innluaUndcwhrntes lire
il Insurance compaiiyortlieaate-orner.Main nnd
IMMUKI, JAIXHIY, MarMe and Ilrown stone
O Works, Rait llloom.burcllei wick road, vl-1117
NW.HAMI'I.tl A f O. Maclilnlsts.Kustlllooms-
bura near railroad. CastluKS mailed shott
etli-v-maililiiei) lustl. slid upnlred, 'nl
SFOIIOE IIASHEllT.inniiufocluror niul repair
erotlhieslilUK machines, balupla A 1'o's Ma
InaHhop.Kasl Uloomsburif, VlnH
IP-KDHK.daalM-lnrneat tallow, tc ClJ
- . u., assaa i Aau.riwaa a.usv.
DR. O. A, Mi:(!AH(IKI,, physician and surgeon.
Main St., next door to Hood's Hotel. vl-iit.
JjWm. Maslcllcr cor. oIMaluand I'lnest.v
and refreshment saloon, by
the tinner hnusnliv .tobn Hnv-
O der, lalust
HAH MAN IlllOTIlr.ltH. Tanners and inanii,.
lunersoflcniher.on Main st., below (loo"'
DAVID miimi.NT), riour and Orlst Mill, and
Dniler In grain, Mill Hlre.t. vl-n!7
0Vl:lt & Itr.HUINO, dealer In dry gix1s,
groceries, lumber nud cenelnl Mercbandlse
lain st. vl-ni7
A T-.AHL'H, saddle and harness maker
U Main St., almvo tho Hnan Unlet
T II. HMITII.
manufacturer of lln waro and
M. dealer In HtoMs etc
Main si., above the
it K. V. COf. F.MAN. Merrtinn, fnll, tui.t
Ueut's furnlshlnz coods. .Mnlu Ht.. next door
to the brick hotel, vl-n!7
M. IIAYI1U1IST, Clocks, Walches mid duns
. repaired. Ounsnml Watches for Rale, Main
below Pine. vl-u!7
TA.MI'-H II. 1IAUMAN, ('aldiiet Maker, ami lln
t) dertaker. Main HI., below Pine. Vl-nl7
MICH.MX C. Ki:i,t.i;il, Confectionery, Oysier.
Ac.. ,Vc.,on l'lne St., between Main and .villi.
H1I. AC. KkF.CIINF.II, Illacksmlths, on Mill
, Mreet, near l'lne, vl-nl7
WII'I-IA'I ll-:l.ON((,Hhoemakerand mnnuf.ie
II turerol llrlck,. Mill !.. west of-l'lue vlnll)
T KW1H II. KCHUYI.KU. InnT founder, Mnchln
jlst,auil Manuraclulerof plows, Mill St.M-u 17
HIMIK a. WII.I.IAM-S d Co.l'anncrsaud Man
.11 ufaclurerHoflialher,. Mill Street. VI-M7
f rillS ICKI.t.KIt, Iluol nml Shoemaker, Vine
,J Htrt'f , opposite the Academy l-nl7
I 11. lllliluiNil A lltloriir.lt.Carpcntersnn.i
A, Uullilers, Main Sireet, below l'lne. vl-n.7
SAMUKIi HHAlll'I.UHH.Mnker of theHayhursl
llraln Cradle. Main St. i'nj.
JM. IIA11MAN, sndilln and harness maker
, orangevllle, opposite Frame church, vlinll
proprietor, Houtli-iast corner Main und hecond
II. (MtKAHY, dry pootln, urocerlen, and kpii
cral Merchandise, Main Htreet. U-ul2
1). UI.N'AHn, dealer In stoves and tin-ware.
TM. H. A11HK1T, attorney at law, Main Htreet.
(HMU'.UTA KMNK, drvnood, Kroeerler and
T general meichandlM Alain street. 2-nlJ
KKII.nU, billiard ftatnnii, oyaterH,
, cream In hensou Main Mtreet.
BP. DALIiMAN, Merchant Tailor, Secona St.,
.Uobblns" Uullding. vJ-nl.
) Second' ht., below Main.
Hurgeon and riifKlclan,
T at m .
li. Kl4TLKH,"CattawUaHouBe,"?(orth Wet
t Corner Main and Hecond Htreets. TS-nlJ.
MM. BUOIWT, dealer In OenoralAIerohandUe,
, Dry Oood 0rtcerle8 Ac. v3nl(.
LKillT STUEKT WIHKCTORY.
)1'TEH P.NT, dealer In dry goods, Krocerles,
. Hour. feed. .alt. fish. Iron, nails, etc., Mxht
'n:HVir.lUli:U, Cabl net mu Iter,
JJ T. OMAlt A Co., WheclwrkjhU,
. above school house.
US. E. XMMF.i millinery and fancy goods
etc.' Cash palil for Hides. ' W-nta
!..!. InTifilliur lllil Iturlr.
M. M. KMT, dealer In stove, and tin ware in
nil Its brunches. vi-imi
JOHN A. O.MAN,
boots and shoes.
manufacturer and dwiler In
J. I.KISF.Il, M. 1). Surgeon anil l'lijslchin.
Ofllce at Keller's Hotel. vi-n'J7
Hoot and Shoe Storu
,1 nml manlactnry. Hhopon Malnstrcet.op
po.lte steam Mill.
PRI'Y STIIAM FI.OUHIMU MIUX, C. H. Fowler,
Dr7lir.lllilAHI, A 11110., dialers lndrygissls,
a groceries, and gener.,1 merchnndlie. Unll
rl). CAMlWHI.L, dealer In dry goods, grocer
. les.ijueenswaie, hardware, llsh, s-ift, nails,
m W. i:iOAIl,Husnnellnna l'lalilng Mill and
, llox Manufactory. vl'.'nll
1 Nimi.W MAIUHdX. dealer In tin
A cerUw, nfuln, lumber etc., jBrni'yinwn,
TACOlI A. HWIMIII.U, dealer In illdei., U-ather
Jjlarketc, AladUun towtiKUlp Coluuiblu county
pAI'I.HA.MUflL UIMI1Y, MmliHon Hotel, Dro.
j wrt, and HlrungerA tnUTlulued. '2-ui
MCI. A W. II. MIor.MAKKIl, doalertt In dry
KooiJh, tvrocerlca ami tceueral Jverchaiidlm',
Hrn atoio In south cud of town. v.ulH.
JAC0I1 A WAI, 1IAHUI8, dealers In dry koo.W,
KrocerleH, druun and nicdlcluea. Firm btoreln
north end ot town.
HOTELS AND SALOONS.
TgXCUANGli HOTKIiT "
ltLOOMMllUIlO.COUJMIIIA CO., IA,
The underalimed hiivhikr Diirchaoiid this well
kuon nHndcvntrallyhcat4Nthotue,th( KnhunKU
Hotel, altuatu on 11 AIN KTHltlfT, In HloumtibuiK
Inimetllatoly onpoihe IhoCnlumblnuinnty Conn
Hoiike, rebimftnillr Inform their fiianUa and the
imouc in Kenerat iui intir iiomn n now in orutr
for the rfcvptlon and outartalnment oftra elh-a
who irar by dlapotod to favor It with thMr cum
toni. They have apared no eiju'ii-.H in preparing
the Vxchanaefftr thenterlfdnmntofthert(uesu
nelthar shall tbwre ha anything wantlntifin their
part to mlnlatur to thalr peihonal comfort. TJu-y
liouan la apaclona. and eujoja an excellent btiai
i.eiia 1 oration.
