The Columbian. (Bloomsburg, Pa.) 1866-1910, October 04, 1867, Image 1

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I M(I.1 I In., .. ... i )i 1
VOL. I.-NO.40.
jg A Domoovntio NowHpapor,
in I'l'iiMiiiin r.vmv fiuiiav mokninu ai
Inn School of politic. Hinnc nrlnolnlm will neve
,y-Js !' wpr"ni1dl,yclconrtOTy nml klmUm nhall
luiBouvii iu iuscumuik mem, whether with
r individual!, nr with cnntcmpornrlc nf the, I'rc
Mii Tl,n Hy. lmi'plltciii.and prosperity of llio conn
.jjCtiyNiiurnlmniiil objects and Iho tucann lo
i; itccumtlint, ueshall labor honostiyand earnestly
t '"'""'"""""."""nH'llHowlhnfoMtorgnii.
ft TEitusorSuiisi itiiTioNi-Tvn dollar r. car
Sjlf iiil.l In ndviihco. If not paid In advnnco two
, dollars ami (Illy lent III liolnvurlaljlycliiiranl
ft '.Tunis ok A nvt in iiimi :-Onc niuarodni Unci.
i!orlek)inii'or tliii'u Ini.tllonn tl,.V)j each Mibso-
iiumt Insertion oO cciitK,
Y Al'ACF. M. 2)1. 3K. t,H, Iv.
Onomiuaro... J.CD M,ou ji.oo jo.tio jto.o
THoRqtuiri'H n) qtm n,',in n,nt
,fct5 ' rnuo Miunri's 6,uu 7,00 8,(10 ijih Kim
fl-our hiuiirrun 1I,iji) 2n,ui
Half column 10,110 ivm 00 aym
Olio rulnnili . l"i,(l 1H,U0 !KI,UI 6tl,li
Kxccutor's an.l AiluiliiNimloi'H Notice $.1,00) An
dltor'ii.SolIco !.','.!. Oilier ndUTlls. meniH Inser
I ted umirillnK to special contract.
Ililsllici.i notice, ulltioutadvcrtlv ineht, twenty
x cent per line.
.Transient iidverllxenuuta payable In advance
oil other due nflf r the first Insertion.
S- It l, In rl nui, more likely lo lio natlKfao
; Mory, liolli to subscribers anil to Iho Publisher,
filial rcnitttanccsnnd nil communications respect
ijlnit the business of the paper, lip nentdlrcct to tha
dohlcenf publication. All letter, wliclhcr relating
Ato the editorial or buslnc concerns of the paper,
wid nil iymcnt for subscriptions, advertising,
or Johljliirf, arc to ho mado to and addressed
"Columbian OJJice,"
Hl.noMSIlUllO, l'A.
i rrlntcl nt Roblson' IlulldliiKs, near the, Court
JllOUSO, l.y tJllAM. M. VANllRlMMCr. .
l'HANK 11. H.VVDF.R.
NViilly cxccutotl at this Ofltee.
Ashland, Kchuj llilll Coillily, reun'a.
llerwiek, Colunilila Counly, renn'a.
' AT TO UN I! V. AT-1. A W,
l' IlerHhlr, C'oliuiilila County, reiiirn.
y"I!.,UAM H. A11UOTT,
Ci:.NTUAI.IA, l'A.
' c
w, iMii.iii:it,
lolnlni! 1'oHt (lllli e. a- flountli 1, llark-lliy and
omeoMllh i:. II. I.lltle. In In Irk ImlMllili ad-
K-i'ay am
a eiiM'iiiN- coueeieu.
A T T O It N I! V - A T - I, A V,
Olllee In Iteirlitter and Ueeorder'i ortKe, In the
ljiiM'liletlt of the Con It lloilie, ItlooliiHliiirK, I'll.
oiu:itT r. ci.Aiiic,
A T T O It N I! Y - A T - I. A W
Ollleo corner of Main and Market Ktreetn, over
l''ln.t National Itank, lIlooniKhuri;, l'a.
A uriulutito of Jt rtrrhiui .Medical t'olK'jrc, l'htl
ilflihin, liruliiK pormani'iitly louMul, ntiVrn hit
plOffMSiollUl MTVll-fK tO tIlOf.ll7(.'lS Ol ClllHW IrthU
uutl li'lnlly, onictM.n M.1I11 rtu-ft, Mcuiiil ilour
eiist nf t.'irtisy A John llulUllnjf. !nprVa7Him
II. 1 4 IT T li K,
A T T O It X i: V -AT-1, A V,
Olllt'i' nu Main ri, til brick hulldinu hclow the
Court Iloiin1, UIcHniishurt;. V,
C. "
I. A W,
Okkick Court HoiiMo Alley,
iumbiun Ottlee,
Im'Iow tile O).
j 11. noiusoN,
llLOOMSlirud, l'ON'.V,
omen In Uiiium'Ht'n llulldlnu, Main Slrei t. Wl
of trut Amerleau House, niy'jrtJ7,
jUCTIO X TlTll .
Havltiff follwM (ho iirofi-solon of l'ublio Vendue
Crlt-r lur iiiiiny jmrs, would Inform liN friends
thnt he N Btllfln tho Held, rendy ntid wlllInK to
Attend to nil tho Out leu of 1 its mlllng. i'ertoiw
dt'Rlrlne his hervlcex Khould eall or wrllo to him
at UlnfjinstmrK, I'u. ImarS'trr.
uno AHHWtiini leoicui unuctor iJ, a. Army,)
... , .
AB-Onieaut the house nmiOkite Hhlve'H I) lock.
lUooiUhhurtf. I'll.
Calls promptly Attended lo bolh nlglit and day,, Jan, 18, iwr,
1J. PUIlSKfj,
utid deulur lu
fAlirin'-llAQsl, VAI.IS1W, 1'I.Y-NI.TH, 4c,
Main Street, IJlouinHljurir, Ta,
an :ve,
O A 11 I -V I! T M A K K 11 ,
ami uANi'FAt-iUiien nr dtkam ur
DliOOMSnUItO, l'A,
BjunoM, ISl.T.
A Nil
si Over WUlniajer a Jiicony n no Lriam pn,
A u HLOOMKItUIttl, l'A.
" Hair DveliiK ami Wlilskera colored Waek or
lirown. Ilalr TonlotoilfMroyuanuruii kiui im hu.
Ilfuli.- tl... Ill r..klnru liulr lo till OrlulllUl
color ultliout Nullluif Iho Uncut fubrlc, conktantly
Ull llllini, l.(.i.-.i
n. s a v a a k ,
Afdtn fttrert, nu tht Our( Ifouit,
lli...faiilTlirl 11.
'llpiiuHimlly on hand u fluii aaurlnoot a'
CjoikM, Jewelry, Hllvcrwuru and HpectuclM
Prtkulr ulUntlon paid to Hit rrpalrlig
Watchei;, clocUn, Jewelry and HiwUelM.
-11uoiUo iurkb inado to ordr, All work
WtuM airlt'l7,
IWfcriif fn tltr fbtirf fame, JIltMnti'iurff,
Saturday Evening, Soptombor 28th.
itr.i'oiiTi:i iiY j. .r. muiiimiy.
