Bedford inquirer. (Bedford, Pa.) 1857-1884, December 03, 1869, Supplement, Image 5

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    President's Message.
Washi.votos, Dec. <5, 1863.
At one o'clock and six miautea a joint, consisting of Me.-srs. Wilson
and Thiirman, on the part oTtlj Senate,
and Messrs. Scbenck, Dan es and Wood
ward, on tbe part of the Bouse, waited
upon the President to know ir be had
anything to communicate to the Houses
of Congress.
In response tbe President sent the fol
lowing message:
To the and House of Represent
alives—Gentlemen: In coming before
you for tbe first time as cbier magistrate
of this great nation, it is with gratitude
to tbe Giver of all Good for the many
benefits we enjoy. We are blessed with
peace at home and are without entan
gling alliances abroad to forebode trou
ble. With a lerritory unsurpassed tn fer
tility, of an area equal 10 the abun
dant support of five hundred million
of people, and ahonnding In every
variety of ustful minerals, In quantity
sufficient to supply the world lor gene
rations; with exuberant crops; with a
variety of climate adapted to the produc
tion of every species of earth's riches
and suited to the habits, tastes and re
quirements of everv living tiling; with
it population of 40,000.000 01 free people,
all speakmg one language; with facili
ties for every mortal to acquire an edu
cation; with* institution*, closing to none
the avenues to lame or any blessing of
fortune (bat may be coveted; with Iree
dom of the puiplt and press and schools:
with a revenue flowing into the
national treasury beyond the require
ments of government; happily, order is
being rapidly restored within our own
borders." Manufactures hitherto un
known wiibin our country are springing
up in alt directions, producing a degree
of national independence unequalled by
tbst of any other power. These bless
ings, and countless others, are submit
ted to your care and mine, u.ore for safe
keeping for the brief period or our ten
ore of office. In a short time we must
each of uh return to the ranks of the
people who have conferred upon us oar
honors, and account to them fir oar
ttrv. ardsbip. I earnestly desire that
neither you nor I may becondenmed oy
a free and enlightened constituency, nor
by our consciences.
"Emerging iroui a rebellion of gig-antic
magnitude, aided as it was by tbe sym
pathy and assistance of nations with
which we were at peace, eleven states ot
the Union were, four years ago, left
without legal state governments. A na
tional debt had been contracted; Ameri
can commerce was almost driven from
the seas; the industry of tbe country had
been taken from tbe'conrrol of the capi
talists und placed where all labor right
fully belongs, in the keeping of the la
borer. The work ot restoring state gov
ernments loyal to the Union, of protect
ing and fostering free labor aad pro
viding means lor paying the interest on
the public debt, baa received ample at
tention from Congress. Although your
cflorta have not met with the success, in
aii particulars, that might have been de
sired, yet on the whole they have beeD
more successful than could have been
reasonably anticipated.
Seven St aus which had passed ordi
nances o secession bajre been fully re
stored to their places in the Union. The
eighth Georgia, held an election at
which she ratified ber constitution, re
publican in form, elected a Governor,
members of Congress, a State legislature
and all other officers required. The
Governor was duly installed and tbe
legislature met and performed ail the
acts then required of them by the recon ■
struction acts of Congress. Subse
ouenlly, however, in violation of the
Constitution which they had just ratified
—as since decided by the Supreme Court
of the State—tbey unseated the colored
members of tbe legislature, and admit
ted to seats some members who are
disqualified by tbe third clause of tbe
fourteenth amendment to the Constitu
tion, an article wbicli they themselves
hud contributed to ratify. Under these
circumstance I would submit to you
whether it would not be well, without
delay, to*enact a law authorizing the
Governor of Georgia to convene the
members originally elected to tbe Legis
lature, requiring each to take the oath
pioseuted by tbe reconstruction acts,
arid none to be admitted who aie inel
llgible under tbe third clause of the
fourteenth amendment.
Tbe freedmen r under the protection
which they have received, ara making
rapid progress in learning, and no com
plaints are beard of lack of industry on
their part, where they receive fair re
muneration for their labor.