Omnthunea run at till tlmea bet wean the Kx.
chatiKO Hot si and the various 1 Ml road depot, by
whlen travellers will bo ileaantly comtvedtii
and from tho reapaetlr atatloni. In dim time to
meet the cur, KOO.H A CLAHIC,
Itlfiornshuir, A pi 11 S,
UKOIUIK W. MAtJUlin, Proprietor,
The mIio"u uelbktiuwii hottl link rerentlv u nil nr.
goii i ail ealehanxuslu Ita InUrnaiarruiimiiit nU, i
aud Ita pit prh tor an noun, ea to hla former eustoui
and the travelling publlo that his acconiiHlatlons '
for tho comfort of hla KUuatN aie second to non la
the countrr. Hla table will alnava be found hid
idled, not only wllh aubnlantlal foial, but with all
the (tellcacieHof the aeasori. His wJnes mid U
nuora (except that popular beverane known as
',Jceirjt"J, pu rchaacd direct from the lmpnitlntc
house, are entirely pure, and free fiom all im.
aououa drills. Ho lathnukful ror a liberal patron
aKe In the past, aud will continue todeere It In
the future, UKOUUK V. MAUCJKIt.
, Tub I'roprletornftheKxchaiigeHaloonhus )low
on luiud a lame stock of
ni'ican ursTKits, sxiinlsrs, trIpb, )ioi.oosi
HlirKr-TOSUCI. nulLKn KObS, SWKITZklll'llCUK,
LAGKH 11EER, ALK, AC.
- COMK ON15, COMK AI.Ii AND HKK, -
IiAWBON CALM Aft.
. , buperuteiHlent,
Illoonuburif, May 3, 16U7.
rjMIK KSl'Y IIOTKL,
FJil'V, COLUMI1IA CUUNTT, PA.
TiiEsubscilber resperlfully luformslils friends
and the public, that bu has Ink mi theaboe well
known llou of KHtertaluuienl, aud will be
pleased lu imsilva the custom of all yhu will
taMir lilm with a cull,
UK WILL KUM' A GOOD TAI1LK,
a liar well atucked with lue bet of Liquors, and
every effort will bu niude tn render enllrw saUs-
.ciiou. . ji, uiui iiuui
lr, l'a., Apru i:-. uw,
A Domocrutio Nowpapor
la I'Uni.ISHKl) KVE11Y FH1DAT M OH MHO AT
Till! principles of this paper are of the JctTeraon
lan School of politics. Those principles will never
be compromised, yet courtesy and klndnea liBl'
not bo fornotten In dlscnIng them, whether with
Individuals or with contemporarlaa of the Trexs
The ualty, happiness, and prosperity of tho coun
try hour aim nud object; and a the meant tn
aeeuro that, we shall labor honeitly and earnestly
for the harmony, succeas and Rrotv t h of onr organ
TKRMSorSt'iiscRii-riONi Two dollars a yar
If pnld In ndanre. If not paid tn adance two
dollars and fifty cents will be lnarlably charged
Trkvh orAbVfKTisiNt): One sfiuare (ten lino
or lei) ono or two Insertions $I,W; each subse
quent Insertion M cents.
Ono n(iuaro ?2..10
Two f-ipinres 3.&1)
Three Hfiinrea 5,W
Four wpmres 7,00
Quarter column.. I0,fJ
Half column lM
One column IXW
Kxecutor's and Administrator's Notice M,00j Au
ditor's otlce JA'A Other adrrtlements Inser
ted according to special contract.
Ihislncfss notlcen, without advertisement, twenty
cents per line, by the year, ten cents per line.
Card will bo pupllshedln the "dlrec tory" rol-
umu at 32 per year lor tho first two lines, and 1
for each nddltlouul line.
Transient adverthementa payable In advance-
all others duo after the flritt Insertion.
41T It 1, In fiUcaaet, more likely to be satisfac
tory, both to subscrllxrs and to tue Publlatiera,
that remlttancesand all eommnnlcntlons respect
Ins the bulnensof the paper, be aent direct to the
otHeeof pnbllcatlou. All letters, whether relating
in the edltrlnl r buMne-u coi.errnsnf the paper,
and all payments for wnlr-frlpthm. lrert(tiinir,
or Jobbing, are to W m-ula tn mid uddrcwd
HEKC1CTAY A KKKK.R.
rrlnteasl llrbIson's Ihilldlnira, near the Conrt
C. M. TARDKIlT.IC'n.
BUSINESS CAR. DO.
Neatly executed at this Office.
jy M. L'VELLK,
ATTull.VK T-AT'LA w,
Ashland, Schuj lkilt County, I'enn'o.
Q Vf, MlLLKIt,
ATT O 11 X K Y
ortlcewlth V.. 11. Mltle. In hrl-k bnlldlni ad
joining l'ost Office. nountlos, IIat-k-1'ar and
Pensions colliK-leil. Isep'Ji'ir;,
JOHN O. FItKEZE,
A T T O It .N H Y-A T- I. A W.
OlTa-fl In lU'KMer and lteeirders office, Jn the
basement of the fotirt Houm, ltloonisbnrK, I'a.
A T T O K N K Y - A T I. A Tf
t comer of Main and Market street.
h'lrt National llunh, llloonisburc. 1'h.
A T T O It N F. Y - A T -1, A V,
Office on Main trect. In bilek bulldln? l-How Hie
Court House, UlfsmisburK, l'a.
Q II, HIHX'KWAY,
ATTOKSnV AT I. A W
3- Orrn-K Conrt House Alley, belnw the On
lum'iitin orr.ee, Janl'ir.
UOTI O N K v. n .
Havlna followed the ptr.febslon of Public Vendue
Crier lor many years, would Inform his friends
that he Is still lu the Held, Irmly and wllllna In
attend tr, alt the duties of his calltnr. J'ersous
deslrlmt his services should call or write lo him
at ltlooinsburK, l'li. fmois'rtT,
ILMINKM, HADDLK, AND TU1TNK
ami dealer In
CAM'KT-ltAOH, VAUSI, FI.-Nh"IH,
Hlltr.il.O RtlllM, JlOIWR.m.ANKEIfl AC.,
which ho feeU confident he ran tu at lovrr
rate thnn any other pernon laths cu:utry. Kx
aiutnu for ynurKclvefc.
Hhop n rat door below the Piwt tune. Main
Nov. 16. 1NJ7.
PAHH ION A H I.K
SUA VINO, 1 1 A I H OUTTINO
Over Vldlnaye & Jacoby'a Ice Cream fiiflof-n,
Hair Hyelna and Whlhkera cotnrt black or
brown. Ilalr Toulo to destroy tlmidrntfand Ireaa
tlfyimi thw hair; will retton hi4r to tu orlytiml
color without soiling the flneil fabric, ronetmitly
on hand, arpriyfiT.
