The Columbian. (Bloomsburg, Pa.) 1866-1910, August 18, 1866, Image 2

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okoihik ii. moohi;, r.niTtm.
Fon many years David Wllmot, of
Frco Trndo memory, has ruled the
County of Bradford according to the
dictated of his Interests and passions.
It has been a rule of proscription, intol
erance, and selfishness lieyond any ox
nmple In the history of this section of
tho Commonwealth, but It has had the
prcstlgo of success, and has been sub
mitted to by hundreds, If not thousands,
to whom It was both unwelcome and
odious. Partisan Interests, tho pressure
of tho war, and other causes have con
spired to extend and perpctuato an
evil domination, and to induce food
men c'en to yield it countenance and
encouragement. It has been upheld
and made strong because to mnny it ap
peared to bo (under tho circumstances)
connected wlth'publlc Interests of tran
scendent importance, nnd sometimes
with the existence or unity of tho coun
try itself.
Hut a day of reckoning has come,
nnd an account may now be stated be
tween tho people of that county and
their Master. Obedience Is only due to
a superior where tho rule of tholattcr Is
benignant and Just. And equally clear
Is it that political leadership should be
founded in public utility and personal
Wo need not now review the past life
of Judge Wllmot, instructive as that
review would bo. Wo conflno ourselves
mainly to tho present. Beginning po
litical llfo as an apostle of Freo Trade
nnd Radical Democracy, lie has run
through all tho stages of transition to
Radical Dlsunionlsm. Upon the ter
mination of his Senatorial term, he
took refago in a llfo olllco at Washing
ton as n Judge of tho Court of Claims.
The ofllco was created by legislation,
which ho himself assisted to enact, and
lits appointment was on his own per
sonal application to tho lato President.
The Court is not burdened with busi
ness, but tho pay is respectable. The
long vacations between its terms are
spent by Wllmot In managing the poll
tics of Bradford County, and in pro
jecting schemes for controlling the
Congressional, Senatorial, and Repre
sentative Districts of which Bradford
composes a part. lie amuses ids hours
of Icisuro nnd retirement in tho mani
pulation of ofllccs and in tho intrigues
of nominations. No public man of this
country has ever run a career more hel
lish, mora barren of magnanimity and
generous impulse, or less fruitful in ad
vantage to the public; and his present
position and employments aro In keep
ing with his past career.
His lieutonnnts, or subordinates in
command, in the management of po
litical dominion, aro persons of conse
quence only by reason of their connec
tion with him. Butof both of them the
public havo now, by bitter experience,
obtained considerable knowledge. The
one, George Lanrion, a man of cleri
cal antecedents but of unclerlcal prac
tice, was onco put in .nomination in
tins congressional District, but was
withdrawn before judgment was pro
nounced upon him by tho people: for,
tho direct charge that ho was corrupt
received such general acceptance that
his caso became desperate and his
"withdrawal a necessity. Tho other,
Ulysses Mercur, a gentleman of Jewish
descent, more recently became the Rep
resentative of this Congressional Dis
trict in Congress. It will be our bu-l-
ncss hereafter, though by no means a
pleasure, to roview his Congressional
record, and to discuss thoroughly his
present claims to public favor in the
canvass for re-election. These men, botli
chief and subordinates, have a fixed
prlnclplo of political management nnd
conduct. They hold to tho doctrlno of
Robert Walpole, that every man has
his price, and that all results in politi
cal tactics are to bo reached by some di
rect action upon the selfish interests or
passions of men. Passion is to bo In
tlucnccd to tho highest pitch by contin
ual agitation and popular appeals, and
individuals aro to ho subsidized and
controlled by the ollices and patronage
01 uovernment.
'ilia policy which hits grown out of
these views has been both corruptly
and scandalous. Subserviency has been
rewarded and independence proscribed
Whoever within thollmits of Bradford
County would not "crook tho pregnant
Hinges of tho knee" to tho Towanda
power lias been excluded from all favor,
nnu any aciivo cxniwtlon of indenen
denco has been followed by act I vo per
secution, in snort, tlio political eon-
trol established in Bradford under these
men has been both selfish and relentless,
But what particularly concerns us is
tho fact that tho attempt has been made
to extend the Bradford policy to the
Wlioio congressional District. Tho men
south of Bradford, Columbia, Montour,
Wyoming, nnd Huliivan were to bo sub
Jected to tho samo system of coercion
nnd corruption which had been found
potent and successful la the north. No
olllco was too obscure, and no Individ
ual too discreet to escape tho notice and
fitiimlion ol tlio Towanda power. Tho
Inquiry which penetrated everywhere,
and reaciieu every ease, wasi What
is necessary to establish tho Inlluenco of
tho master and insure tho subservlencv
of the slave? Jlenco it became no'd-
blo for a supple instrument hereto boast
through his newspaper that there was
Mit ouo Postmaster left within tho en
tiro limits of Columbia County who
was not opposed to Andrew Johnson
nnd devoted to tho Radical Interest!