The means provided for paying the
interest on the pubilo debt, with all
other expenses of the government, are
more than ample.
The loss of our ocmmerce is the only
result of the late rebellion which has
not received sufficient attention from
> ou. To this subject I call your earnest
attention. I will uot now suggest plans
by which this object may be effected,
but will, if necessary, make it the sub
ject of a special message during the ses
At the March term, Congress, by joint
resolution, authorized the executive to
order elections lu tbe Slate of Virginia, !
Mississippi and Texas, to submit to
thein the constitutions which bad previ
ously been in convention formed, and
submit the constitutions, either entire or
in sepai ale parts, to be voted upon at the
discretion or the Executive. Coder this
authority elec ions were called in Vir
ginia. The election took place ou the of 3 uly, 1660. The Governor and
Lieutenant Governor elected have been
installed, tbe Legislature met and did
nil required by this resolution, aud by
all the reconstruction acts of Congress,
aud abstained from all doubtful author
ity. I recommend that the Senators
and Representatives be promptly ad
mitted to their seals —that the State
be fully restored to Its place in
the family of states. Elections were
called lu Mississippi and Texas, to com
mence on tbe 30th of November, 1869, J
and to last two days la Mississippi aud '
four days in Texas. Tbe elections have j
taken place, bat tbe result Is not known. j
It is to be hoped that the acts f the leg- 1
ialalures of thesa states, when tbey meet,
, will tie such us to meet your approval,
and thus close the work of reoonauac
Among tbe evils growing out of the
rebellion, and not yet referred to, is that
of an irredeemable currency. It mau
evil which I hgpe will receive yuuriu' St
> earnest atieutinn. It is a duty, un-i wife
of tbe highest dutiesof government Jo se
cure to the citizen a medium of exchatige
of fixed unvarying value. This implies
a return to a specie basis, and no substi
tute for it can be devised. It should be
commenced now, and reached at tbe ear
liest practieab'c moment, consistent will
a fair regard to the interest of the debtor
class. Immediate resumption, 1f practi
cable, would not be desir.b'e. It we old
compel tbe debtor class to pay beyond
tbelr contracts, the premium on gold at
tbe date of their purchase, and would
bring bankruptcy aud ruin to thousands.
Fluctuations, however, in tbe paper vnl
ue of the measure of all values,
goldt" Is detrimental to the inter
ests of trade. It makes the
man of business an involuntary gam
blur, for In all sales where future pay
ment U to he made parties speculate as
to what will be the value ef the uurrenay
to be paid, and received. 1 earnestly
recommend to you, then, such legisla
tion iis will insure a gradual return to
specie payments and put an Immediate
stop to fluctuation in the value of cur
rency. Tue methods to secure the
former ot these results are as numerous
as are the speculations on political erxin
oanj. To secure the latter I see but one
way, and that is to authorise lh trees
ury to redeem its own paper at a fixed
price whenever presented, and to with
hold from circulation all currency so re
deemed until sold again for gold."
The vast resources of the nation, both
developed and undeveloped, onyht to
make our credit the best on earth. With
a less burden of taxation than tbe ciit
z-n has endured for six years past, the
entire public debt could be paid in >eas
than ten years; but it is uot desirable
that the people should be taxed to pay it
in that time. Year by year tbe nbiliiy
to pay increases In a rapid ratio, but
tbe bnrdeu of interest ought to be
reduced as rapidly as can be done with
out the violation of contract. Toe pub
lic debt is represented iD great part by
bonds, having from five to twenty and
from ion to forty years to run, bearing
interest at tbe rate of six per cent, and
five per cent, respectively. It is optional
with the government to pay these binds
at any period after tbe expiration of tbe
least tur.e mentioned upon their face
the lime has already expired when a
great part of them may be taken, and is
rapidly approaching when ail may be.