NTIB T H Y
II, C, UOWKU, Pr.NTIHT,
Iteprctfully ofTer his frofoloua servers to
tho lHdU a und Kntlenien of UlnorurborE and vi
cinity. He !s preparutt to altcDd to nil Ine varl-
la provhltxt with tho latest Improved Poki.lain
Tbkth which will bo lnrerten on irold rlatlnir.
silver and rubber basu tn look m xcll a the dm-
mill leelh. Tielll extracted by allth. new and
most upnroM d moihods, and all operations 011
the leelh carefullyunrt pro,erly attemleil to.
Itesldeuce nnd oftlcu a few doors above the
Court lions., same side,
poWDKH KF-OS AND LUMHRft.
W, M, MONIIOK A CO..
1-0 WDF.lt KKUS.
aeil dealers In all kinds of
Ktve notice that they nre prepared to accomodate
their custom with dispatch, anil on the chearest
n o 11 it h 11 u n 0,
The underslulieil would it.peclfully Inform
Him UUM-lllii: public that he has purcha.esi und
refilled lu lliu I'l-t niunuer the old.lauil former
ly occupied by W, A, Kline, and that be Is now
prepared to 111 1 ommodate his frit nils with alt I he
lomtorts nud con t n I net sofi, nrst-rlas. house,
A flnonew barn lias been iullt and lliesurroun
dibits plactd In pelf..el olilir. The bar will al
uu)a be stoiliu) with the cholstsl liquors and cl
uais, and thu lab), luriilshtd Willi lbo best the
market urronls. JAMI.H V. llll.LAMl'IK.
( OllANaKVII.I.K, COI.UM1IIA COUNTY, PA.
WM. MAITKLLUll, l'ilOl'UItTOll.
llr.vlbtf taken possesislon of thU wtdl-kuowu
hoaMi, to Ioiim kept by SUanuel hverelt, the 1'ro
in lel.r kss put In fl permanent reiser and farnlsJi
ea II A U AlSUl.AltlJl.il Mllli IheclKilcistlliiuors
aud uewe.t dellcedee. Ills stable la not excelled
la Iba county 1 and 110 pain will bo spared to
aiH-ctaluulafa guetts laptl l
Comprchcnslvo Rnvlow of
Condition of tbo Country.
oun ih:i,atio.vs at homh a a'iuoai).
FHI,I.OV-ClTlZF.NS OP THK SlWATlI
AND IIOUHK 01' ItKI'ltr.SF.NTATI VKS '.
Ujion tho rens-scrabllnp; of UmiKrcs-, It
HRnln becomra my duty to cnll your tit
ti'iitlon to tliostntoof (lie Union, anil
to lis co nt I mad (1lforp,uiil7.c(l condition
under tho varlotH laws which huvo
been piib.-ed tip-m tho subject of rtron
itructkm. It mr.y bo sufely ussumcd
na nn axiom In thoKovornmcntof Stati-.s
that tho Rrcatcst wrouj; Inlllctcd upon
a people nre caused by unjust and arbi
trary legislation, or by tlio mirelciitino;
tkrrecs of despotic rulers, and that tho
timely revocation of Injurious nml op
pressive measures Is tbo greatest good
that can bo conferred upon n nation.
Tho legislator or ruler who lias the wis
dom and ningnauimlty to retrace his
steps when convinced of error, will
sooner or later bo rewarded witli tlio
respect and gratitude of nn Intelligent
and patriotic people.
ltK.COX.STl!tKTIO A 1'AIt.Ulli:.
Our own history although embrac
ing a period less than a century atrords
abundant proof that most, If not all of
our domestic, troubles aro dlrctlv true
able to violations ol tho organic law
and e.ce.sivo legislation, 'lbo xaost
(-trilling Illustrations of this f.iet aro
furnished by the enactments of tho
past thrco years upon the question of
leconstiuctloii. Alter a fair trial, thev
bavo substantially failed and iiroveil
pernicious in their results, ami there
seems to be no good reason why I hey
should longer remain upon thostntute
book. States to which the Constitution
guarantees it republican form or gov
ernment liavi. been reduced to military
dependencies, in each of which tlio peo
ple have been made subjects to tho ar
bitrary will of the commanding gener
al. Although the Constitution .tqulrcs
that each State shall bo icpre.-ented In
Congress, Virginia, .Mississippi, and
Tesasaroyel excluded from tho two
llou-es, and contrary to the express
piovis'ions of that iustrunicnt, wero de
nied participation In the recent election
for a l'reeiikiit and Vice-1'rihident of
the United States. Tbentteinpt lo place
the white population under tlif domi
nation of persons of color In tlio South
has impaired. If not destroyed, the
k 1 1 1 1 1 V relations that bud nrrvlouslv
existed between them; and mutual dls
tiust lias engendered n feeling of ani
mosity which, leading In some Instan
ces to collision and bloodshed, lias pre
vented that co-operation between tho
two races, to o-sentlal to the success of
Industrial enterprise In the Southern
States. Nor have the Inhabitants of
tbo-o States alone suffered from tbodls
tiirbcd condition of affairs growing out
of theso Congressional enactments'. The
entire Union has been agitated by
grave apprehen-ioiis of troubles which
might again involve tho pence of the
nation ; Its Interests have been injuri
ously affected by tlio derangement of
business and labor, and tbo consequent
wantof prosperity throughout that por
tion of the country. Tho Federal Con
btltullon the maina cltarta of Ameri
can rights, under who- wise and salu
tary provisions wo have successfully
conducted all of our doinetle nml fur.
I elgn all'alrs,stntnlned ourselves In peace
and In war, and become n great nation
, among tlio powers or tho earth must
1 assuredly b'j now adequato to the set
I tlement of questions growing ont of Un
civil war waged alono for its vlndica
1 Hon. This great fact Is inudo most
1 it..tr,.bt I... ti... ill... nf 41
I .,..-. ... II1U 1WlllllllWII III IHU 1IJIIII '
had ceased j tho spirit of 'rebellion had I
spent its entire force; In tho Southern
State- the people hail warmed Into na
tional life, and throughout tho whole
country a healthy reaction In public
fontiniont had taken place, lly the ap
plication of thoslmplu yet effective pro
visions of tho Constitution, tlio Kxecii
tivo Department, with tlio voluntary
aid of thu State's, had brought the work
of lestorntion as near completion as
was within the scope or Its authority,
and tho nation was encouingod by the
prospect of an early and sall-factorv
adjustment of nil Its elifllcullles. Con
gress, however, intcrvene-il, and, refu
lug to perfect the work so nearly coi,su
mali'd, declined to admit members
from tho unrepresented States, adopted
a series of measures which arrested tho
progress of restoration, fiustratcd all
that had been so successfully sccoin
pllsluil, and, after three- years of agita
tion ami strife, bus left tho country far-thei-
from tho nttuliimnnt of union and
fraternal feeling than at tlio Inception
of thu Congressional plan of reconstruc
tion. It needs 110 argument to show
that legislation which has produced
such baneful conwqucncc-s should bo
abiogatcd, or el.-e made to conform to
tho genuine principles of republican
Tiin'rr.NuitH or on-icr. hill.