pit'f It- Iwaino particularly ovldent that
tlvo pren of tho district was to bo subsl
rilzeri to tho objwit In vm'. The Post
mastership at BlooninhijrK was assigned
by Wilmot to Pnlomon John because
ho controlled a small newspaper which
might Influence political action in this
u a
county ; nnd after four years enjoyment
of that office, tho recipient of favor was
for tho samo reason transferred to tho
more lucrative post of Assessor, nnd his
assistant editor made to succeed him in
his former office. These last changes
required tho removal of an Assessor
Who held tho placo but sixteen month,
and whoseonly fault was tho wantof per
fect submission to the Towanda power.
In Montour County n Deputy Assessor-
ship was bestowed to secure tho adher
ence of tho Montour American. Finally,
In Wyoming County, n sudden and Im
proper removal at tho Tunkhannock
i'ost-nfllco opened a placo to tho editor
of the Wyoming Jtepublican, and se
cured his fealty to, and continued his
zeal for, his masters.
But this selfish, aggressive, and intol
erant power reached Its utmost limit of
triumph In tho removal of Monroe in
October, 1SG5, nnd In the subsequent
appointment of William Burgess at
Tutikhnnnock. Tho Bradford despot
ism Is broken. It win no longer strut
insolently upon tho scene nnd perforin
Its pleasure. Tlio master and his men
are not only known but are powerless for
extensive evil. Their day of doom ap
proaches, when the righteous Judgment
of tho people will tako from them alto
gether and forever tho power nnd Inllu
enco which they hnvo abused.
We havo the pleasure of announcing
that John B. Pursel has been appointed
by tho Postmaster-General to bo Post
master at Bloomsburg, In placo of
Daniel A. Beckley removed.
Mr. Pursel Is a firm Union man nnd a
supporter of tho President, and his ap
pointment will bo highly satisfactory in
this community. He had strong recom
mendations for tho placo when P. John
was appointed some years ago; and
again, when Hockley was appointed, n
decided majority of tho citizens inter
ested in the olllco sjgned petitions In his
favor. The wrong then committed In
Hockley's appointment is now corrected.
The lato incumbent can havo but lit
tle sympathy from nny quarter in tho
matter of ills removal. He obtained the
situation against the voice of tho peo
ple concerned simply because of his
association with P. John and willing
ness to borvo tho Radical Bradford poli
ticians who then controlled appoint
ments. He lias acted with great folly
and impropriety in ills oflice. Ho has
made It a habit to show tho President's
portrait, and propose, in a jeering man
ner, to sell It cheap, or sell it at half-
price, with other remarks expressive of
disrespect and antipathy. We need
hardly add, after this statement, that
he is a Radical Disuniouist of tho worst
type, and has used his oflice freely for
circulating Radical newspapers and
Recently tho editor of this journal
was treated rudely by him upon mak
ing a just complaint at the ofllco that
packages of tho Comj.miiia.v were nils-
cut through the malls; and afterward
he published a malicious article in tlio
Hepublican intended to injure us in our
private business.
It has been tho opinion of Union
men interested in the ofllco that their
mail-matter has been subjected to im
proper inspection and espionage, and
facts only known at tho oflice officially
have been bruited to tho public through
tho Republican, whoso editor has had
free access at all times to the boxes in
the oflice. For instance, when upon
one occasion tho editor of tho lato
Columbia Democrat quietly mailed a
copy of his paper to the President, tho
lact was forthwith announced, with a
llourish of impertinence, In tho Radical
Tlio lato Postmaster was a new man
in tho town when selected, and thopref
erence given him over a citizen of long
standing and respectable character, was
peculiarly objectionable nnd odious for
that reason.
Tho Post-office will bo located at a
very convenient point In tho town, and
good accommodations will bo provided
lor serving tlio public.
To the muor of the Columbian :
Foit onco tho Republican tells the
mini, m speaking of the Democrat and
Mar in its issuo of last week, saying the
reason tho Democrat ami Star fight with
tho Columiiia.v, Is on account of
patronage, and not on account of prin
ciples, but for policy. This must bo
apparent to any observer. Tho
niAN Is not abusing any person or party
on account of principle. It does what
every party should do at tho present
time support tho hands of tho Admin-
Istration, and endeavor to heal the
breach made and that now exists be
tween tho people.