It is believed that all which are now
due, may be replaced by thus* bearing
a rate of interest not exceeding four and
one-half per <-ent-, and as rapidly as tbe
remainder become due, that they may
be repluced in the same way. To ac
complish this It may be necessary to au
thorize the interest to be paid at either
of the three or four of the money centres
of Eurspe.orby any Assistant 'treasurer
of the United States, at the option of me
holder of the bond. I suggest ibis subject
tor the consideration of Congress,and also
simultaneously wib this, the propriety
of the redeeming of our curency, as be
fore suggested, at Its market value, at
tbe time the law goes Into effect, increas
ing the rate at which currency will be
bought and sold, from day to day, or
week to week, at the same rate of inter
eat as tbe government pays upon its
3hs fu'Jectof tariff and! nlernal taxa
tion will necessarily receive your atten
tion, The revenues of the country .ire
greater than the requirements, and may
with s-ulety be reduced; but as the fund
ing of the debt in a four or four and a
half per cent, loan would reduce the an
nual current expenses largely, thus af
ter funding justifying a greater reduc
tion of taxation than would be now ex
pedient, it may be advisable to modify
taxation and the tariff in instances where
unjust or burdensome discriminations
ar made by tbe present laws regulating
this subject. I recommend tbe postpone
ment ot It for the present.
I also suggest the renewal of the tax
on incomes, bnt a reduced rate, say
three per cent., aud Ibis tax 'o expire in
three years. By the funding of the nation
al debt, as here suggested, I feel safe in
tayicg that taxes and the revenue from
imports may be reduced safely from
sixty to eighty millions per annum at
once, and may be still further reduced,
from year to year, as the resources of tbe
country are developed.
The report of the Secretary of the
Treasury shows the receipts of" the gov
ernment for the fiscal years ending Jane
30, 1869, to be $370,943,717, and the expen
ditures, Inclnunig interest, bounties, Ac.,
to be $321,490,097. The estimates for tbe
ensuing year are more favorable to the
government, and will no doubt show a
much larger decrease of the public debt.
Tbe receipts in the treasury, beyond ex
pectations, have exceeded "the V. mounts
necessary to place the credit of the sink
ing fund bs provided by law. To lock up
tbusorplusin tbe treasury aud withhold
it from circulation would lead to such a
contraction of the currency as to cripple
trade and seriously affect the prosperity
cf the conniry. Under these circum
stances tbe Secretary of the Treasury
j and myself heartily concurred in tbe
propriety of usiog all tbe surplus cur
rency in the treasury In the purchase of
government bonds," thus reducing the
interest bearing debt of tbe country,
and of submitting to Congress the ques
tion of tbe disposition to be made of tbe
bonds so purchased. The bonds now
heid by the- treasury amount to about
seventy-five million dollars, including
those belonging to tbe sinking fund, and
I recommend that the whole be placed
to the credit of tbe sinking fund.
Your attention is respectfully invited
to tbe recommendations of tbe Secretary
of the Treasury for the creation of the
office of Commissioner of Customs Reve
nue, for tbe increase of salary to a cer
tain cl ss of officials, and tbe substitu
tion ofinereased National bank circula
tion to replace the outstmding three per
| cent, certificates, and most especially to
i bis recommendation for the repeal of
I laws allowing shares of fines, penalties
! and forfeit a res to officers of the govern
; meat or to informers.
, The office of Commissioner of Internal
, Revenue la one of the most arduous arid
. responsible under the Government. It
falls but ii.iiu.if any, short of cabinet
0 position in its importance and rcspousi
-1 bilities. I would ask, therefore,for fcuoh
j legislation as in your judgment wij!
t place the office on a footing of dignity
s commensurate with its importance arid
-• qualifications of the elate of men re
• quired to fill if properly.
As the United States" Is the first of all
- nations, so, ton, tbe people sympatbix"
? wrh all people trruggllrsg for liberty
and self-government. Kilt while symp -
i thlziog, it is due to our honor that 'we
r should abstain from enforcingnitr views
- • upon unwilling nation*, and from ink
-1 lag an interested part without an invi-
I tation. In the quarrels between'different
t nations, or between governments and
I their subjects, onr course should always
be in conformity with strict justice and
law, international and local. Bach has
, been the policy or the administration in
dealing with these questions.