Mil. I'ltCKlUHNT ANIl I'l!I,r.OV-CI TI-
.KXH : Tim (-rent war wlitclt brokn nut
nnit cotitliiiii'd four yenrs botvci'it tliu
Xortlitrii nml Southern sccIIoih of our
country cunio to an will lit Aiirll, lwi i (
in iwiMiit iiiutii'iimo to nn ctitins a mill'
tary iiiifstloii. Thcro tiro, huwovcr, nor
sons amoiin; tis who seem to labor
under the inmruH-Ioiitlint It 1ms contin
ttwl down to tho present time, nml that
ii it yet in existence, lor tney support
mid illinium! measures or tinttoiml tinllcv
which mo bitted upon the Idea that thttt
war U yet In existence, mid that certain
legal principles consequent upon war
therefore continue and Justify peculiar
IUI.-.I-1IIII.-) in iiiiiiiu poiiey. i iiitn mi
uDsuriias inn noes nol reiptiro tleoate,
does not reiiulru ri.'fiitiitlon In nnv In.
telllKcnt conitniinity In any section of
our eotiuiry.
UiKiuestfonably our great civil war. a
war of unexampled inanltude In the
New AVorld, a war the burdens anil the
p.iN-lon or which reached every com
munity mid almost every llre.-lde In the
land, did both in point of fact and lit
point of law terinlnateln April, lMi'
thesiirrenilerof (law arntle-i which un-
li ril Islltiiriti.-dll-il M llltiir- nni iii:iih1its.
I mean dUtlngulihi'd in point of abll-
iy, mm neen arrayed afrainit, in lit me
Southern country and had for years con
ducted a struLrcle. ivltli in. oftentimes
doiibtltil lu its is-ue, ami caining the
(teeiiest aiiDreiiensions unions all of us
cone ruing tho contintienco of our lte-
iitijiican system ol irovernment ami of
tho Union with which it was associated.
Tho armies of hee and Johnston sur
rendered. Tho few vcnssoN which tho
Confederate irovernment had sent out
as privateers were also either hitrren
dered or wero llcelng from our armed
vessels oi war in remote seas nml in dis
tant oceans. Those armies surrendered
lo General Grant nml to General Sher
man upon a single condition ; ami what
was thnt '.' Thnt so long ns they eon
ducted themselves peaceably and did
not resist tho authority of the United
States, they should not bo molested
or called in (mention in any way
whatever bv tho United .States.
That parolo which was taken by
tho whole of tho southern Confeder
ate forces then In tho field hasbecn kept
both iu spirit and in letter down to this
day. Nobody can (mention that there
has oeen no lurtlicr resistance to tho ar
mies of tho United States, and there has
been no resistance to the civil authority
of the United States. Our courts have
uninterrupted Jurisdiction over tho
whole of tho South. Nay, so com
plete, so universal has been tills ac
quiescence iu our authority that oven
that Military Government which was
established by net of Congress in March
last, and which is now in existence in
tho Southern States, and which bears
with n severe and heavy hand upon the
populations iu that section, is submit
ted to without question and without
complaint. If there ever was n people
lu any period of tho history of tho
world and iu any country unon its broad
surfaco whokepf falth.whoporformediiii
obligation assumed by them, tho people
of tho South are that people with refer
ence to the agreement which was mado
net ween their leudersaml ueneraiiirani
ii ml General Sherman who represented
tho Federal Government in the Held,
and vhoo ngreenient with tho Confed
erate forces was approved by tho execu
tlveadiiiinlstratlon at Washington, and
accepted without complaint or objection
throughout the country by the Ameri
can people.
Alio war then, gentlemen, cnucu 111
April 18ti."i. What was achieved by that
war'. What was accomplished by it .'
You are as competent to Judge of this
question as the profotnulest lawyer or
statesman in the country, because It
requires for Its solution nothing but
good sense, goo-1 common Judgment
undisturbed and uunorvcrU'ii t.v pas
sion and prejudice. This Is all that 1s-
redtilsite. rsow what was acconipiisn
ed bv tho war'.' We would suppose,
ftentlcmen, that the object of tho war
was accompli-hed when victory was
Now then wo tro back to the (Uie-tlotl,
u hat was tho object ol the war which
wo pro-cculcd so long ami at such cost
to ourselves, in which wo expended
hall a million oi precious lives aim
ion red out treasure by hundreds or mil
lonsand Incurredndebtof unexampelcd
magnitude iu tho history of the
world ; that Is, us a debt incurred with
in tlto same period oftiino'.' Why did
uo arm ourselves'.' wliv did wo clothe
ourselves with the terror and thunder
of battle ami rago llrcely and vlo-
leutly thioiiglioutthe .Southern country
until the people there wero thoroughly
subdued and humbled before us'.' Wo
announced to tho world the reason of
our conduct and tho object wo had iu
view; and, staled in a slugio sentence,
it was tills: wo went to war and wo
waged war to preserve the union of
the American States. That was our
announced purpose, and becauso we
announced It our fellow citizens every
where throughout theadliering btates
came forward with alacrity to uphold
tho arm or the r euerai power in me
struggle. Individual means wem
contributed voluntarily; appropriations
of mnncv wero trl ven iniLrrudcrlntrlv both
lu i (ingress aim iu mu Legislatures oi
tliu States j a Sanitary Commission
was organized and other war charities
drawing heavily upon tho liberality of
the people. Nay, so patriotic and deter
mined wero our population In that great
war, that although tho political majori
ty which controlled tho Federal Ad
ministration by which it was managed,
misconducted Itself as wo supposed,
descended to many acts of maladminis
tration and of abuse of power on peace
ful citizens, and deprived our people of
their constitutional rlclits and privile
gesnotwithstanding all these tilings
and many others which i win not. biop
to enuinerato, there was, as a question
of honest fact to bo written down In his-
torv. a L'eneral concurrence iu carrying
on tho war and in supporting tho au
thorities to whom its management had
been committed and who had tho legal
right lo control It.
If theso chare-OS of dislovaltv. which
have been heard so loner nnd which are
yot impudently repeated, upon nearly
ono-hidf tho population ofl'i'imsylvimla
nml of tho other Northern States, had
been true : f thev had represented the
actual fact as It stood during tho war,
that war would have Had a widely nil-
mrcnt conclus on nml termination, in
stead of victory, thcro would have been
detent, instead in tne miiyuguuoii m
our enemy, we ourselves would have
railed in tnu war, ami with biiamo ami
humiliation wo would huvo been obliged
to submit to the Inevitable, ami with
reluctance, If not grief to take up our
future national course us a fragment of
a country i as asovoral fragment only
of Unit Union of which wo had formerly
IV coustlliiieii an integral part, .mi;
tliosu charges wero lu tho inuin ami
substantially, untrue mid unjust. In
lbti.1 In our State Legislature, at the
session at which I was elected to thu
Senate of tho U. S. resolutions wero
adopted by tho Democratic majority in
tholower House, tho House of Ilepre
scntatlvcs, on tho subject of the war,
Then our caitbo stood trembling In tho
balance. Then grvn. doubt and u'reat
iipprehenMoii wero felt about Iho result.