If wo only had moro imncrs nf tim
same Kind it would bo well for us. It Is
high tlmo that Radicalism should bo
stopped, and that wo should act as
friends, not as enemies. Tho time for
bitter hostilities should bo over, and an
imosity and jealousy bo banished for
ever. But this is not tho caso ; tho edi
tors of the Democrat awl Star seem to
cherish that within their
strongly, and foster it as an idol. What
is more cowardly, more degrading than
tho two last named propensities ! They
lly on wings of wind, sjnriinr their inl.
sonous darts Into overy circle, and seem
ing to gloat over It. Will.this produce a
revolution of feeling' Yes, assuredly;
but only burning, unquenchable ha
tred. Wo should havo tho irood of the
wholo country before us. mid nut imrK-
faction and strife. And if tho editors
of tho Democrat ami Star were to adhere
to good old Democratic iirliicliilcs. tlmv
could endorso tho principles of tho Coi,-
U.MIUA.V, in so lar as it adheres to tho
Constitution as made by our fathers.
It is clearly to bo seen, in tho article
11 A word to our Democratic Friends,"
that mercenary and parsimonious n...
lugs nro prompting tho writing of such
an artlclo, not principle. Tills is ouo
very sure means for thoso respected mi.
Iters to lose patronage instead of gain
ing it, ana ot receiving contempt and
scorn beside; If they keep iv llttlo easier
as regards tlio "basiarti concern," as
thoy term It, they will havo no cause to
fear for their patronage. If a paper Is
properly conducted, nnd well oxocu ted,
It will recol vo patronage sufficient for a
reasonable support. Will not this suf
fice? Or Is their motto only "T.ikocaro
of number ouo," or two. Rest easy,
there will bo enough for both, without
the sacrlfico of principles.
An Onsi:uvi:n.
TION. I'HII.AIIKI.I'IIIA, August 15. 1801.
Titr. great National Union Conven
tion which began yesterday is a success
In regard to numbers and tho spirit
manifested, and It has shown prudence
in its proceedings. It will long bo re
membered as very interesting by mem
bers and spectators. There Is great har
mony and good-will among all concern
ed, nnd every one appears to bo actua
ted by patriotism and a regard for pub
lie welfare.
The speech of General Dix yesterday
was listened to with deep interest, and
was well received. Ho Is a fine speaker,
with a pleasant address, and in listening
to him every ono thought of his patriotic
and distinguished service during the
Senator Doolittle, of Wisconsin, made
a good speech to-day on taking tho chair
as permanent President of tho Conven
tion, ills voice is very powerful, and
ho speaks with much forco of argument.
The audience were pleased to hear him
during the day repeat and apply to this
tlmo Mr. Lincoln's saying, " That peace
had to mo and come to stay," and the
Southern men nppcarcd to endorse this
sentiment as heartily as men of the
The people present In tho enormous
building 1 heard estimated at ten thous
and, nnd many were unable to obtain
admission, and were compelled to go
away or remain outside. The Conven
tion Is tlio great subject of Interest and
conversation in the city, nnd a great
deal of good is expected to result from
It throughout tho country.
This Convention is tho first meeting
of men from all sections of tho country
since tho year 1SG0, and it is a good sign
of the future. Men who havo property
aro not to have it wasted by war, and
general prosperity Is not to bo sacrificed
to soctlonnl passion and hatred.
It is likely that tho Convention will
conclude its business to-morrow, when
resolutions and an address will be re
ported by Senator Cowan of the com
mittee of which he is chairman. They
will bo acceptable to fair and reasonable
men everywhere, and make a platform
upon which all conservative men who
love their country can stand. J. k. u.
The Commissioner of tho Froedmcn'i)
Bureau lias received an elaborate report
from a Special Inspector who was
charged with tho duty of investigating
the reports of destitution received from
Alabama and Georgia. This officer
visited, in the course of ids inspection,
Northern Alabama and Georgia, ami
traveled incog., In order the better to
reach the truth among all classes. After
giving a detailed report in reference to
each county visited, lie says his observa
tions have convinced him that there has
not been a single caso of starvation in
either State ; that the amount of desti
tution lias been largely exaggerated, nnd
so located as to be out of the way of In
vestigation. That although some desti
tution exists, and has existed, it is not
absolute, but consists mainly in confine
ment to some ono or a few articles of
food, of which, in nearly all cases, thero
has been a sufficiency, ami that it had
been ascribablo in great part to tho idle
ness of tlio people ; that tho issuo of
rations, as at present conducted, is pro
ducing great demoralization and idleness
among tho people, and that so long ns It
is continued tho apparent necessity for
it will exist; that tho crops, though
small, aro amply sufficient, with econo-
liiy, to supply the peoplo with the neces
saries of llfo till another crop is liar
Tnu Anglo-American Time, publish
ed in London, has an artlclo upon tho
Memphis riots, which closes with tho
following remarks : " Andrew Johnson
has a gigantic task before him. Few of
us can appreciate tlio enormous diffi
culties with which lie has to contend.