For more than a year a valuable prov
ince ot Spain, and a aetr neighbor of
ours, iu whom ail our people eaunoi but
feel a deep interest, has teen struggling
lor independence and freedom. The
people aud government of the United
States entertain tbe same warm feelings
ami sympathies lor the people of Cuba
iu their pending struggle,that tbey uina
iksittl throughout the previous struggle
between Spain ami her former oolouies
iu beoalf of the latter. But tbe con
test iias at r.o time assumed tbe
conditions which amount to a war
iu the sense of international law, or
which would show tbe existence of a de
facto political organization of the iusur
geuts sufficient to justify a recognition
of Tne principle is main
tained, uowever, that this nation is its
own judge when to accord the rights of
belligerency, either to a people strug
gling to free themselves front a govern
ment they believe to be oppressive, or
to independent nations at vrar with each
The United States have no disposition
to interfere with the existing relations
of Spain to her colonial pos-easiona on
ibis contineuL They lielievethat indue
time Spain and other European powers
will find their interest in terminating
those relations and establishing their
present dependencies us iodei endeut
powers, members cf the family of na
tions. The dependencies are no longer
regarded as subject to transfer from one
European power to another. When the
present relution of colonies ceases they
are to become independent powers, ex
ercising the right of choice and of self
control iu the determination of their fu
ture condition and relations with other
The United Slates, iu order to cut a
stop to bloodshed in Cuba, aud iu the in
lerest of a neighboring people, proffered
their good offices to bring the existing
contest to a termination, the offer not
being accepted by Spain, on a basis
which we believed could be received by
Cuba, was withdrawn. It is hoped that
tbe good offices of ihe United States may
yet prove advantageous to the settlement
ot this uuhappy strife. Meanwhile a
number of illegal expeditious against
Cuba have been broken up. It has bean
tbe endeavor of tbe administration to
execute tbe neutrality laws iu good faltb,
no matter bow unpleasant the task—
made so from tbe suffering we have en
dured from lack of like good faith to
wards us by other nations.
On tbe 26th of March last the United
States schooner Lizzie Major was ar
rested ou the high seas by a Spanish
frigate, and two passengers were taken
f rom it and carried as prisoners to Cub*.
Representations of these facts were made
to tbe Spanish government as soon as
sufficient information of them reached
Washington. Tbe two passengers were
set at liberty and the Spanish govern
ment assured the United States that the
capatiti in making the capture bad acted
without orders, that be had been repri
manded for the irregularity of his con
duct, and that the Spanish authori
ties in Cuba would not sanction any
act that could violate the rights or
treat with disrespect tbe sovereignty of
this nation. The question of the seizure
of tbe brig, Mary Lowell, at one of the
Bahama islands, by Spanish authorities,
is now tbe subject of correspondence be- ;
tween this government and those of,
Spain and Great Britain. The cantalo i
genernl or Cuba, about May last, issued ,
a proclamation authorizing search to j
be made of vessels on the high seas. Im
medlate remonstrance was made against
this, wberenpon the captain general
issued a new proclamation limiting the
right of search to vessels of the United
States, so fnr as authorized under the
treaty of 1793. This proclamation, how
ever, was immediately withdrawn.
I have always felt that tbe most inti
mate relations should be cultivated be
tween the republic of tbe United .States
and all independent nations on this con
tinent It may lie well worth consider
ing whether Dew treaties between the
United Stales and them may not be
profitably entered into to secure more
intimate relatione, friendly, commercia
and otherwise.
As the subject of an oceanic canal to
connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans
through tbe isthmus of Darien is one in
which commerce Is greatly interested,
instructions have been given toour mln- ,
ister to tbe republic of the United States
of Colombia to endeavor to obtain au
thority for a survey by the government,
in order to determino the practicability
of such an undertaking and a charter for
the right of way to private enterprise for
such a work, if the survey proves to bs
In order to com ply with tbe agreement
of the United States as to a mixed com
mission at Lima far the adjustment of
claims, it became necessary to appoint
m commissioner and a secretary to Lima
in August last. No appropriation hav
ing been made by congress for this pur
pose, it is now asked that one be made
covering the past and future expenses of
the committee.