The political majority In the lower
brniichos of our Legislature, adopted
resolutions which gave the platform
upon which they stood during tho war,
and upon which Ihey will boJtl(lj.'cd by
history. If I had those resolutions) here
I would read them to-night. 1 shall
tune pride to mvir herearter when
belied and calumniated lu cuinmoii
with others, iu pointing to that plat
form, lu tho construction of which, and
in tho suniiort of which. I ti:irlh'lt:itiil.
What then, gentlemen, was accom
plished by the war, so generally sup
ported and so triumphant In its close'.'
lino would in i n K wu nail accomplished
the object for which we fought ; a resto
ration of tho Union, mi extension once
more of tho Constitution of the United
States over tho whole of Iho States ns
they stood before tho war began. I'or
what is tho Union '.' It is an association
of States established and united by the
l onstltutlon, and by iiothlngelse. Take
that away and thcro Is uo Union i there
is no I'edoral Uoveriiinent j there are
uo United States to bonumbercd among
the powers of the earth.. Therefore, In
IMsi. at tho end ol the war. when t ie
Southern armies had surrendered, not
only was the Union restored, but in or
der to Its restoration, Inseparably con-
necied Willi its restoration ami mills-
leiisablo to it, tho Constitution of the
L'nlted States was restored every where
lu our country; not alono in its authori
ty, not alone in the power which It con
ferred upon I'ederal olllcers from the
I'ro ideut downward, hut also in. Its
privilege-. In Its hcnctlK in its guaran
tees of liberty mid of representation lo
tho people of all Iho Stales which com
pose the Union created under it. AH
this Is clear to common Judgment and
to common sense as 1 said before, and it
does not require learning or high wis-
nun to understand u or explain it.
Gentlemen, did this result for which
wo fought in fact come to us? I have
endeavored to show you that It camo
legally ; it came as a matter of right ;
it came as a logical conclusion from the
premises; that it was the result of vic
tory; anil that to this result the whole
Amerhau people wcioentltled and they
have been entitled to It from that mo
ment to this. l!ut this privilege of
eace,of Constitutional rule, of reunion,
ins been withheld from tho American
people, and it has been withheld from
you and 1 just as much as it lias been
withheld Irom persons in any'other sec
tion of tho country. As citizens of a
great Republic composed of many States,
wo are entitled not oniy to enjoy, indi
vidually lu our own persons, those lib
erties and those political privileges
which our ancestors established and
whicli thev sanctl lied by their labors
and Eiilierings, by their patriotic zeal in
tliu catiso of American Independence
nml Liberty, but also to demand them
lor an oiners wno live in our country,
whether In our own State or in any
other Stato; and whenever they aro is our privilege, aye and
our duty also, to demand that they
shall bo extended to. and shall bo en
joyed by all.
.now, lieiiiiemeii, what is the plain
fact'.' Kntitled as wo were to reunion,
entitled to rule, entitled
to thorough po.ieo throughout our coun
try and to all thu fruits of peace, in
April lbu.i, J hero arraign heroro you
tho polillcid majority in Congress be-
catisu down to this moment they have
withheld that result from tho American
people. That Is their otl'eiice: that is
thu wrong, the Iniquity for which 1 ar
raign them, and for whicli you ought to
pronounce judgment against them in
the only manner in which they can be
condemned, and appropriately con
demned ; 1 mean at tho ballot box. us go os-er tne history oi two
years and a half that have elapsed since
the war ended. I shall endeavor to be
ns brief as possiblo and not weary
you, but In order that wo may reach in
telligent mid clear conclusions it is nee-'
essary to travel over the past somewhat, I
to trace events down to tho present
time, lly this preliminary exanilna-1
tion we shall bo enabled to Judge the
existing situation of our public ninth's
and pronounce t proper mid Useful judg- I
mom upon them.
After the close of the war the Trc.-I-
dent of the United Stale-,appoiiited pro- 1
vi'ioiitu iiovernors lor ine-everui states '
lu the South. Thoo Governors issued I
proclamations to the people Inviting 1
them. not commanding them, lo pro- 1
ceed and reorganize their State Govern
ments. The theory which was held by j
the President was, that the Statu Gov- ,
eruinentsas organized for the inirpo-es 1
of tho war weru invalid; that tlieiracts
were unauthorized ; ami that it uis pro-
per,il not iieccs-ar,v,that there should be
reorganization of thu local or State Gov
ernments. That was ills view. It Is
not neecs-arv I'or lis now to nass tinou it
ami to ascertain whether It was correct
or not. S o are only concerned with
the fact. The provisional Governors
appointed by thu President then Invit
ed the people of tho several States to se
lect delegates to (.(inventions hy whom
new Constitution should bo fornied.aud
upon tliu adoption of such Constitutions
to -elect olllcers for the State Government-
and also ltenresentatlves ami
Senators to servo iu tliu Congress of the
United States. I hero lias been some
talk In the country about this proceed
ing Initiated hy tho l'rosldent.and It has
been disputed whether ho was authoriz
ed lo commence it and to encourage its
being carried on. Gentlemen, the lre.-l-
lent ol the united sstutes has not one
particle oi authority lor the creation ol
anv Constitution anywhere, and the
Congress of tho UnltedBtales hnsjust ns
little power as the President has; that
Is, It has homo nt all. Applause. Un
questionably the only manner in which
an American Constitution can be made,
mid lu which any Republican Constitu
tion can lio mnde, lu tho very nature of
things, Is by tho people themselves, tho
people concerned, the people who mo
to bo bound bv such Constitution, who
aro to bo obedient to it and for whoso
protection and to btib-ervo whoso Inter
ests It Is created. Tho new Constltu
lions mado in tho South iu lStM upon In
vltatlouof the President derived no au
thority or validity from anything ho
did, but they wero legal and valid mid
effectual Constitutional Instruments be
cause thu people of tho several States
chose tliodelegateswliomado them A af
terward, when they wero submitted to
their votes, accepted them ; precisely
us In Pennsylvania wo would accept an
amendment to our Constitution If it
wero submitted by tho Legislature of
tho Stato miller a particular clause of
our Constitution authorizing such sub
mission, or as wo would accept It If It
wero mado by a Convention of delegates
which wo had previously selected for
the purpose.
Now t lien you see how clear this propo
sition Is. Those constitutions made lu
tho South were legal and valid and pro
per because In point of fact they were
made by the people and accepted by
them. Under them, Ihey organized
State Governments, which are yet iu
existence, and selected Senators and
Iti'prosciitatlvcs for tho Congress of tho
United States, In December ISUVj, when
Congress convened, most of thosoSlates
were entirely organized, ;iitl prepared,
through their Hcprcsentiitlvos, lo take
part iu the Government of the United
States. A few were not then through
with proceedings of it organlzutlon, hut
they completed hat It was necessary to
do shortly afterwards : so that early in
IHUfi every one of the States which had
been concerned In tho rebellion wax at
(ho City of Washington by Its Senators
and Representatives, prepared to take
part iu tho 1'Vderal Government, to
participate In those constitutional pow
ers, to enjoy thoso constitutional rights
and to bo bound by thoseconstltutloniil
1 duties which, existed us to them before
. the war began.