Pew of us can understand the means by
which ho hopes to perform tho solemn
promise lie there made. His measures
may not nppcar to us directly to lead to
such an object, nnd wo must not forget
that tho children of Israel passed to their
promised land through forty years of
suffering in the desert, aud that their
leader was only permitted to get a
gliinpso of tho country which Provi
dence had marked out for his followers.
There aro those who bellevo that tho
President' heart has failed him in the
task; that ho has fallen off from tho
stem resolve required for tho weary
struggle. But wo do not bellevo tills.
Wo beliovo Andrew Johnson to bo a
patrlot-iWlth his heart fixed on tho
grand object of reconstructing tho Union,
of giving to tho South the law, peace,
order, and equal rights of tho North. It
Is no fault of his if slavery has so de
graded a largo section of tho citizens he
rules that nothing but years of patient
legislation and strong government can
elevnto tho lawless peoplo Into tholiich-
est task of a civilized communitythat
of governing Its own passions."
Poim.AXp is now an active placo in
spito of Its desolation. Preparations for
rebuilding aro gotmr on viirornuslv. A
single man is cinployinir nearlvn thous.
and laborers In clearing away rubbish
wiicro lio Is about to rcbu Id. and must
oftiiostreets aro now passable. Thohoat,
However, of tlio flro was so great that n
very few of tho walls left btandlnir aro
safe for use.
South Carolina and Massa
chusetts Arm-in-Arm.
Withdrawal of Mr, Olomont
Fornando Wood and nonry
Doan Withdraw.
cnnnnNTiAi, and ohoanization
Tlio Convention Proves? to
bo u Grand SuooosJsi.
.T. N.
Evkiiy hour of consultation has tend
ed to harmony nnd cordial co-operation
among tho members of tho Convention,
and there is now every prospect that it
will bo a splendid success, unimpaired
by any essential differences of sentiment
or action.
On Monday Fernando Wood and Hen
ry Clay Bean, whoso antecedents made
them especially obnoxious to public
opinion, withdrew their claim to seats
in the Convention, aud Vallandigham
alono remained obstinate. It was tho
universal opinion that his presence
would bo highly injurious and detri
mental, and none Insisted upon his
withdrawing more steadily and earnest
ly than the Southern delegates, nnd the
more considerate and Influential of his
Democratic associates. He insisted per
tinaciously upon his rights. Tho Ohio
delegation discussed tho matter until a
very lato hour, and hadcomo to tho con
clusion, as had nearly every other dele
gation, that ho must and should bo ex
cluded in one way or another from
participation in tho Convention. This
morning ho applied to tho Chair
man of tho delegation of Ohio for a
ticket of admission to the Convention,
and asked if ho was recognized as a del
egate. After a protracted and stormy
discussion on the question, a resolution
was passed to the effect that tho delega
tion recognized Mr. Vallandighnin as
properly elected a member of their body,
but asked him, under tho particular cir
cumstances in which tho country Is now
placed, to refrain from participation in
the Convention. Upon receipt of this
resolution, Vallandigham sent a letter
to the delegation, saying that ho was
glad to know that tho delegation recog
nized his right to sit in tho Convention,
but that lie gladly deferred to the Judg
ment of long-tried friends, and there
fore withdrew from thu delegation, leav
ing his seat to his alternate. This letter
is in the custody of tho Ohio delegation
and will bo read to the Convention on
General John A. I)ix, of New York,,
being designated as temporary Chair
man, came forward and delivered his
pertinent and impressive address. To
say that this address Was enthusiastical
ly received, is to paint but feebly its re
ception. Cheer after cheer interrupted
tho sterling patriot during its delivery,
and when ho sat down, tho whole Con
vention testified their approbation by
tumultuous applause.
Then came a prayer by tho Rev. Mr.
M' Donald, and on Its conclusion General
Steeriman, of Ohio, moved a Committee
of Thirteen on Credentials, but the time
was not yet come for that, and so Sena
tor Doolittlo begged tlio Indulgence of
tho gentleman, and offered Ills resold
tions, which were passed, when the or
ganization was completed by tho np.
pointment of the Secretaries.