Tbe good offices of the United States
to bring about a peace between Spain
and the South American republics with
which she is at warf having t>een ac
cepted by Spain, Peru and Chili, a con
gress has been invited to be held in
I Washington during the preaent winter.
1 A grant has be. n given to Europeans
! Of au xc'usive right of transit over the
territory of Nicaragua, to which Costa
Rica has given Its assent, wbieb, it la
alleged, couflict* with vested rights of
citizens of the United States. The De
partment of State lias now this subject
Under consideration.
The Minister of Peril having made
representations that there was a state of
war between Pera and Spain, and that
Spain was constructing, in and near
New Vork, thirty gon boats which might
be nsod by Spain in such away aa to
relieve the naval force of Cuba,
so as to operate against Pern,
orders were given to prevent their de
parture. No farther steps having been
taken by the representative of the Pern
vian government, to prevent the depart
ure or these vessels, and 1 not feeling
Hirthorizcd to detain the property ef a
nation with which we are at peace, on a
mere executive order, the matter has
been referred to the courts to decide.
The conduct of the war between the
Allies and the Republic of Paraguay ham
made the intercourse with tkat country
so difficult that it has been deemed ad
visable to withdraw our representatives
from there.
Towards the close of the last adminis
tration H convention was signed at Don
don for the settlement of all c>ut-lauding
claims between Client Britain and the
United States, which failed to receive
the advice and consent of the senate to
its ratification. The lime imd circum
stances intending the negotiation of the
treaty were invnrable to its acceptance by
the people of the United Hiatee, but
its provisions were wholly inadequate
for the settlement of the grave wrongs
that bad been sustained by (his govern
ment, as well aa by its citizens. Ihe in
juries resulting to" ihe United States by
reason of the course adopted by Great
Britain during onr late civil war, in
the increased rules of insurance,
iu the diminution of exports and
imports and other obstructions
to domestic industry and production, in
its effects upon the foreign commerce
of the country, in the decrease and
tnansfer tu Great Britain of our commer
cial marine, in the prolongation of the
war and (he increased coat both in trea
sure and in the lives of its suppressors,
could not bo adjusted and satisfied
as ordinary commercial claims
which continually arise between com
mercial nations; and yet the convention
treated them simply'as such ordinary
claims, from which tbey differ more
widely in the gravity of their churacter
than in the magnitude of their amount.
Great as is tl at difference, not a word
was found in the treaty, and not an in
ference could be drawn from it to
remove the sense of the unfriendliness
of tbccoursecf Great Britain in our
struggle for existence, which had so
deeply and universally impressed itself
upou the people of this country. Be
lieving that a convention thus miscon
ceived in its scope, and inadequate in
its provisions, would not have produced
the hearty, cordial settlement of the
pending questions which alone is consis
tent with the relations which I desire
to have established between the United
States and Great Britain, 1 recognized
the action of the Hrur.te in rejecting the
treaty to have been wiaeiy taken in the
interest of peace and as a necessary step
in the direction of a perfect and cordial
friendship between the two countries. A
sensitive people, conscious of their pow
er, are more ut ease under a
great wrong, wholly unatoned,
than under the restraint of a set
tlement which satisfies neither their ideas
of justice nor their grave sense of
the grievance they have sustained. The
rejection of the treaty was to!lowed by a
state of public opinion on both sides
which I thought not favorable to au
Immediate attempt at renewed ne
gotiation I accordingly so instruct
ed the minister of the United States
iu Great Britain, and found that my
views in Ibis regard were shared by
Her Majesty's ministers. I hope
that the time may soon arrive when
the two governments can approach
the solution of this momentous question
with an appreciation of what is due to
the rights, uigDitr and honor of each,
and with the determination not ODly to
i remove the causes of complaint in the
| past, but to lay the foundation of a broad
i principle of public law which will pre
i vent future differences, and tend to firm
: and continued peace and friendship'.