Under tbo Influence of party passion
nnd sectional prejudice-, other acts have
been passed not warranted by tho Con
stitution, Congress lias already been
made familiar wllh my views uwpeet
. lug thu "tenure of olllco hll'," 1-Jxpo-I
rlenco tins proved that Its repeal Is do-
mandeel by the best interests of the
country, ami that while) it remains in
forco (lie I'resldi'iit can not enjoin that
rigid accountability of public olllccrs so
essential to an honest nnd elllclent exe
cution of the laws. Itsrevocal 11 would
enable tbo Kxcciitho Department to
e.xciclso tho powi'r of appointment nnd
and leiuovnl in ncconlaiico wllh the or
iginal design of tho Federal Constitu
tion. Till! I'llLSIDENT'S MILITAltY I'OWIUI.
Tho act of Jlnrch 'J, 1SC7, making ap
propriations for tho support of tho ar
my for tho year ending Juno !!(), 1608,
ami for other mirnoses. contains urovls-
ions which Interfere-with the Presi
dent's constitutional functions as com-iiinnder-in-ehief
of the army, and deny
to States eif tlio Union the right to pro
tect llieiruelves by menus of their own
militia. These provisions should bo at
oiico annulled; forwhllothu first might
lu times of great emergency, seriously
cmimrruss tho Executive In efforts to
employ nndillrt-ct the common strength
of tho nation for Its piotectlon und
preservation, tho other fs contrary to
tho express declaration of the Constitu
tion, "that a well-regulateel mllltla bo
lug necessary to the security of a free
Stale-, tho right of thu people to keen
and bear urms shall not bo Infringed."
11 is neiieveei 111:11 the repeal or all such
laws would bo uccciiteel by thu Ameri
can jinoiihi as at least a partial leturn to
tho rumlamental principle's of the gov
ernment ; aud un Indication that here
after thu Constitution Is to be made the
nation's safe and unerring lulele. They
ran bo productive of 110 permanent
benefit to the country, and should not
no permuted to siami as so nuny moil
timcnts of tlio deficient wisdom which
has eluirncterlxed our recent legislation.
TUB FINANCES. ,
Tho condition .of our finances de
mands tho early and earnest consldern'
Hon of Congress. Compared with tho
growth of our population, the public ex
penditures have reached 1111 amount un
precedented in our history. The popu
lation of tlio United Sinks in 17U0 was
nearly four millions of people, increas
ing each decade about thlity-threu per
cent, It reached in ISCiU thlrly-ono mil
lions, 1111 increase of seven hundred per
cent, on tho population of 171)1). In lbO'J
it Is ostlmntcd that It will reach thirty
eight millions, or tut lncieasoof tight
hundred mid sixty-eight per cent. In
seventy-nine years. Tho annual expen
ditures of tho Federal Government In
17'Jl were four million two hunilrid
thousand dollars; In 1&I0, eighteen mil
lion two liliudrul thousand dollars; ls.'ill
forty-one millions; in IsO), sixty-lhieu
millions; in Iht!.'), nearly thirken hun
dred millions ; and in lt-Xil), It is estima
ttil by the Secretary of tbo Treasury,!!!
bis lust annual report, that they will be
thrio bundled and seventy-two mil
lions. Ky comparing tho public dis
bursements of lu;), as estimated with
those of 17!li, it will bo seen that the In
crease of expenditure since tho begin
ning of the government, lias been eight
thousand six hundred and eighteen per
centum, while the increiiso ol tlio popu
lation for tlio same period was only
eight hundred and sixty-eight per cen
tum. Again : The expenses of tho gov
ernment In 1 .SOU, the year of peace Im
mediately, preceding the war, weio on
ly slxty-threo millions; while in iwi!,
tho year of peace thrco years niter the
war, it Isestinialcd they will bo three
hundred '.mil suventy-two millions an
increase of four hundred and eightv
nlno per centum, W lillu tho increase "of
population was only twtnly-one per
centum for tho same period. These sta
tistics lui ther show that in 1701 tlio an
nual national expenses, conipnitd with
the population, weio little muiu than
ono dollar per capita, and in IMiO but
two dollars per capita; while In 1SG!)
they will ltueh tho extravagant bum of
nine dollars and seventy-eight cents per
capita. It will bo observed that all of
these statements refer lo and exhibit
the disbursements of peace periods. It
may therefore, bo of interest to
compare tho expenditures of tho
thrco war periods tho w.ir with
Gnat llrltniu, tlio Jlexkvn war,
and the war of tho rebellion, in
IS1 1 the annual expenses Incident to tho
Mirol LSIirLMcheil tln-irhlghcstiiinotint
nhout thirty-one millions; while our
population slightly exceeded eight mil
lions, sh wiligau expeiiilltuio of only
three dullard anil eighty cents per capita,
In IS 17 the expendnmes growing out of
tho war with .Mexico nacliwl Uity-llve
milliotis,nnd tlio population about twen-ty-ouo
millions, giving only two dollars
and sixty cents per capita lor tho war
expenses of that year. In lbO, tho ex
penditures cullul tor by the rebellion
iiaclitd tho vast amount of twelvu bun
died and ninety millions, which, com
pared wi h a population of tliiily-Iour
millions, gives thirty-eight dollais and
twenty cents per capita. From tho 1th
day ol .March, 1761), to tho thirteenth of
June, lbill, the entire oxpoudituics ol
the government were seventeen liun
dreil millions of dollars. During that
period wo were engaged in wars with
lireut lii'itniuuud .Mexico, and were In
volved in lio.tilitles with powerful In.
dlan tribes ; Louisiana was purchased
from France at a cost of lilti en millions
of dollars; Florida was ceded to Us by
S rain lor live millions; tallfniiiia was
ncqulie'd liom .Mexico lor llllcen mil
lions; ami tbo Teirllory of New .Mexi
co was oblaiiiiel lioni 'iexas lor the sum
ot leu millions. Fnrly in li-HI lbo war
ot the it hellion commenced ; and liom
tho llistol Julyof that year to theUUth
ol June, lfclW, thu public expenelltuies
reached thoenotniousiiggregato of thlr-ty-tlueo
hundred millions. Thieo years
of peace have intervened, nud during
that lime tho disbur.-emenls of thu gov
ernment huvo successively been live
hundred and twenty millions, llueo
hundred nud loity-slx millions, and
tiiuu humlicel anil niiieo-tiirto mil
lions. Adding to tlitso amounts three
iiuuurcu nun sevenn-iwo millions, es
i!,, . I ., ,1 , '
"m1,' '' 'n,''1,''1'.'1-' ,'!' rixl,','L'",- llll."!lrt(1
iiumeeiiiiieiy Bin.icceliug tlio war, or
nearly us much as was expended duilng
tho seventy-two years that preceeie el tho
rebellion, anil embraced thu extraordi
nary expenditure already nnmeil.