Montgomery Blair moved a Commit'
too of ono from each delegation on Per
inanent Organization, and tho Conven
tion adjourned until Wednesday at
twovo o'clock.
It Is understood that tho New York-
delegation selected by the Saratoga Con-
volition is to be admitted into tho Con
vention, to the exclusion of other claim
ants. Hi:roxi day's ruocnnniNas.
Tho temper displayed to-day both bv
tho delegates and the largo assemblage
outside, lining to repletion tho spacious
galleries, was admirable.
The composition of the Committeo on
Besolutions will attract universal atten
tion, embracing, as it docs, so many
names of great weight in tho national
affairs, Since the adjournment tho Com
initteo havo had a protracted meeting,
aim nave thus far encountered noobsta
cles. Four or flvo sets of resolutions
havo been submitted for tho considera
tion of tho Committee, ono of thesi be
ing from tho South nnd presented by tho
.Mississippi delegation, Judge Sharkov
being the author. Tho members of the
Committeo anticipate no difficulty In
coming to an agreement, and believed
they would bo able to present their re
port on Thursday at ten o'clock, to
which timo tlio convention had ad
journed. Tho Chairman announced a telegraph
ic dispatch from President Johnson, and
directed tnoSecretnry to read It.
The announcement was tho signal for
tlio wlioio Convention and the greater
part of tho spectators to rise to their feet
and cheer vehemently for Andrew John
son. After tho applause had subsided
tho dispatch was read as follows :
Waxiii.niuo.v, I). (!., Annus! II, iNifl.
Zli lion. O. , llnienlna anil lion, .(, If. Itumlnll,
KiUiunal Union Omventlon, I'illaiMjMa ;
I Chunk you for your rlieorlnuiiiiil imeoiirnclni.
i!lp.ilili. Tho flngcr of rrovMunro In uucrrliiK,
iiml will eulilo yim saivij- tumuKli, Tlio nuimlo
iuui no inistmi mill tlio i-onntry will lo roMorpil,
My f-iltli U imsU.iki-11 iu to tlio ultlmitln miccvss.
Axniiew Jout.ox,
Hon. O. Jf. Drowning, Washington t
Diiaii Silt, I thank you for sending
mo a copy of the call for tho NntlO ml
Convention, to bo held in Philadelphia
on tho fourteenth day of August next.
In tho present unhappy condition of
our national affairs It seems to mo fit
and important that delegates of tho
peoplo should conio together from all
parts of our country to manifest, In an
authentic and convincing way, tho ad
hesion of their constituents to tlio fund
amental principles of our Government,
and to that policy and courso of action
which necessarily result from them. In
my Judgment tlio propositions contain
ed In tlio call of the Convention aro con
sistent with those principles nnd that
The nature of our Government does
not penult the United States to destroy
a State, or acquire Its territory by con
quest. Neither does It permit the peoplo
of a State to destroy tho State, or lawfully
affect, in any way, any one of its rela
tions to tho United States. Ono Is as
consistent with our Constitution as the
other j while that Constitution remains
operative each Is impossible.
But the Government of tho United
States may, and must, In tho dischargo
of constitutional duty, subdue by arms
any number of its rebellious citizens
into quiet submission to its lawful
authority. And if theofficersof aStato,
having tho actual control of its govern
ment, havo disobeyed tlio requirement
to swear to support the Constitution,
and have abused the power of the State
by making war on tho United States,
this presents tho caso of nn usurping
and unlawful government of a State,
which the United States may rightfully
destroy by forco; for, undoubtedly, thu
provision of the Constitution that " tho
United States shall guaranteo to every
State in this Wiioin Republican form of
government" must mean a Itepublican
form of government in harmony with
the Constitution, and which Is so organ
ized as to bo in this Union.
But neither the power and duty of the
Government of tho United States tosub
due by arms rebellious people in tlio
territorial limits of ono or more States,
nor its power and duty to destroy an
usurping government de facto, can pos
sibly authorlzo tho United States to de
stroy one of tho States of the Union, or,
what must amount to tho same thing,
to acquire that absolute right over its
people and Its territory which results
from conquest in foreign war. There
aro only two alternatives; one is that
in subduing rebellion tho United States
act rightfully within the limits of powers
conferred by tho Constitution ; the other
is that they make war on a part of
their own people because it is the will
of those who control tho Government
for tho time being to do so, and forsueh
objects as they may choose to attain.