I The President In his annual mespngo
I to Congress in ISO.j, stated what lie had
done lu relation to reorganization: ho
called It tho restoration of the Union ;
and ho submitted to Congress itself the
! .1. i .i e .1 11.... .1...
uei-isiiiii in mu ijiiusuiill ll.'iiiillll lliu
admission of Senators and Itetiresenta
tives. Ho had no power over that ques
tion, U.ach House, by tho Constitution,
Is mado the exclusive Judgoof thequall
Mentions, elections, nml returns of lis
own members. Shortly afterwards, in
response lo n resolution passed by the
Senate, he sent in a special message in
which hu recommended the acceptance
of the Southern Representatives, ami
along with that message ho transmitted
n very Important communication from
General Grant, In which the General
stated that he he had then visited tho
Southern section of our country, had
mingled with tho people there, and had
ascertained what their views wero with
regard to lestoratlou ; and ho said,
and his words are yet upon record, and
they aro Instructive ami Important to
every citizen who desires to form an
honest opinion on this whole subject,
that the Southern people laid accepted
the result of thi war lu gootl faith ; they
had accepted the decision mado by the
mguest aiiinority Known 10 unman in
stitutions, thnt Is, by arms; and that
they wero desirous of resuming their
former places In the Union of perform
ing thu duties mid enloyiiig the ad Min
tages connected with citizenship In tho
United States. This was early In IMHS.
Now what did Congress do? The two
Houses wero In session and they re
untitled In session a period of eight
months from the time of their meeting
on the first Monday of December, lSft'i.
What did they do on this subject of re
construction? They did not admit tho
Senators and Representatives sent up
under the proceeding Instigated by the
President; they did not nccept tlieRep
resentativoH who appeared before them,
nor did thev themselves propose and
ndont any law or resolution on the sub
ject of reconstruction during that whole
time. .Nothing was done lu that way
by Congress. After a little interval of
time complaint was made about tho
President's ideas on tho subject of re
construction. This, that, and the other
point of criticism wero ventured upon.
Finally, tho critics became somewhat
bolder and commenced denouncing
him; but, observe, this was months af
ter the session of Congress began, and
In spite of llio fact that during 18i!j
wlille this proceeding of restoration,
was golntr on under tho President's plan.
there was a general acquiescence in It
throughout tho country ; very Ilttlo
complaint was heard against It in any
quarter. I say that session ran on for a
period of eight months, during all
which tlmo no bill or resolution was
passed on tho subject of reconstruction
to hasten tho restoration of the Union,
to givo us back peace, to restore thoCou-
stltutlon in all re.-pecls throughout tho
country. Nay, they purposely delayed
this work, important and vital as it was.
Olio would think that if there was any
thing wrong aoout the l-rcsident's plan
and his mode of accomplishing our
great object, they would havo suggested
somo better plan, or at least some plan
of their own, and have allowed the
people of tho United Slates to consider
mat, ami pas judgment upon it ; nut
they did no such thing. Tho matter
was shullled on" and kept off until tho
end of tho se-sion.
ltut what was going on nil this time?
Wo havo got now far enough past thoso
events to look back mid consider them
calmly. Men wero a little warm in
their minds while they wero occurring,
a little in a passion ; tho war feeling
remained. Wo can look back now,
however,with greater clea rows of vision
Reforo Congress assembled in lSO'i, be
fore tho House of Representatives was
organized and Us members sworn, there
was an Informal meeting of the Repre
sentatives wliocoiistltuted the majority,
in a private room. They held what
i as called a caucus ; not a very elegant
wurd, but one that wo are obliged to
u-e becuu-1! no other ono Indicates pre
cisely the Idea which It conveys. For
my part, I have very Ilttlo ol respect
for or of coiilldenco iu, meeting of that
de-criptlon, ami have had very Ilttlo
to do with them, in public life. Theru
may ho great emergencies when it may
be proper for a party of the members
of a Legi-latlve body, of Congre.-s or of
a Stato Legislature, to meet nndconsiilt
together ; but to have legislation and
the policy of Government fixed up in
secret in that way, as a thing of system
1- a great abtiso and an outrage upon
the people who are governed by the
lawn that spring from such Irresponsible
bodies. I say there was a caucus or se
cret meeting of tho majority meuibersof
the House of Repre-entatlves before the
Jl'Jth Congress was organized, at the bo
giniiiiigof December lSU'i.mid what imp
pencil thcro? Our old acquaintance,
Thaddeus Stevens or this State, was
early In attendence at tho room where
that meeting was to bo held, and he
looked after tho organization of tho
caucus, mid had certain icsolutloiis in
troduced and adopted. The caucus ad
journed within fifteen minutes I think
alter its meeting.
Now what were those resolutions'.'
The leading matter contained In them
was this: that all memorials, bills, reso
lutions and papers of wliatover de-crip-tlou
that should bo Introduced Into either
lloiisu of Congress on tho subject of re
storation or reconstruction of tho Union
should bo referred to it Joint committee
of tho two Houses ; that Joint committee
to consist of fifteen members, six mem-
bers of tho Senato and nlno members of
tho House; and that such papers wliat
over they might be, relating to that
great subject wero to havo such reference
without debate. No man wasto open his
mouth concerning them: mid until that
Joint committee, thus constituted of
menihcrs irom each nouso, reported on
thoMihJoct of rccoiistrtict!on,thcru should
bo no action whatever taken by either
House upon it. Tho members of both
Hou-es wero to bo tied up, their hands
tied, their mouths closed until this com
niltteo from its secret chnmberspokolts
opinion and relieved tho Representa
tives of tho people and of tho States
from a condition of abject silence and
Incapacity, self-imposed.
Now, gentlenicii, during that session
Congress acted under that schemo, be
cause tho caucus resolution was Intro
duced In tho House and passed there,
mid sent to tho Senato where it was
somewhat amended, and passed. Tho
Joint Commute was established, and
that Joint Coiiiuilttco tuok clinrgo of re
construction during thoso eight months;
ami thus it was that this great subject,
iu which tho whole American people
were Interested, In all parts of thoootin
try, was throttled iu Congress, was
turned over to n secret committee pros),
did over by Thaddeus Stevens; and tho
Congress of tho United Stales nt theend
of eight moiitlisiidjoiirned without hav
ing performed any duly whatever on
this subject. In fiict, they did nothing
upon it except by speeches, by Inlliun.
inatory harangues, by every art ami de
vice of which they wero cupable, to In
flame llio public mind; to get up If pus
siblr, a feeling of opposition, of hatred
and dislike towards the President of tho
United States, and toward the people
or tne nouin.
On the eve of adjournment, however,
it Constitutional Amendment was In
troduced, which passed both Housw of
Congress, and was submitted to tho
Legislatures of tho soverul States for
their consideration. You will rcmeiu.
I nn nlmlltflitnir Hlnvort lintl lioon tifiuwn.1
at n previous session of ongros,two or
uireii years nuiore, aim iiouiii ims nine
it hail been udopted by nearly all tho
States represented In Congress, and by
most If not nil the new State Govern-
meiiis tuni nan oeen reorganized Mouth,
nml It undoubtedly had become a part
oi me ioiiswuiuonoi tnu i.nueu .-suites.