I This is now the only grave question
: which the United States has with any
foreign nation.
'1 be question of renewing a treaty for
reciprocal trade between the United
States and the British Provinces on this
continent, has cot been favorably con
sidered by the administration. Tue ad
vantages of such a treaty wonld be whol
ly in favor of the British Provenoes, ex
cept possibly a few engaged in tbe trade
between ihe two sections. No citizen of
tbe Untied'Siaten would be benefited by
reciprocity. Our internal taxation would
prove a protection to the British produ
cer, almost equal to the protection which
our manufacturers now receive front the
tariff. Some arrangements, however,
for tbe regulation of comtneroial inter
course between the United States and
the Dominion of Canada may be desir
Tbe commission for adjusting tbe '
. claims of the Hudson Bay and Puget's
Sound agricultural oompany upou tbe i
United Slates has terminated iu labors.
The award ef six hundred and fifty
thousand dollars has been made, ana
all right and titles of tbe oompany on
ihe territory of tbe United Slates have
been extinguished, and deeds for the
property of the company have been de
livered. An appropriation by Congress
to meet this sum is asked.
The commissioners for determining
the northwestern land boundary be
tween the United Slates and the British
possessions, under the treaty of 1856,
have completed their labors, and the
commission has been dissolved.
In conformity with the recommenda
tion of Congress, a proposition was early
made to the British government to abol
ish the mixed courts created under tbe
treaty of April 7ih, 1808, for the suppres
sion of slave traders. Tbe subject lastill
under negotiation.
It having come to my knowledge that
a corporate company, organized tinder
British laws, propose to land upon tin
shores of tbe United States and opernte
tbere a Hub-marine cable under • con
cession from his Majesty the Sinperor
' of the French, of un exclusive right for
twensy years f telegraphic communica
tion between the shores of France and
the United States, with lite very objee
lions tile feature of snhjectingail message
conveyed thereby to the scrutiny and con
trol of the French government, 1 caused
the French and British legations ui
Washington to be made acquainted
with the probable policy of Con
gress on tbe subject, as foreshadowed
by tbe bill which passed the Henate in
March last. This drew Irom the repre
aentatives of ihe company an agree
ment to accept, as the basis of their ope
ration*, the provisions of that bill
or of such other enactments on th
subject as might be passed during
the approaching session of Cougres>;
also to use their influence to secure from
the French government a modification
of their concession, so its to permit tip
landing of any cable belonging to any
company incorporated by tbe authority
of tbe United Slates or any state of the
union, and on their pert not to oppoie
the establishment of any such cable. In
consideration of this agreement 1 di
rected the withdrawal of all opposition
by the United states to the landing oi
the cable, and to the working of it, UDtil
tbe meeting of Congress. I regret to say
that there has been no modification made
in tbe company'a concession, nor so far
as 1 can learn, have they at
tempted to secure one. 'I heir
concession excludes the capital and
the citizens of the United States froni
competition un the shores of France. 1
recommend legislation to protect the
rights of citizens of the United States, a
well as the dignity and sovereignty o
tbe nation against such an assumption
I shall endeavor to secure by negotiation
an abandonment of the principle of mo
nopolies in ocean telegraph cables.
Copies of correspondence are herewith
The unsettled political condition of
other countries less fortunate than oui
own, sometimes indnoes their citizens to
come to the United States for tbe pur
pose of being naturalized. Having se
cured this they return to their nativt
country and reside there without dis
closing this change of allegiance They
accept official positions of trust or honor,
which can only he held bv citizens O'
their native laud. They journey under
passports describing them as such
citizens, and it is only whtm
civil disoord, after years, per
haps, of quiet, threatens their
persons or their property, or when their
native Riate drafts them into military
service, ibst the fact of their change ot
allegiance is made known. They reside
permanently from the United States;
they contribute nothing to lu resources:
they avoid the duties of its citizenship,
ana they only make themselves known
by a claim of protection. I have directed
the diplomatic and .consular offices ol
the United States to scrutinize carefully
all such claims of protection. The citi
zen oi the United '-tales, whether native
or adopted, 1 entitled to its complete
protection. While I have a voice In the
direction of affairs I shall not consent to
imperil the sacred right by conferring ii
upon fictitious or fraudulent claimants.