The last of these alternatives lias not
been asserted by either department of
tho Government of the United States at
any time, and I doubt if any consider
able number of persons can bo found to
sanction it.
But if the first alternative bo adopted,
It follows that the Constitution which
authorized the war prescribed the ob
jects which can nlono rightfully bo ac
complished by It; and those objectsare,
not tho destruction of ono or moro States,
but their preservation ; not tho destruc
tion of government in a State, but the
restoration of its government to a repub
lican form In harmony with theConstltu
tion ; not the acquisition of the territory
of a State, and of that absolute control
over tho persons and property of its peo
ple which a foreign conqueror would pos
sess, but their submission to tho Consti
tution and laws of tho United States.
Hut It seems to mo a great and funda
mental error to confound tho caso of tho
conquest of a foreign territory aud
peoplo with the caso of submission to n
lawful and established constitutional
government, enforced through the pow
ers conferred on that government for
that specific purpose.
It is quite true that such a civil con
test may have, and In our country has
had, tho proportions of an actual war,
and that humanity and public law unite
in dictating the application of rules de
signed to mitigate Its evils and regulato
the conditions upon which it should be
carried on.
But those rules of public law which
concern the rights aud power of a con
queror of foreign territory, reduced by
conquest to entire submission, havo no
relation to thoactivo prosecution of war.
Ilieir operation begins when war has
ended in submission. Thoy are tho
laws of a State of peace, and not of a
state of war.
'io suppose that tho Government of
tho United States can, in a state of
peace, rightfully hold aud exercise ab
solute and unlimited power over a part
ol its territory aud people just so long
as It may chooso to do so appears to mo
to Do unwarranted by any rules of pub
lie law, abhorrent to right reason, and
i i .i . ...
iiicoiisisieni wiin tno nature of our
"When war has ceased, when tho au
thority of the Constitution and laws of
tlio United States has been restored and
established, tho United States are in
possession, not under iv now title, as con
querors, but under their old title, as
tho lawful government of tho country
and that title has been vindicated, not
by the destruction of ono or more States,
but by their preservation: nnd fliU
preservation can bo worked out practi
cally oniy ny tlio restoration of repub
lican governments organized In har
mony with tho Constitution.
Tho tltlo of a conqueror Is necessarily
Inconsistent with a republican govern
ment, which can bo formed only by tho
peoplo themselves, to express and oxo-
cuto their will.
And If tho preservation of tho States
within tho Union was onoof theoblects
of tho war, and they can bo preserved
only by having republican governments
organized in harmony with tho Const!
tution, and such governments can be
organized only by tho peoplo of thoso
States, then manifestly It Is not only the
right) but the constitutional duty, of
tho peoplo of those States to organlzo
such governments; and tho Govern
ment of tho United States can havo no
rightful authority to prohibit their or
ganisation. But this right and duty of
tho people of the several States can only
begin when war has ceased, and tho
nuthorltyof tlio Constitution nnd laws
of the United States has been restored
and established ; and, frotil tho nature
of tho i'osCi tlio Government of the
United Stales must determine When
that tlmo has come.
It Is a question of great Interest, cer
tainly, but not, I think, of great diffi
culty, how and by whom tho Govern
ment of the United States should deter
mine when that time has come.
Tho question whether dc facto govern
ments and hostile populations hnvo
been completely subdued by nrms, and
tho lawful authority of tho United States
restored and established, Is a military
nnd executive question. It does not re
quire legislative action to ascertain the
necessary facts ; and, from tho nature of
thecase, leglslntlvooctlon cannot change
or materially aifect them. As com-ninnder-iii-clilef
of the army nnd navy,
nnd ns the chief executive officer, whoso
constitutional duty it is to see that tho
laws aro faithfully executed, it Is the
official duty of the President to know
whether a rebellion has been suppress
ed, and whether tho authority of tho
Constitution nnd laws of tho United
States has been completely restored and
firmly established.
Tho mere organization of a republican
government, in harmony with the
Union, by thcpeopleof onoof the exist
ing States of tho United States, requires
no enabling net of Congress, and I can
find no authority in tho Constitution for
any interference by Congress to prohibit
or regulate tho organization of such
government by thcpeopleof an existing
State in tho Union. On the other hand,
It is clearly necessary that the President
should act, so far, at least, as to remove
out of tho way military restrictions on
the power of tlio people to assemble and
do those acts which aro necessary to
reorganize their government. This, I
think, ho was bound to do as soon as he
became satisfied that tho right tlmo had
After much reflection, and witli no
such partiality for executive power as
would bo likely to lead mo astray, I
have formed the opinion that tho South
ern States aro now as rightfully, and
should bo as effectually In the Union ns
they were before the madness of their
people attempted to carry them out of
It; and in this opinion I bellove a ma
jority of the people of tho Northern
States agree.