Hut hero at this session of ISC'), another
nmendtnont about the end of the sess
ion was submitted which It was alleged
hail somo reference to tho subject of re
construction. That amendment con
tained a good deal of matter of which I
shall not speak. I will only allude lo
one point which It contained. It pro
vided that hereafter representation In
each Stateof tho American Union should
In a certain way, bo based upon the
electors of the State. The argument
was that our old rule In the Constitu
tion that representation in Coiiltcss
should be ba-otl upon population was
Incorrect or improper, anil that It would
be much better to bti-elt tintm the voters
of the several States; that the true Re
publican Idea Is that thu peoxlo shall
rule them-elves, that they shall all have
an equal voice, inn us they cannot all
meet together they chooso representa
tives to net for (hem; consequently, In
distributing repre.-entatlves In a great
country like ours, the representatives
ought to bo distributed according to
the number of voters in each State.
There is nlau-ililHty In fiiat rea
soning; ami that was the ground upon
which tliu argument was conducted lu
favor of that amendment both in and
out of Cnngrc-s. Hul that amendment,
although It profc-scd to be founded up
on that argument, departed from It en
tirely in Its terms. It was adroitly
worded and ilxed up, and had a sinl-ter
object. It provided that whenever in
any Statu tho right of suffrage should
be withheld from any portion of the
male Inhabitants over twenty-one years
of ago on account of racoor color, there
should hu a loss of represent atlou for
that State in proportion (o the extent of
the population ol such race or color the
males of whicli should bo so disfran
chised. The practical result was this:
Till! people of tho South, and tho people
of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Kentucky
and Mi-souri along witii them, were re
quired to allow the negroes within their
borders to become electors just liko
white people or to losu a share of their
power in tho Government of tho United
States. For Instance, if Pennsylvania
continued to refuse tho negroes within
her borders the right of voting on ac
count of color, thcro might lio a dock
age of ono Member of Congre.-s from
this State when tho next appointment
camo to bo made; tho next distribution
of .Members of Congress to tho States
by law. That was the idn ; and It was
applied throughout tho country. Now.
observe thoadroit manner in wlilch thai
amendment was constructed. It was to
forco negro suft'rago upon all tho Slates
under penalty of losing a portion of
their political power; hut at tho s.iino
time ull the foreigners, all the females,
all tho minors that con-titutcd n part of
the population in n State, for Instance,
lu New York or Massachusetts, wero
still to bo counted for purpo-es of rep
roscntation in Congress. That Constitu
tional Amendment would only cut, and
cut home, iu the South and In the Cen
tral States, whereas Now Knglaud
would havo all her non-voting popula
tion counted; she would retain her rep
resentatives; nay, upon an examina
tion of tho effect of that amendment, It
was found that Now Knglaud would
gain two members hy it while other
sections of llio country would lo-e. I
havo delayed you thus long in explain
ing that amendment simply becau-o it
has not been much debated, and perhaps
is not very generally understood.
I say, tho only thing iu connection
with reconstruction done at the llrst or
long se-sion of the fflllh Congress was
.tho submission of that Constitutional
Amendment whicli is yet pending,
which is not adopted, and perhaps nev
er will bo by the States, unle-s our new
fellow-citizens of African descent
down South choose lo take It ofler Ihey
have reorganized State Governments
Congre-s adoiiinetl in tliu summer of
IWiii, mid we had an election last year at
which the Republican party win gener
ally triumphant In the North. Their
speakers went upouthesluuip and talk
ed about "Copperheads," and about
"rebel-," and about "not giving up the
fruits and glory of the war," mid about
"traitors," nml many other things
equally interesting and equally Import
ant to tne loriiiation oi popular judg
ment. The.-o topics wero the burden of
their song. Thev appealed to the pas
sions of the war a year and a half af
ter It was closed, endeavoring, .tji keep
them alive, ami lo keep men voting "n
old l-.-ues instead of the new ones, thu
present ones, tho pre ing questions of
public pulley and of public iidmlnl-tru-t
Ion which
and ought tocomu iiomutoourjuilgmeuts
nl-o. They went back to the old mat
ter oftho war achate, rehashing it over:
and they wero successful on tho whole
in luo-t portions oi tne .Minn ami we-i.
It was concluded by the people to givo
llieni a further lea-u of power,and they
retained, therefore, tlieirprcpnnderauco
lu Congress. Congress met again in the
month of December last for tho short i
session ending on thu fourth of March.
What was then done by it on this sub
ject of reconstruction? Why they con
sidered it anil tne iienaio went on ami
on until tliu second of March when a
bill was i i.i -st 'i 1 called a Reconstruction
bill. I shall speak of it in a moment in
connection wltlitwosiippleinenlary acts
which wero passed afterwards.
Tho fortieth Congress convened on
tho fourth of March under a special act
of Congress anil remained in session
about a month, adjourned over, Cot to
gether again in tho mouth of July and
remained lu session most of that month,
and then adjourned over to thu twenty
lire t of November, when it Is to re
convene; so that thero will bo threo
fragmentary sosslonsof tlio fortieth Con
gress before tho usual tlmo of meeting,
wlilch is, tho llrpt Motuly of December;
to wit : a session in March, a se.sslondn
July, and another piece of n session In
November, And yet our Interesting
friend, Mr. Sumner, was deeplygrleved
that Congress i as sitting so Ilttlo during
tho present year t It would suit him
exactly to havo it sit all the time and to
havo about twenty bills passed whero
ono is now enacted.
On tho twenty-third of .March, the
new Congress, thofortlcth,pa-ed a sup
plementary Heconst ruction act, and
then In July they passed what was cull
ed an explanatory reconstruction act, iu
which v iillotbey proeoidcdtostutowhul
their former laws meant, they managid
to put iu it great deal of new matter ami
to make up really a r.ew law
Now Gentlemen, what is the charac
ter of those enactuieiits of which I havo
spoken, the Reconstruction act of the
"ml of March, the Supplementary act
of tho -;lrtl of March, mid thu Htpluiiu
lorv act passed In July? I will statu It
In a few words, mid then you cunjutlge
tho plan of the political majority iu
Congress mid determine for yourselves
whether it Is proA'rablo to Unit schemo
of restoration wlilch the President of
the Unltid States propod in 1MB, or
preferable to uny other plan or scheme
which might Ui devised. In tho lirst
place, thu leu Stutos of the South wero
divided into tlvo military dl.-tilcts, Iho led throughout, and Unit was, tho ml
Irst district consisting of the State of 1 mission or the aegro population of the
Virginia; the sveoud of Vorth Carolina I South to the right of suit rage, both In
nml South Carollnu;the third of Georgia, choosing delegates t the constitutional
Alabama, anil Florida; tho fourth of j conventions ami afterwards iu voting
MNsppl nml Arkansas; and tho fifth
of Louisiana and Texas. General Hcho-
Until u-ni iualt...r.jl 4r. II... lln fl........t
Sicklesto tho second; General Pope to
me nurd ; uenerai uru to too rourtll
and General Sheridan, bomowhal ills
tliigulhed for gallantry In Virginia In
tho war. to tho fifth district. Tills was
accomplished tinder tho Reconstruction
law of the ilnd of .March, tho first that
1 "its passed, inai law inns original
fi.r.r. U . 1 tl... IT.... - 1
.".in, u-i ii lias-en win jimi-u iiiiti was
sent to tho Semite, armed these milita
ry commanders with authority to pro'
sorvotho peace, to repress all popular
disturbance, and lo protect tho rights of
person and properly throughout the
South ; and for this purpose they were
authorized to resi-t the interference of
any statu authority lu Unit section. It
was alleged that the negroes wero being
siiiiigiiiereti tommy down mere; thev
were murdered In Texas, Alabama, anil
ciruwiicrc; very interesting persons
vru iiurrieti out oi existence, and it
was necessary therefore that n Just and
benignant government like that of the
I'liltoa states shou ( extend Is m In
rv protection to them and not permit
them lo he made the objects of popular
mi, in in iirivuiu vengeance, i His was
good, Christian, reasoning, and it was
respoctablo logic also. If there had been
power forthe ptirpo-e and If thero had
been expediency to sustain tha policy
undertaken, it might havo borne n fair
character and been entitled to bespoken
of In language of commendation, a-su-ming
of course that tho facts charged
were true.