On the accession of the present admin
istrati-n 't was fonnd that the minister
for North Germany had made proposi
tions for the negotiation of a c invention
for the protection of emigrant passen
gers, to which no response had been
given. It was eoneluded that to beef
factual all the maritime powers engaged
lu the trade should Join lu such a meus
ure. Invitations have been extended to
the cabinets of London, Paris, Florence
Berlin, Brussels, the Hague, C >penhagen
and Stockholm, to empower three repre
sentatives at Washington to simultsne
ously enter into negotiations, and to
conclude with the United mates oonven
tions, Identical in form, making uniform
regulations as to the construction of tbe
parts of vessels to be devoted to the use
of emigrant passengers ; as to thequnlity
and quantity of food ; as to the medical
treatment of the sick, and aa to the rnle
to be observed during the voyage, in or
der to secure ventilation, to promote
health to prevent intrusion, and to pro
tect the females, and providing for the
establishment of tribunals in tbosevera
conntrieß, for enforcing such regulations
by summoning process.
Your attention is respectfully called to
tbe law regulating tbe tariff on Russian
hemp, and to tbe question whether to fix
the charges on Russian hemp higher
than they are fixed upon manilla is uoi
a violation of your treaty with Russia,
placing her products upon Ihe same
fooling with those of the most favored
Our manufactures are increasing with
wonderful rapidity nndertheencourage
ment which they now receive, with the
improvememsln machinery already ef
fected and still increasing, causing ma
cbinery to take the place of skilled labor.
To a large extent our imports of many
articles must fall off largely within a few
years. Fortunately, too, manufactures
are not confined to a few localities as for
merly, and it is to be hoped, will become
more'and more diffused, making the n
terest in their success eqnal in all sect ions
They give em ploy mi nt and support to
hundreds of thousands of people at lmm>>
and retain with us the means which
otherwise would be shipped abroad.
The extension of railroads in Europe
and tbe east isbriuging Into eotnpetition
with our agricnltnral products like pro
ducts of other countries. Self interest,
if not self preservation, therefore, dic
tates cantion against disturbing any in
dnstrisl interest of the country. It
teaches us also the necessity of lookiog
to other markets for the sale of onr sur
plus. Our neighbors south of us and
China and Japan abonld receive our
apeclal attention. It will be the en
deavor of the administration to cultivate
such relations with these nations as to
entitle ns to their confidence and make it
their Interest, as well as ours, to estab
llsh better commercial relations.
Through the agency of a more en
lightened policy than that heretofore
pursued towards China—largely due to
the sagacity and efforts of our own dis
tinguished citizens—the world is about
to commence largely increased relations
with thn! populous and hitherto exeiu
lve nattou. As the United R'ates have
been the initiators in the new policy, so
they should be the most earnest in show
ing tbtir good faith In making It a suc
Ju this connection I advise snch leg s
iatiOD as will forever preclude tbe en
slavement of the Chinese upon our soil,
under (he rta-.-e of coolies, aud also pre
vent American vessels from engaging in
i tie traijajxirt (lion of coolies to any
oonntry tolerating the system. I also
recommend tbut the mission of China be
raised to one of first-class.
Upon my assuming the responsibilities
of chief magistrate of the United Rtates,
it was with the conviction that three
things were essential to its peace, pros
perity and fullest development. First
among these is strict integrity in ful
filling all our obligations ; second, to se
cure protection to tfie person ai d proper
ly of the citizen of the Uuited States is
earh and every portion of our common
country wherever he may choose to
move, without refetenoe to original na
tionality, religion, color or politics, de
manding of him only obedience to the
laws aud proper respect for the rights of
others; third, union of ill the states,
wilb equal rights indestructible by any
constitutional means. To secure the
first of these Congress has taken two
essential steps:
First. In declaring, by Joint resolu
tion, that the public debt'should be paid,
principal and interest, in coin; and sec
ond, by providing the means for paying.