Tho work tho peoplo aro wal tl ng to have
done this Convention may greatly help.
If it will elevate itself nbovo sectional
passions, ignore all party schemes, de-
spiso tho sordid nnd party scramble for
offices, and fairly represent tho national
instinct that the timo now is when com
plete union of all the States is a fact
which it is a crime not to accomplish,
Its action cannot fail to bo beneficial to
our country.
The passions generated in a great and
divided people by long and bloody civil
war are deepand formidable. They are
not confined to one section ; tho victors
as well as tho vanquished aro swayed
by them. Thoy connect themselves
with tho purest and tenderest sensibili
ties of our nature; with our love of
country; with our love of thoo who
have laid down their lives in tho con
test; with the sufferings which war, in
multiplied forms, nlways brings to tho
homes of men, and still more to tho
homes of women, and which civil war,
most of all, brings to the homes of all ;
and theso passions aro tho sharp and
ready tools or party spirit, of self-interest,
of 1'EiivniiHiTY, and, most of all.
of that fierce Infatuation which finds its
best satisfaction in hatred, and Its only
enjoyment in revenge.
No statesman who is acquainted with
the nature of man nnd the necessities of
civil government can contemplnto such
passions without tho deepest concern,
or fail to do what ho fitly may to allay
them. Hard enough tho work will
prove to be, at the best. But n scrupu
lous regard for tho rights of all aud a
magnaulnious clemency nro twlco bless
ed; they both elevate and soften the
powerful, nnd they reach and subduo
what laws and bayonets cannot control.
I bellevo there is now a general con
viction among tlio people that this great
and difficult work is practicable. That
It will long remain so, if tho present
stato of things eon tiuues, I havo not the
hardihood to trust. I look to this Con
vention with hopo that It will do much
to help onward this Instinctive desire of
tho peoplo of tho United States for union
and harmony and peaco; that it will
assert, strongly aud clearly, thoso prin
ciples which are tho foundations of our
Government; that it will exhibit tho
connection between their violation and
tho present distracted condition of our
country ; that it will rebuke the violence
or party spirit, and (specially of that
spirit of hatred which Is as Inconsistent
with tho truolovo our country as It is
with tho truolovo of our brethren; and
that it will do much to eonvlnco the
peoplo of tho United States that thov
must act soon, and in tho wisest way. or
siiiiuruviis wmcn tneyand their pos
terity will long deplore.
"With great respect, I am your obedient
servnnt, b. , Cuuns
Tin: recent general order Issued by
i I-. . . . .
uuni-nii urum, requiring department
commanders to forward copies of such
now-spapcrs within their respective com-
mauds as contained sentiments or rife.
loyalty nnd hostility to tho Government
In any of Its branches, with a view to
their suppression, has been revoked.
unxint.u, Hi'iNxini. United States
Treasurer, lias decided that tho only
protection to tho owner against tho pay.
incut of u bond or heven-thirtv nntn
that may havo been stolen Is by enter
ing a caveat at tho olllco of tho Secre
tary of tho Treasury.
Sinch my dispatch of a few days ago,
the programme for tho Presidential trip
to Chicago has been altered by omitting
Saratoga from the list of stopping placesi
The railroad tlnie-tablo for tho trill iw
now arranged takes the party from tllli
city In the half-past soven morning tritln
on Tuesday, August twenty-eighth, at
riving at Philadelphia at half past ono
o'clock r.M. Tho party remain In that
city until eight o'clock tho nextmorii'
tug, Wednesday, when they leave for
New York, arriving at tho latter placo
at noon Thursday, August thirteenth.
Leave New York via Hudson BlVef
steamer In tho morning, and nrrlvo at
Albany in tho evening. Friday, August
thlrty-Ilrst, leave Albany in tho morn
ing for Auburn r Schenectady, Utlca,
and Syracuse. Saturday, September
first, leave Auburn for Niagara Falls via
Geiieva,Canandnigiia, Rochester) Broek
port, Albion, and Lockport, Remain at
Niagara Falls Sunday, and lcavo there
Monday morning, September third, M
Bull'alo, where they halt for three houtrtj
and then proceed to Cleveland via Krio
and Dunkirk, arrlvlngatClcs'eland In tho
evening. Tuesday, September fourth,
lcavo Cleveland in tho morning for
Detroit ri'ri Toledo and Monroevllle,
stopping threchoursat Toledo. Wednes
day, September fifth, leave Detroit W
Ami Harbor, Jackson, Marshall, Kala
mazoo, aud Michigan City, and arriving
at Chicago at about eight o'clock in tlio
evening. Mr. Seward Is tho only mem
ber of tho Cabinet that has positively
arranged to nceompauy tho President ;
but there Is a probability that Postmaster-General
llandall and Secretary
M'Culloch may bo or tho company. Tho
magnificent passenger car built rorIr.