When (hu bill came to tho Senatealid
tho members of that body, astute and
experienced men, came to consider it,
they saw that It was wilfully dcllciont ;
(hat ite'tablisbeila military government
throughout those ten Southern States
Without any provision that it should
ever conic to an end. They foresaw the
remarks with whicli Iho measure would
be met throughout tho country ; that
the people would say to them, "you aro
objecting to Andrew Johnson and to
the restoration of the Union under his
Ideas, and vet now. in Hio second venr
after tho close oftho war, Instead o'f re
storing tho Union or authorizing steps
(o bo taken for that purpose, you nre
simply passing a despotism bill for tho
South, a bill giving tho people thero
military government, nml that without
any hope of deliverance in future from
its power by anything which
you provide." They thought the bill
would not bo popular, and for that rea
son of course It was not expedient.
Therefore, tho Senalo proceeded to
amend Mr. Stevens pure military bill.
Ho prefers to go straight to his object,
and lio never has a scruple about nny-
.iiiiiK imi, Quiimurs nioru prutieni, anil
more nstuto did not clioo.-o Ui follow
him on that occalou. They proposed
and attached to tho bill a schemo of
reconstruction ; and thnt was tho first
nieasuro of the kind deliberately pro
posed by tho majority in Congress other
than that of tho constitutional amend
ment of whicli I have spoken.
Mr. Sherman, as tho spokesman and
organ of his political friends, propo-ed
that the people of tho South might hold
conventions, form constitutions) and
elect member to Congress, and If their
constitution!) were approved by Con
gress tho States should bo readmitted
into the Union and entitled to their for
mer rights; but in that proceeding of
reorganization all tho male clllzensover
t wenty-nno years ofage, without distinc
tion of raco or color should be entitled
to vote ; that Is (to tell Iho wholo story
in a worth tho South should havo tho
privilege of being reconstructed, or
more accurately, should have tho rigid
to reconstruct itself and to send its Sen
ators and Representatives to Congress,
provided always that it was to be done
with tho ossistuueu and by tho ntlnils--Ion
to still rago of all the male negroes
over twenty-one years of age. Upon
my sugge-lion that there was no limita
tion its lo district residence and matters
of that sort, they put iu by way of
amendment a provision that thu person
volingsliniild have re-ltled In the State
one year, which is tho only limitation
upon sun" rage in the bill beside those of
sex and age. That bill of the Aid of
March then contained two features as it
was enacted into a law and passed after
wards over the President's veto: llrst,
military government In tho South for
tho protection of person anil property
anil Hie maintenance of public order;
and secondly, a scheme of reconstruc
tion t involving negro stilrragci lo be
managed mid conducted hy tho people
of tho South themselves. The military
had nothing to do with reconstruction.
This Senate umeiidment left that alto
gether to the peopleaud their local Stato
governments to regulate for themselves
Tills law was pu-scd dually over the
Presidential veto two days before the
termination of the thirty-ninth Con
gros. Tho loth Congre-s convened on the
Itli of March, and on the Aid it pas-ed a
supplementary act as 1 before stated.
Why was this done? I will tell you In
a wortl why It was dune. It was ascer
tained that llio people of the country
received thu Reconstruction act of the
-ml of March without much disfavor or
complaint. Thero was no great amount
of clamor or of objection lu thu country
to II. There appeared at least to be a
general popular acquiescence. The au
thor uf that law therefore became em
boldened. They thought thero was no
danger lu going onmid doing some
thing more, Cou-eiiuently, on the lid
of March they pa-sod their supplemen
tary net, mainly for the purpo-n of
turning over tno w hole siiPiect oi recon
struction to tho Generals mid (he mili
tary who had been put iu command,
Hy that tlmo they knew who the Gene
rals wero. They saw that all of them
wero ardent Republicans,!!! political ac
cord with them, that (heir sympathies
and feelings were to lio trusted, ami be
causo they suppoed that tho people ot
mu country woum iicui ui u, wouiu
submit to It, would ncqulosco in It.they
passed their supplementary law taking
(ho wholo subject of reconstruction out
of Iho hands of the people, so far ns lis
management was concerned, and turn
ing It over to thf military authorities.
Ami now thoso Generals In command
havo thoappolnlinunt of every register
throughout tho wholo southern country,
tho nppolntment nf nil tho men who
enumerate tho electors nml admit them
to tho prlvllogo of registration. It Is
to bo remembered that thoso register
ed aro the only persons who can vote,
the only persons who can sit on Juries,
tho only persons who nre to bo Ameri
can citizens in point of fact mid In
point of right ami privilege. The Gen.
erals appoint tho persons who make the
rogl-trlos throughout tho-o Stales. They
also appoint the persons who hold tho
elections, and returns am lo bo inndo to
them; uutl after the conventions uru
held tho leturiisof the votes on tho con
stitutions aro to he scut them, mid thoy
aro to transmit the results to Washing
ton, 1 i ('peat then that by till! law of
tne 2!d nf March tho control of thu sub
ject of reconstruction was taken out of
tho lunula or tho people of tho South
ami of their I fstatogoverumenls and con
ferred upon thu military commanders
placed ovt-r the loulheru districts.
ifiosuppiementaryact pa-sed in July,
described in short, was to confer nihil
I tlonal powers ujxm those military otllo
ers aiitlto plucu the procoidlng ol recoil'
structlon more completely within their
power and colitiol. In thou laws the
I former Idta which euterisJ into the
coiislllutlonal amendment was euibod.
upon mo i,oiiiiituions when they were
lormeti, to the stimo extent In wlilch tho
rigiu oi suitrago might lie enjoyed by
mi- v.iuii;.s.
Thero wus, however, In these Inw
another rcnturu which was hot suppo
sed io no important, which did not
elicit much of debate, which In tnrt
was put on by tho House on tho act of
mo ion oi .March a- an amendment nr
ter the .Senate had nt nlnl ilm l.m.
nml (hat was (hu disfranchisement of
certain persons. When that llousu
iiiuentimeni was suuinllted to tho Sen
ato for consideration wo worn inM di
the number of persons that would bo
tiisiranciiiscd miner it would ho from
li.OWto KJ.OWI; (he provision being that
thu persons who hail held ollli it
tho United .Stalls or tinder nartleulnr
states nt nnv former t inn nnd ni minh
olllcers lind sworn to support tliu Con
stitution of thu United Slntis. nml Imrl
in ii.iv. urns engaged iu reoeillon, should
not vote at cither one of those elections.