These startling facts clo.uly lllusliatu
tlio necessity of retrenchment in nil
branches of thu public service. Abuses
which weio loleraleel during tho war
for thu preservation oi tho nation will
not bounduted by thu people now that
prolounil peacu prevails. Tlio lecelpls
liom Interim! levemtes nn l customs
have, during the pu,t threu years, grad
ually eliminishesl, alul tho continuance
ot useless anil extra vagant expenditure's
will Involve us In national Imiikuiptcy,
or elso make inevitable all increase) of
laxes, ulri'iuly too ouerous,aiid in many
respects obnoxious 011 account of their
inquisitorial character. Unci hundred
millions annually aro expended for tho
military mice, a largo purtlon of which
s employed In the execution of laws
both UlllieCl.B-l.irv mill iincnnstlttillniml-
0110 hundred ami fllty millions am re
quired each year to pay tho Interest em
tho public debt ; an army of tax-gatherers
Impoverishes tho nation; and public
agents, placeel by Congress Ii -yonil tbo
control ot tho Executive, divert from
eiieir legitimate purposes largo sums of
money which they collect fremi tho
peopiu 111 the iianio of the government.
Judicious liLi-latlou and tiriide-nt reon-
omy can nloiio reme dy elele cts nud avert
uvJls which, II sullered to exist, eitnnot
mil lutiiiiiimsii COUUllUIICll HI IIIOpilllllC
councils uud weaken thu nttuchme nt and
re-ptctof thu puoplo towards their po
litical iiisiHiiuons, without proper
caru tbo small bahiiuu which Is e-ntlinn-te-el
will remain In thu Trea-iirv, at tho
close of tho present fiscal ye ar will not ho
icuuzeii, auu neiiinioniu millions liu mi
lled lo a elebt which Is enumerated by
billions. It Is show 11 by tho able) and
coiHiiehenslvo report of tho Secretary
oriliuTroiwury.th.it tho receipts for the
ll-cal year ending Juno !K), 1MJS, were,
4.1ii.j,ii;iS,Us3, and that tho expenditures
inriuosamo period were j:i,7,!llO,tWI,
leaving in thu Treasury n surplus of
?Aj,".U7,7l)S. It Is estimated that tho re
celpls during tlio present llscal year
ending Juno ill), mi'J. will bu Wll.illlJ,
MM, nnd tho expenditures Willi, 1.VJ,I7U,
showing a small bal.mcei of fj,!!lll,u!is
in favor or tho government. For Mm
llscal year ending Juno :i0, 1870, it Is
estimate tl that thu receipts will amount
to ;l'J7.00(l,Oi)0, nnd thu expenditures to
of Jill, 000,(100. It becomes proper, lu
this connection to mako 11 brlel roler
ciicu loour ptiliilif ii:ilebkdiiie-s, which
mis ncciimiiiatcil with such alarming
rapidity and assumed such colossal pro-
.1 ; ri..,i.
V-.r. .VViA "; :.V ,vf ,1,u"t' V"ut r "m.
.'.V l""..v- "l,:".l ,u.",ls'i was uuiiie eu
with an Indebtedness or seventy -live
millions of dollars, creuteil ilurjhg tbo
war of tbo revolullon. This amount
had been reduced to forty-live millions
ol dollars when in 1812 war wus ikchir-
ed ngaiiist Great lliiinln. Tho thieo
years' struggle! that fiilloweil.liirgVlj In
creased the nutlomtl obllgntloiiti, mid lu
1810 tlu-y Intel attained tliu sum of ouu
liuiulicti anil twnnly-H-vin inllllons,
i t. .. .. ...1 i. 1
ire mm en iioiiueni iigiMiiiion, now- iiiu gnvcrniueiit 111 inoinniiner suggest
ever, enabled the government to pay 1 eel, our nation will rapidly recover Its
tho ontlro nmount within a period of
twenty years, and the extinguishment
of tho national debt filled the land with
rejoiclng.nnd wnsoneorthe great events
or President Jackson's administration.
After Its redemption a largo fund re
mained in the Treasury, which was de
posited forsafe-keepllig with the sever
al States, on condition that It should bo
rtturnol when required by tho public
wants. Inl8l!)-thoyear after tho term!
tion of an expensive war with Mexico
wo found ourselves in vol ve-d In a debt
of sixty-four millions j nml this was the
amount owed by tho government In
lbUO, Just prior to thu outbreak of thu
rebellion, in thu spring of 1801 our
civil war commenced. Each year or
Its eonllnuaneo madu 1111 enormous ad
dition to tho debt ; mid when, In the
spring of ISM, tho nation successfully
emerged from tho conflict, tho obliga
tions of thu govcrninont had reacheel the
Immense sum or &!,87!I,VJ2,()(K. The
Secretary or tho Treasury shows Hint on
the 1st dny of November, lf-07, this
amount hail been reduced to$S!,l"l,fltj,.
I'll); but at the s.imo time Ills report ex
hibits un increitso during the put year
orf;!.j,Oij,IOL'; ror the debt on the 'first
ilay ol November last is stated to have
been L,,.7,ia),n.L'. It Is estimated In
itio Secretary that tho returns for tlio
past mouth will mill to our liabilities
the furtner sum or eleven millions
miming a total increase during thirteen
months of forty-six and u half millions.
In my message-to Congress of Decern
bei 1,180."). It wassuggi'sted that n poli
cy should bo devised which without be
ing oppressive to tho people, would at
oi-.co begin lo effect a reduction of the
debt, and, if preslsted in, discharge It
fully within a definite number ofyenrs.
Thu Secretary of thu Treasury forcibly
recommends legislation of tills charac
ter, and justly urges that tho longer it
Is deferred thu more- dllllcult mut be
come) its accomplishment. Wo should
follow tho wise precedents established
in 1781) and 1810, and without furtlier
delay mako provision for tlio payment
of our obligations at as earlv u period as
may bo practicable. Tlio fruits of their
labours should bo enjoyeel by our citi
zens, rather than Usui to build up mid
sustain moneyed monopolies in our own
and other lands. Our foreign dent is
ulieady computet) by tho Secretary of
t lie Treasury at eight hundred and tirtv
millions; citizens of foreign countries
receive interest upon 11 largo portion of
our securities, and American tax-payers
aro made to contribute large sums
for their support. Tho idea that such 11
Is to become permanent should bent all
times discarded, lis Involving taxation
loo heavy to bo borne, and payment
once In every sixteen ye-nrs, nt tlio pres
ent rate of interest, of an amount e qual
to the original sum. This vast debt, I
permitted to become permanent and in
creasing, must eventually bo gathered
Into the hands of afew.uiid enable them
to exert a dangerousj and controlling
power in the affairs of tho government,
i'ho boriowers would become servants
to the lenders tho lenders tho m.i.slt rs
of the people. Wo now pride ourselves
upon having given freedom to four mil
lions of the colored mco; it will then be
our shaino that forty millions of people,
by their own toleration of usurpation
and pioillgacy,havesuffereel themselves
to become enslaved, ir.d morely ex
changed slave-owners for new tusknitis
leis In tho shnpo of bondholdeis and
tax-gatherers. Uesldes, permanent
elebts pertain to monarchical govern
ments, and, tending to monopolies, per
petuities, and "class legislation, aro to
tally irrecoucllablu with free institu
tions Intiotluced Into our republican
system, they would gradually but sure
ly sup Its toundntloiH.oveiilitally sub
vert our governmental fabric, and erect
upon its rulr.su moneyed aristocracy.