Lincoln Is to convey tho Presidential
party through the trip. How long Mr.
Johnson will remain in Chicago is not
determined, but not over two days prob
ably. Ho has been urged to visit Madi
son, Wisconsin, after he gets through at
Chicago, and he will no doubt accept tho
invitation. Returning to Washington,
it is understood, tho President will conio
via luritnnopolis, Cincinnati, Columbus,
and Pittsburg. It Is also understood
that on the trip from New York to
Albany the party will stop ot West
Point, where there will be a military re
view and u collation served up. General
M'Callum, who formerly had charge of
the military railroads, Is to 'have tho
conduct ot the transportation, and H. A.
Chadwlck, Esq., or Willard's Hotel, Is
to take charge or the provisioning and
quartering or the party along the route.
Tho ladies or the White Houso and or
Mr. Seward's family aro to bo of tho
Official information was received at
the State Department on Inst Saturday
of the Inauguration of the State Govern
ment or Texas.
Kx - Postmaster - General Dcnnison'B
letter to certain citizens ot Albany, in
defence of Congress, occasions surprise
here among those who had conversations
with Mr. Dcnnlson just prior to his
withdrawal from the Cabinet. His ex
traordinary revolution in opinion and
estimate of the President's policy as ex
pressed In his letter, are difficult to rec
oncile with his verbal expressions of po
litical opinion. We get tho news from
Ohio that Mr. Dcnnlson Is an opponent
of Mr. Wade for tho position orSenator
from that State at the expiration of tho
present term of Mr. Wade.
A new navy register has just been Is
sued containing the various promotions
which have occurred through tho action
or Congress and otherwise sinco tho be
ginning of the present year.
General Spinner, United States Treas
urer, has decided that the only protec
tion to tho owner against the payment
of a bond or seven-thirty note that may
havo been stolen is by entering a caveat
at the office of tho Secretary or tho Treas
ury. Coupons are as negotiable at all
times as a bank note, and will bo paid In
tho hands or a third party and bona fidn
holders, even in tho case where it Is
known that they have been stolen.
The General Land Olllco has issued
iirtcen patents for California Ranches,
being private land claims, varying from
eight to twenty-seven thousand acres.
By an act of Mexico grants of land were
given to settlers In her uninhabited
counties as largo ns they choso to an-
piy mr. rsuusequentiy, in Wl, theso
grants were restricted to twenty-four
and forty-eight thousand acres. Tlio
ceding of California, New Mexico, and
Texas to tho United States transferred
these patents to our Government; but
by act of Congress In 18'S no ono paten
tee was allowed to hold moro than
forty-eight thousand acres, that being
Intended by the act of Mexico (if lRiM.
The largest ranclio deeded by tho United
States Is that or General John A. Slitters,
tho discoverer and informer of Califo ruin
gold. Ho has forty-elght thousand
eight hundred and thlrty-nlno acres at
New Helvetia, California. Snmn nf !.
largest claims which aro now being
acted upon In tho Umd Olllco aro
M. R. A. Do Poll, San Buenaventura,
California, for ono hundred and forty
four thousand eight hundred und sev
enty and twenty-four ono huiidrcth
acres. M. Tourl, New Mexico, ouo hun
dred and twenty-ono thousand and flvo
hundred nnd ninety-four nud fifty-three
onejhundreth acres ;Siml,CallforiiIn,ono
hundred and thirteen thousnnd and nlno
and twenty-ono ono hundredth acres;
Jacoba Feliz, San Francisco, California,
ono hundred and two thousand and
twonty-nvo nnd tweuty-Uvo ono hun
dredth acres, v
All donation claims on Washington
Territory reported for patent havo been
granted, excepting a few which nro sus
pended for causes pointed out by tho
Register nnd Receiver at the local hind
olllcw. Those arc, however, in courso
of correction. A similar reportis mario
for Oregon, AVhat cases nro now mnnrl.
ed from Oregon City and Roseburg are
now being arranged.
Gii.vkhal OllANT has been Invited fo
deliver tho address at tho AVfsmnsln
Stato Fair, in Jauesvllle, In September.