Ihoseoillcinls, It was alleged, would
amount to some CJjno or 10,000 1 u all and
inusf were tnu persons to ho excluded
from the nrivlh'im of vnlliur nt tin. iir.t
and second elections which wero to lie
item in connection with tho reconstruc
tion of tlio Sooth. Ill till, ..fil.n
debate on that proposition I expressed
tllC Opinion Unit the llimihr r illfr.ii,-
chlsetl would be much larger; that In
stead of its belnglmt from 0,000 to 10,000
in the ten States of tho South, as Mr.
Sherman supposed and asserted, (mid
he, by the way. was tlio author ami
sponsor of tlio scheme of reconstruction
then propo-ed and enacted,) It was moro
Ikelytobo liil.Ooll, or possibly n still
uglier number. That was supposed lo
be a very exlmvnt'utit siiooiiinilnii ,.i,,t
estimate. Now.gentlemen, I will show
you In a moment what the result has
been, by which It will thnt in.
stead of thero being but from fl.Otm to
1(1,000 of the wldto voters oftho South
disfranchised by way of example, and
because, having been formerly sworn to
support thoeoiistlhitlnn nf i Tin l'nlli.,1
States, they nflerwards played fal-o to
that oath,-to busure.most of them wero
out ofolllcuat the time, the number is
liruu.tuiy n quarter oi a million, and so
argo a portion, solar-iron ntnss nf Mm
voters in the rosnootlvo sUnfc-i nf tl...
South that each anil every onoof(ho,u
States, with ono or two exceptions. U
Uliouestionahlv Africanlzetl. or thu oh.
solute anil complete political control of
them placed lu tho hands of thu new
negro voters created, and created for
tho llrst tlmo by the acts of Congress to
which I have alluded.
And by the way, gentlemen, observe
that tlliscliangoof suirratrohns lint boon
decreed by tliu vote or net oftho people
oftho United States anywhere. Thu
people In no Stato have voted on this
btthject and agreed to extend sull'rage,
Ha u luiiuurij voieu ami ngreca wncn
wenmende(lourStntoCon9tltutIon. Tho
people of the North have nover voted
on this subject nor havo tho pcoplu of
any one of the States of tho South hud
an opportunity to express their views
upon it. It lsa schemo Imposed bv act of
Oongrcssjwithoul a particle of popular
assent from tlto people of the United
niaies in any iiuartcr oi tnu union, ci
ther in that which is lo bo principally
affected by this measure or In our own
section, where wo havo political power.
ui sniiiiosu wu uavu political power, to
control and regulatu tlio action of tlio
Federal Government through our Sen
ators and Representatives in Congress.
Now, gentleman, I have troubled you
with this discourse, concerning tho past,
tracing tho history of reconstruction
from tlio time when thu war camo to a
conclusion two j ears and a half ago, in
order that, ns I stated lu tho out-et, wo
may bo able moro clearly and folk- tn
comprehend tho existing situation of
muni: iiii.urs aim our political duties
regarding them. At this tlmo the prin
cipal subject to ho paed upon bv Un
American people nt tho elections Isthis:
nro wo iu favor of tho policy oftho ma
jority in Congress on the subject of suf
frage ami thu reorganization of the.
Union ? Wo hnvo waited patiently two
i mis nun a inui since me war emieii to
hear from them on this subject. Wo
nave stootl liy and observed what thev
have done, not what they have said
merely but what they have done. Here
is ineir itoiicy peiore us, mul wo are
now to Judge It.
Now, gentlemen, let us see what this
elicmo of reconstruction means, viewed
from tho practical point of view. First,
u i us sou wiint, accoriiiug io tne cen-tis,
the populations of tho-o Stntos with
which reconstruction is coneered, are:
In ISiitl the populations wero as follows:
IIViiVc.'. J Hacks.
Alabama, .)i),l:)l, 1:17,770.
Arkan-as, 1121,1111. II Linn.
Lotlslaua, :7,(l!!l. Illfi.SS).
n. i, ...... i ....'
.'ii i itipi, ;i.i;j,;ioi, 4117, 1UI
South Carolina, ?.)1,:18S. -1 1 li,UiiU,
Minn enroll nn, isll.KlO. ;liil,u22.
Florida, 77,7 17. fi'.',077.
Georgia, SOI, .'Sri. Ml, ail'.
Texa-, ll!l,2!M. IH2,'.yi.
Virginia, 1,1117,111. 5IS,IH)7.
Tho State of Virginia, however, was
divided hy authority of an Act of Con
gress lof Iwii!) ami a new State was
formed called West Virginia, which has
taken from that State n Ilttlo loss thnu
one-third of its population ; and iu that j
portion oi Virginia included in the .New
State, the preponderance of the whites
over thu blacks, is still greater than in
the old State.
You see from tho-o flrrnros. r-onlloiunn
the relative proportions of whites audi
niacKs who iiihalilt those several Slates.
Now how stand the registrations whicli
have been taken in thoso States? In
tho Stato of Louslana the enumeration
Is closed nnd hIiukIs, whites, 11,7:12;
blacks, 82.WJ7. There, Is a Stato which
by tho census shows a majority of while
population, mid yet under tlio registra
tion of voters, thonumbersstntid 11,000
to s.2,000. In other words thero is a reg-i-tered
negro voting population, quafi.
lied to sit upon juries of 8 1,000, while tho
number of white Inhabitants qualified
as voterw and Jurymen, Is but 11,000,
In thoStatuof South Carolina tho reg-1-tratlon
Is whites, l!l,17fi, blacks, Jfi.OllI
In Virginia whites, n.5,167 5 blacks,
101,100. In Georgia whites, 05,8t)a
blacks, 0.1,417. In .MI-sNslppi, white-,
32,151; blacks, 70,010; and In North
Carolina, whiles, -14,50-3 ; blacks, 10,005.
In Florida, whites 2,5x3; blacks, 0,07s ;
and In Alabama whites, 72,717; blacks,
8S.2IS. I bolluvo that comprises nil ex.
copl Texas and Arkansrs, from whicli
wo havo 110 rrport.
Thu luevltablo conclusion to wlilch
wu mtistcimo is (Ids: (bat iu nearly
all (he-o States which uru to bo recon
structed under thesu laws of Congncns
tho blacks are mado to control and dom
inate tho elections which aro to bo held.
Tuku the euu of Inislaiia with mi ex
cess of whlto population, and yet by
military manipulation the numbers are
not only reversed, but tho black veto is
mado to exceed tho white, In tlio pro
l orllon or two to one; and In ull tho
other Status, with thu exception of two
or Ui rte there is mado out an execs, of
black voting population over tho whlto.
And in theexceptional States so nearly
is the scale balanced Dint 11 few ambi
tious ui' worthless, persons' in thowhitu
population uniting with thu black for
their own purposes either of private
gain or ambition will glvotheiucontrol.
What then must wo coiicludur Not
that wo aro to huvu what we wero told
lu Congress nud eUewhero wo would
havo u fair participation by the negroes
lu the reorgiiulzatlon of theso Statin lu
tho South, put woiirw to havo iiU-oluto
control by them established In all or
nearly all of those States, lu thuwfuw
lu which It Is doubtful, there Is a baso
voto coming from ri class well known
as tliu mean whites" which will doubt
less glvcthescnlon preponderance In tho
sauio direction; and this result Is pro
duced by the most tiiireasouubluand un
scrupulous dlsfnincliiinent of tho whlto
population to tho extent doubtless or
more than a quarter of u million alto
gether iu all thoseStatcs. I might read
from 11 pamphlet that 1 havo here from
the Governor of Texas oxhlhltlmr tin.
details of inllltr.rv administration In
that Stale (o show how llieso registra
tions nro made up ; but I shall not do
tain you by doing so.