It Is our sacreel duty to transmit uiilin
palled to our posterity the blessings of
liberty which were bequeathed tons by
the founders of thu llepubllc, anil by
our example leach thoso who aru to fol
low ti?, curefully to avoid the dangers
which threaten a freu und independent
1-LAXS l'OU 1-AYI.(! Till! DF.I1T.
Various plans havu been proposed for
the payment of the public elebt. How
ever tlu-y may have vaiietl as to tbo
tlum anil 11101U) in which il should bo
ittit-eniiti, tiiiro seems 10 una general '
1 emeu ri 01 1 co as lo tho nronneiy timl 1
jtisioi-ss in n reiiuciioti in inn pr.'seni
ratu 01 inicrost. Tlio Secretary or the
Treasury in his report recommend- live
per tent.; Congress, inn bill pus-cd
prior to riiljournemciit on Hie 7ih of
July last, agreed upon four and 11 half
per cent.; while by many three percent,
lias been belli to be an amply sulllcieut
return lor thu investment. The gene
ral iniiiiesslou as to tho exorbitancy of
thu existing into or interest h.i led to
an inquiry in tho public mind lespect
liiglhe consideration which tho gov
ernment ha- actually received for it-hoiid-,
ami thu conclusion is becoming
invvalciit that thu amount which it nli-
iitlni'tl was In real money threoor four
Iter cent h-ss thnn Ibn ul.-
11, ...,i :.i.t..i. . t,... .1
.,1111.11 a io-li 11 in 1 fin 1 11. citizens as 01 nil govei iiuieiie ones, ex
it cannot bu denied Hint we aro a-ptlng imposts ; and third, gold nml
paying an ox tr 11 vug 11 11 t I tr- Ullver coin. Its- the onerntlon of our
............. e ... 1.. p ,i. 1.
veil liiu 1111 inn nsu ill 1111 iiimit-v leu-
r,,n,-.7.i ,..1.1,. 1, .,.,;..,....
e. ", .'.1,.
K. ....... ... . ....... .. ..,..,.1, , .....v. ... f rVf i, iim- nut; vni.-s ,11 1-1 nun ill
coin. This l.ict Is madoappiroiit when creditor-, who, holding its bonds, semi
wo consider that bondholders receive annually receive their Interest In coin
from tlio Treasury, upon each dollar from tlio national treasury. There Is
they own In government securities, j
no reason which will beace-eqiletl as sat
six per cent. In gold, which U nearly or Isriictory by the people, why tho-j who
quite equal to nine par cent, lu ciirreu- I (U-fi'itil us oil tho hint) ami proti ct us nn
cy; that the 0 nun aro then converteii
Into capital for the national banks, up
on which tho-o institutions issue their
circulation, bearing -lx percent. Inter
est; nutl mat mey aro exempt iroiu
IsMillon by the noveriinii-nt nutl tho
States, ant) thereby enhanced two per
cent. Ill tlio bauds of tho holders. o
thus huvo an aggregate of seventeen
per cent, which may ho received upon
1. .I..II., 1. 1... ii... .-.j 1. r .in. ,1-n.
nidi iiuiiiii i'j inn ,1,1111.-1-, nt ,i-v.u-
nielli -ecuriiic-. .v sysieiu iii.u inuiiii-
ces such results Is Ju-tly regarded as
favoring a lew at the expense ot me
inanv. and has led to tho finthcr iniiul
rv whether our bondhohlers. In view of
tlio largo profits which they have enjoy
ed, would themselves bo avero ton
settlement of our Inilebti-tllii'si upon a
plan which would yield them a fair re
muneration, nud at the sumo time lie
just to tlio tax-payers of the nation. Our
national credit ihould bo sacredly ob
served; but In making provisions for
our creditor we) should not forget what
Is duo to tho musses of tho people. It
limy bo assumed that tho holders of our
securities have already received upon
their bonds n larger amount than their
original Investment, measured by a
gold standard, Upon this statement of
facts it would seem nut just nun equiin
lilu that thosix per cent. Interest now
paid by tliu government should bo ap
plied tu the reduction of the principal
seml-anmir.1 Instalment, which In six
teen years and eight months would
lliiuldate the entire nation. il debt. Six
per cent. In gold would at present rates
bn espial to ulno per cent, in currency,
' ', '' .1,00; nentelr th
iieue one linn a nail
I less thnn soventien veai. This, in eon
,..,,,.,. ...1,1. ,, ,,.,,. (1,ivn.,..r..M
tierivcti ii'oin tnelr investment, would
afford to Hie public creditors a fair and
liberal compuiisiitlon for tho use of their
capital, nml with this thev should bu
siitisflid, Tho lessons of tbo past ad
monish the lender that It Is not well to
bo ovi-Miiixlous In exacting from the
borrower rigid compliance with tbo
letter of the bond. If provision bomiulo
fnr 4 1111 fiiiviiiiiiit nf tliu 1 111lnl1l1.1l iiii.u nf
. ' ., .................. ...
wonted prosperity. Its Interests roqulro
that Winn measure should be taken to
release tholaro amount of capital in
vested In thosecnrltk"j of the govern
ment. It Is not now merely unproduc
tlve.but in taxation uttiiually.consumcs
ono hundred and fifty millions of dol
lars, which would otherwise bo used by
our enterprising people in adding to tlio
wealth of the nation. Our commerce,
which nt ono tlmo successfully rivalled
Hint of tho grent maritime powers,
bus rapidly diminished, and our indus
trial interests are in n deprcsed and
languishing conelltbiii. The develop
ment of our Inexhaustible resource's Is
clucked, and tlio fertile fields of the
South aro becoming wnstc for want of
mentis to till them. With the release
of capital, new life would bo infused In
to the paralyzed energies of our people-,
and activity mid vigor Imparted lo
every branch of Industry. Our pi'oplo
need encouragement In their efforts to
re-cover from the cirects of thu rebellion
and of Injudicious legislation ; and it
should lie the aim of thu government to
stimulate them by the prospect of an
early release from tho burdens which
Impede their prosperity. If it entinoi
take-tho burdens from their shoulders,
wu should nt least inautfoet a willing
ness to help to bear them.
THi: CIIlCUI.ATlNft JiniilUM.
In referring to tho condition of the
circulating medium, I shall merely re
iterate, substantially, that portion of
my iast annual message which relates
to that subject. Tho proportion which
tho currency of miv country should
bear to thu wholo v.iluu of thu annual
produce circulated by Its means is it
question upon which political economists
havu not agreed. Nor can it bo control
led by leglslatlon,butiiiUst bo left totliu
Irrevocable laws which everywhere reg
ulate commerca and trade. Tho circu
lating medium will ever irresistibly
flow to those points where it is in great
est demand. Tho law of doiiniiid and
supply is as unerring as that which reg
ulates tlio lines 01 mo ocean; nun iniieeii
currency, like tlio twos, lias lis onus
and Hows throughout tho commercial
world. At tho beginning of tho rebel
lion tho bank-noto circulation of tho
country amounted to not much mores
than two hundred millions er dollars ;
now the circulation of national bank
notes and tho-o known as "legal tend
ers" Is nearly seven hundred millions.