How Is it Possible, that such an liilnul.
tv as this registration in I.oiilslnnn
could bo perpetrated? We can con
celvu how It could occur. General
Sherldaii.tmskllled In civil llfe.imtniin
ed In political contests, an officer frank
and gallant no doubt, goes to thoeitv of
New Orleans andlsbrought Into connec
tion thero With n few sliani politicians
nnd radicals Ilko T. J. Durant nnd H.
Rush Plnmley. who havo his ear. Hu
makes his appointments' 011 their recom
mendation, not knowing thu people, ho
being a new and stmniru titan sent thorn
for his military prowess In the war. Thoy
get Ids ear. Jfo makes for them tiio ap
pointments of tlio persons who take
these registrations. At their lintanco lio
removes Governor Wells; he re
moves Judge Abell ; both of whom
were Fnlon men. nnd. sn fiir n u-..
know, behaving themselves properly at
thu time. Tho truth Is hu falls into tho
hands of perhaps tho most desnlcablu
set, politically speaking, that aro to bo
iiiunii in our country, ami tney perrorm
this work : their appointees take theso
registrations, nnd hence tills result
comes ; and eventually when we hold
up this iniquity what do tho political
majority do? Answer the facts ? show
that this registration Is honest ? Show
that even the harsh, hard, bitter laws
asseo py uingressnre none-tiy adiiilu--tered
? No. They take shelter be
hind General Sheridan, and talk as if
wo were as-ailing him and nerseouUiiL'
him. Ho is but nn incident ; hu Is but
an Individual in all this case. Here Is 11
question all'ectinga vast body of Amer-
can citizens in a statu ami the policy or
tlio Federal government ; and nro our
mouths to ho closed, is our indignation
to lie restrained becau-o a gallant olllcer
has been untile an Instrument in tills in
itiuitv and lias been overreached bv
artful and uiiscrupulousmen? No! wo
11111-t denounce tho Iniquity even while
we -eek to oxcu-e the General iu com
mand upon tliu ground that distraining
Id-life and pursuits had notqualilled
mm lor 1110 dunes to which ho was n i-
signed and for resisting tho arts nnd In
llttenco of evil men.
Theru is an additional point in tills
connection whicli I desire to state, anil
that is, the question of expense. Now
tho whole cost of (his system of recon
struction in tho South Is charged upon
tno Treasury 01 mo unneu states. 11
is of course impossible for ustonscertain
tho amount exactly or oven tn approach
it very cioeiy oy estimate. 1 nave seen
it stated in tho National Intelligencer
and the Louisville Journal, (and they
allege that their statement Is based nit
on an examination of particulars,) (hat
tno expense 01 mo military nuministra
tion will amount to,ooo. What
ever tho fact may be, it is clear that thu
expenditure must bo very large, must bu
in inci enormous ior mo mere support
of tho officers and soldiers who are re
quired to hold mllitnry ocetipationlnthe
southern country and control this reor
ganization or tho stales. 1 hen agnin,
there Is an enormous expenditure hi ta
xing tneiregistraiions, mccausotiiey ex
tend into cverylocalcommunitytli rough
out tho wholo of the ten States) and In
holding conventions, and in holding
elections subsequently for tho purposu
of voting upon the Constitutions, In
the Reconstruction act of March wo vo
ted .V)0,000 to this department of out
lay. At tho latu July session an esti
mate from General Sickles was sub
mitted to Congress asking for ."oo,0u0
additional for tho States of North Caro
lina mid South Carolina alone, and a
bill was introduced for over $l,tiOO,0(H)
additional. It was reduced on mv mo
tion to 11,000,000, and then was pas-ed,
a bill appropriating fl,00o,0oo nihil
tlonal for Iho civil expenses of recon
struction. Of cour-u these appropriations
have nothing to do with tliu milltary
expeiidlture-, becau-o they are covens I
by the general appropriations for the
army oftho United States, which have
been enormous, unexampled, and, l
doubt not, mod for this Mr. Stanton is
very much accountable,) profligate
also. These enormous expenditures
will in duo tinio appear, after they are
incurred ami when it will beiuipo iblu
to limit them or to throw oil' tlio bur
dens which they impo-o upon tho
people of the United States. Wo aro
paying all this for what purpose? To
givo tho Republican Party control often
additional States ami to (lcba.-esull'rago
to the level at whicli they propo-u to
put it.
Under this head of uxpenso th ro
should be Included also Uiooxpeudltuiu
for tho Freedmen's Huivnu, an institu
tion of n very peculiar character and ut
very peculiar action. Tlio amount of
the cost 1 quite imknou n
10 1110 people, t wo se-sion- ago, lien.
Howard, who Is at tho head'of li, a.Uod
for an appropriation of about f 1 1,000,1 Kin.
How much money has been c.iotut -t
for Unit Hureau, nnd how much will u
expended herosiltor. no one can toll, lu
I due time, when Ills too lalo perhaps,
wo sunn a.-eertiun tno amount, isut the
maiuolllce ami function of that Hureau,
and Intended so, during the pr"-ent
year, has been to organize the elections
In tho South. Hundreds nml hundreds
of ngents having control of tho negro
population and disbursing money from
tlio Treasury oftho United States, sup
plying them with food and clothing,
will marshal them to thu elections and
givo direction to thu reorganization of
tlioso States. So far as my knowledgo
and belief oxtend, thero Is not ono man
in tho employment of .that Hureau,
cither at ashington or In tho Southern
States, who Is not a strong Radical party
mun selecled for that reason, nnd Hold
ing his place upon condition of being
such, and doing thu work for which ho
was selected. That Hureau asked us
for ll,oo0,ooo in one iippropriatlon.and
thu money is poured out oftho Trea-ury
bounteously by a political majority who
ask nothing in return for tho public
money expended except political power
for themselves nnd tho accompll-hmeiit
of the policy which they support In tho
government oftho United States.
What Is to come next ? Tho soveral
measure- proposed by thu majority iu
Congre-s, as I stated before, havo been
acquiesced In by tho country, or wero
acqule-ccd in down to tho present year.
And why? What was tliu great rea
son V Although tho war was over, and
although thu people desired reunion,
desired concord, desired peace and tho
restoration of constitutional rule mid
all the i olltlcal blessings which they
formerly enjoyed, yet they acquiesced
lu one thing after another supposing
each would bo the last. They worn
asked toas-ent to this, that, anil the other
proposition or law, mid they did o up
on tho plea that biich a-si'iit was uivis
nary to pewo, to make an end of dis
putes ; and now again thu argument
that we hear for thu Africanization of
one-third of our country, and that, too,
without any aent of the pcoplu any
where -they have taken a snap Judg
ment ; thvy lijvo never submitted this
subject to the Judgment of tho people
anywhere Is, that thereby we will end
tho negro question. Wu aru now as' id
I ONMSl Ml UN 101 ttrit .'AOI'