While It Is urged by some that this
amount should be increa-cel. others con
tend that n deemed reduction is abso
lutely essential to the best Interests or
Hit-country, In view or theso diverse
opinions, it may lie well to ascertain
tnti real value of our paper issues when
eoiiipared with a metallic or c invert!
hie currency. Eor tills purpose-, let us
inquire how much gold and silver could
be purelnc-i'd by tho seven hundred
millions of paper money now In circu
lation'.' Probably not .moro than half
the amount of the hitter showing that I
when our paper currency Is compared
with gold and silver, Its commercial
value is compressed Into three hundred
nnd fifty millions. This striking fact
makes It tho obvious duty of the gov
ernment, ns early as may bu consistent
with tho principles or sound political
economy, to take suclt measures as will
enable the holder of its notes and those
of tho national banks to convert them,
wltluut loss, Into specie or Its equiva
lent. A reduction eif our pnpor circu
lating medium need not necvs-arlly fol
low. This, however, would depend
upon the law of demand and supply,
though It should bu homo In mind that
by making legal-tender nnd bnnk notes
convertible Into coin or Its equivalent,
their present specie valuo In tlio hands
of their holders would bo enhanced
ono hundred per cent. Legislation for
tho accomplishment ol it lestilt so de
sirable is deniaudetl by tho highest pub
lic considerations. Tliu con-tltution
contemplates that tho circulating medi
um iff Hie country shall bo uniform in
quality ami value. At tlio time nf the
formation of that lusttuinent, thu coun
try bad ju-t emerged from tho war of
the Itevolutloii, and was suffering from
the effects of u redundant uud worthless
paper currency. Tho sages of that per
iod were anxious to protect their po
tt lily from the evils which they tlieni
seivt's had expel iencetl. Hence, In pro
viding a circulating medium, they eon-
f,.r,,..i ,,,, (-,
ongie-s tho powei lo co
..,1 .. ..,.i.,i.. , 1, ..ii. t,.,r
money una 1:1111110 tiievaiui- merer
at tho sumo lime prohibiting the Stale
from making anything but gold 1.111I
sllve. a tender in payment of debts.
CONDITION Ol' (ll'ItCl'KT.r.NC v.
The anomalous condition of our cur
reney Is in striking contrast with that
which was originally deigned. Our
circulation now embraces, first, notes of
thu national banks, which aro nmilo re.
ceivablo forsll dues to the government,
excluding Imports, nnd by all Its credi
tors, excepting in payment or interest
unon its bonds nnd tlio securities them-
-elves second, legal tender-notes, 1
sued by thu United State,, and which
the law requires shall ho re eelvet , 0-
1 .....11 1.. ......,,w.,,t ,r oil ib.lii- lmtivonn
" ." I"1'.","
. . , . .
..rntiiiir ....din, 11 ill ini'mri- iiiivviii-i.r inn
1 ' '7 . i .rv"
lbo sen: the iien.-iouer unon the grntl
tilth-of tlio nation, hearing thoscar- and
wouiitls recelvod while in its service;
the public servants In the various de
partments ni iimgovemiiieiii ; 1110 nir-
i ,m.r .lwi Hiinnlles tlio soldiers nf flu
1 armv and the sailors of tlio navy ; the
nrtizan who toils in tho imlloii'swork-
shop-, or the mechanic- und laborers
I who bulltl Its lelllices and eeiistriKt It-
1 ,.,.u...i ..r .....I- ti.r...i,i 1..
inn- 111111 !.--, -n ,11 i ' -iniiuii
payment 01 iin-irjiiee uiiei iu.ni eairii-ii
I dues), receive depreciated paper wiiiln
another cla-s oi meir countiynieii, n
moro deserving, are paid in coin ofgi hl
nml sliver, i.quni linn exact jusiice ie
quires Hint all tho creditors of tliu tov.
eminent sbotilel bo paid lu u currency
po-scsslng a uniform value. This can
only bo accomplished by tho iisloialloii
of tno currency to iiiu siamuiiii i'.-ini)
..' . V . .. 7r .,: .1 . . .
lished by tho Constitution ; and by fills
timi-ns u-ii veiiiilil ri'inovo a tlMcriiiilim.
' ."r , . . ,
tion which may, If it has not ulieady
iiotiu so, crfiieu u imjiiuii i nun may ne-
coino drop-rooted ami widespread, ami
imperil tno minimal crcuit, run feasi
bility of making our currency cones,
pond with the constitutional slumlaiil
may bo seen by leferonee to a few Auis
derived rroin our commercial statl-tles.
Tho aggregate product of precious met
als In tbo United States from 1810 to
1807 amounted to ? 1,17 1,000,000. while,
for tho snmo poilod, the net exports
of specie wi'ie if-71 1,000,000. This shows
an excess er product i-vcr net exports
of $ia:l,000,000. There aro lu thu Tien
ury $lo:),l07,0S.riin coin; In circulation
lu Hie Ktnti-s and on tbo Pacific tioast
about $10,000,000, and a few millions lu
tbo national and other banks In all less
tlinil lsiCO.000.000. TnkliiL-lnlo coii-1,1.
erutloii tho Hpecio In the country prior
to.lfilO, nud'that produce elslnees(i7, wo
have moro thnn liloo.OOO.liooiiot nceoiinl
ed for by exportation or by thu ictnnis
of tho Treasury, ami Ibereforo most
iiiotitiiiiy remaining In thu country.
Theso nro Important facts, ami shn'w
how co m 1 lelely the iiileiier eurrem-v
will supersedo tho letter, ' i.lng It
fiom circulation among themasses, und
causing It to Itei rxportetl ns 11 iiitu nr
llcleol tiaile.tondd lutlitummiy capital
of foreign lands. They show thoiieccssl-
ty of retiring our paper money, thn'
tho return of gold und silver to tho nv
entics of trade may bo Invited, and u
demand created which willeauso the to
trillion nthomoofnt least so much of
tho productions of our rich ami Inev
Iiaustlblo gold-boarlng fields ns may bt
sufllclcnt for purposes or circulation. It
Is unreasonable 10 expect 0 return ton
sound currency so long as tho govern
ment nnd b.inks, by continuing to Is-ue
Irredeemable notes, till tho channels of
circulation with depreciated paper.
Notwithstanding a colnngo by rii'
mints, since 1810, of eight hundred ai d
soventy-four millions of dollars, Un
people art- now strangers to tlio curren
cy which was designed for their ii?onn '
benefit, and specimens of tho preclon
lnetnls bearing tho national tlevlto iiri
seldom seen, except when produced t '
gratify the Interest excited by tnelr
novelty. If depreciated paper Is to be
continued as tho permanent currency I
thu country, und nil our coin Is to bi
come) n mere article of trutiic anil -pi
illation, tn the enchancement in p n
of all that Is Indispensable to the 1 ou
fort of the people, It would Is- m
economy ;o abolish our mints, thu- - 1
lug tho nation tho care and expense
cldent to Hitch eslabllshne-nts, und
all our present metals bo exported
bullion. Tho tlmo h..s conic, lmwe .
when the government nnd nation
banks should bo r- qui ml to take r
most elllclent steps ami mako all n- -sary
arrangements for a resumption
specie p'lyiinuts. Let specie paynn
once bo earnestly inaugurated by
government nnd banks, anil tho v.
of tliu papi r circulation would direo 1
upproxlmn'o a specie standard. Spi .
payments having been resumul by t
government and banks, all notes :.
bills of paper issued by either 01 1
less doiioinlnatien than twenty dol
lars should by law bo excluded from
circulation, so that tho proj i
may have thu benefit nnd cons
ilience of 11 gold and silver current','
which in all their business transactlui
will bo uniform In value at homo 111. '
broad. "Every man of properly nnd
Inuu-try, every man who desires lo prt
sers'o what ho hone-tly pos-es-es, to o'
tain what lie can hone-tly earn, h.is .
dlro.-t interest in maintaining 11 safe
circulating medium such a medium
as shall bu real anil substantial, n' I bi
ble to vibrate with opinions, not sub
ject to ho blown up or to beblown donn
by tho breath of speculation, but to In
made stable and secure. A tll-orelon d
currency is one of the greatest political
evils. It undermines the virtues ne'c-es-ary
for the support of tho social sys
tem. 'and encourages propensities de
structive to Its happiness; It wars
against Industry, frugality, nnd renne
niv, am) it fo-ters the evil spirit of ex
travagance nnd speculation." It ba
boon asserted by ono of our profound
nnd mo-t gifted statesmen, that "of all
the contrivance's for cheating tho labor
intr classes or mankind, none lias been
moro effe'ctual than that wbleii deludes
them with paper money. This is H e
most effectual of inventions to fertilize
tho rich man's Ileitis by the sweat of
the poor man's brow. Ordinary tvrin
ny, oppression, excessive taxation
tlieso bear Iightiy on the happiness of
the mass of the community, compared
with tlio fraudulent currency, nnd the
robberioi committed by depreciated pa
per. Our own history bus recortletl for
our Instruction enough, anil more than
enough of tbo demoralizing tondencj ,
tbo Injustice, and tbo intolerable ex
pression on thu virtuous ami welbeli--posed
of a degraded paper curreney au
thorized by law or In any way counte
nanced by government." It Is ono of
tlio most successful devices, in times of
peace or war, of expansions or revul
sions, to accomplish the transfer iff a 1
tho precious metals from the great mass
of the people Into tho hand- ol the few,
wheru tnt-y aro hoarded In seel et places
or elepo-lteel under boltsand bars, while
tho people are left loenduroiill tho in
convenience, sacrifice, nud ili-inoralizn-tlon
resulting from tho tiso of tie le-c 1
te'el nml worthless paper.
T1IF. 1.NTVJIIOH )r.I'AItTMK-N-T.
Thn Secretary of the Interior, in ! Is
report, gives valuable Informal! '
relcrcnci! to the Inte-ie.-ts eeinllti
the supervision of his Departnn nr
loviews tin- operations of the L".n .
liee, Pens on Otllce, Patent Olliiv,
the Indian liitrcau. Durli-g th"
ending June itn, ISO?!, six million -hundred
and lilty-tlve thousand
hundred acres of public Inntl Wf 1
1 cordially siinctlen the stlpbl
which provide for ri-r-rvhig linn
tho vnrlou- tribe.- where tlu-y 11.
enceiiiri-.getl to abandon I'-eir nm
habits ai.d engage In ngrlc.iltuiii:
industrial piir-uit-. This policy, 1
giirate-d many year- -hits-, has nicl .
signal success w heneverit has been
suttl In good faith anil with hivo-n
liberality by t'io I nlletl wale-.
' , , original .,, i, I
,,u,t.r ,, than at any pivot-ili,,.- ,
It., Cm n..,,.ll,i(. I, ... C..-.
riotl. Whilst wo tn 1 Ii -idi-h
land Instruction to tin- Indian", .
: guarauti e tin- undisturbed enJo. un m
1 11 t 1
1 tin ir trcniy-rigiif, we si.ouiii nni.i.
. ally in-l-i upon mo laiiniui on-erv 111
' .. - .
nit v in- -1 111
of their agrieiiient to leuuiln wt.i
their ro.i eetlvo reservation-. Th-
the only moth' by which eolli-lnn- wi n
other tiilies and with tlio whiten e:m I
nvoiditl, and thoeitfety id onr fn mi
Till: l-ACtriC 11AII.IIOAD.
The compaiiii'- constructing the- 1.11
way from Omaha to Sacramento I.
been tno-t enegetlcally e'ligngi'tl .11 p.
scenting the work, anil It l belle ul th ,
line will bu comphtid before the e . 1
ration of the next fl-enl year. Th .--
i.i.i. ...lit linllils l-hlliw 1 In lln..
11le-a1nn11nted.ini tho .1th instant
, j.!!;l7 ,11011, ami aildltlonul work lu.
1 been licrfornu il to lite extent of Si .
t 'in.... ..r... . . . --
iu,Uiu, l 111) pt VI U III Ty III till) 1 11 UT ll' ,
August l.t, Invllid my attention
the report nf a government dliceior i f
Hi I nlon Paeilie Itallroad Coin) ',ny,
wlni had been specially lust rude tl t, t
uuiliiii th'i location, cnu-triietlon, m il
equliiment or their mail. 1 tmhiniiu
for the opinion of the Alttiiuey (i-n
rat certain quc-Hons in regard to He
authority ot tho Executive which . o
i "I'm. .in' n-piiii, .nm iiiusf m un ii n. 1. 1
frm tlmo lo tlmo bee'ti pie-sentid by
, ,i... ,..,..,t...i.,..j ........t..t...t ... t.. .
upon tins report, and those which n.i.l
I nn' vniiiini luin i -, uiiuiiiiiifii u, nisi
(.,u-h successivo se-ctloii of the won
Alter carciuiiy coiisiueiing the hiw
tho ease, ho alllrmid tlio right of the
Executlvo to order, If iieeessury, u tln'r
ough revision oftlio enllroroael, ( un
inlssloners were thereupon appointed to
examine this and other line-, ami havu
recently suumiiieu n statement nf their
iuvcstigntluns, of which the repoit nf
thu Secretary of tho Interior funiislus
Tho report of tho Secreiarv of W,.r
contains Information of Ink re st and im
I'jrt. 1 v 1 itspretlngtlie-sevt-iiil bum t s
of the nr Deparlmi iil nnd the i t 1 u.
Hons of tho nriuy. Tbe-slii-ngtli nt 1 ur
inllltaiy ioiee, on ll.e t:oih ol Sepun
l.cr last, wus rorty-elgbt tbmism.ii 11 11 ,
and il was computed Unit bv He 11 t
cd Jiinunry next, this iiumbcr wi'i 1.
Uecre.-ated to fmly.thrco tlioii.-iii.i: it
is the opinion of the Si cutaiv ti r
that within tho next yeara consbU n 1 ,
diminution of the Infuntiv I. , . ,
bo Hindu without detriment m ,
1 tercets or the country ; pi d in . i
tliogrea' expense iiiiiniiipg ti, 1
tary pe-ncei estnblki n,e i t 1 mi j ,
llllo iieees'slly 1 1 ictieliil tin id v I
tr it nm be applied, It Is to lo 1 11
1 Hint Congress will ttinclli.n tho . uc-