Providing the means, however, could
not secure tbe object desired without a
proper administration of the laws for
the collection o! the revenues and an eco
nomical disbursement of ihein. To this
subject the administration has most
earnestly addressed Itself, with results, 1
believe, satifactory to the country.
There baa been no hesitation in chang
ing officials in order to secure an ein
cieul execution of the iuws. Sometimes,
too (where in a mere party view unde
sirable political results were likely to
follow from any hesitation in sustaining
efficient officials), against remonstrances
wholly political.
It may be well to mention here tbe em
barrassments possible to arise from leav
lug on 'he statute book, the so called
tenure of office act, and to earnestly re
commeud its total repeal. It could not
nave been the Intention of the frauiers of
the constitution when providing that ap
pointments by the president sliou d re
quire tbe conseut of the senate, that the
iatier should have the power to retain in
office, persons placed there by Fed
eral appointment against the will
of tho president. The law is in
consistent with faithful aud
efficient administration of the govern
ment. What faith can au executive have
in officials forced upon him, and in those
whom he has auspen ed for reason ?
How will such officials he likely to serve
an administration which they koow does
out trust them ? For the second requi
site to our growth aud prosperity, tirno
andafirmaod mosLbumane administra
tion of existing laws, amended from
date to time as they may prove ineffect
ive, or prove harsh and unnecessary, are
probably all the more required. Tne
-bird cannot he obtained by special leg
islation, but must he regarded us fixed
by tbe constitution itseif, and gradually
acquiesced in by force of public opinion.
From the fouttdatmu of tbe govern
ment to the present tbe management of
ibe original inhabitants of this conti
nent—the Indians—has been a subject
of embarrassment and expense, aud baa
been attended with continuous rob
beries, murder and wars. From my
own experience upon the frontiers, and
in Indian countries, I do not hold either
the legislation or the conduct of tbe
whites who come most in contact with
the Indians, blameless for there hostili
ties. The pust,howe ver.cauuot be undone,
and the quesnou must be met as we now
find it. I have attempted a new policy
towards these wards of the naliou—they
cauuot be regarded iu any other light
man as wards—with fair r<suits, so fur
us tried, and which 1 hope witl be attend
ed ultimately with great success. The so
ciety of Friends are well known as hav
ing succeeded in living in peace with the
Indians in the early settlementsof Penn
sylvania, while their while neighbors of
other sects in other sections were con
stantly embroiled. They are also known
tor their opposition to all strife, violence
and war, and are generally noted for
their strict integrity and fair dealing,
these considerations induced me to give
the management of a few reservations
.if Indians to them, and throw the bur
den of selecting of agents upon the so
ciety itself. The result has proved most
taiisfactory. It will be found more fully
<et forth in the report of the tomult
loner of Indlau Affairs.
For superintendents and Indian agents
not on the reservations, officers of the
army were selected. The reasons for this
were numerous. When Indian agents
are sent there or were there, troops must
be seut also. The agent and the com
mander of troops are independent of
each other, and are subject to orders
from different departments of the gov
The army officer holds a position for
life—the agent one at the will of the
President. The former is personally in
terested in living in harmony with tho
Indians and in tbe establishment of a
permanent peace, to the end that some
nortfon of this life may be spent within
the limits of civilized society. Tbe
latter bas no sucb personal interest,
aunther reason is an economic one, and
-till another hold which tbe govern
ment has upon a life officer to secure
laithful discharge of duties in carrying
out a given policy. The building of
railroads and the access thereby given
to ali the agricultural and mineral
regions of the country is rapidly brlng
ingcivilized settlement into contact with
all tribes of Indians.
No matter what ought to be the rela
tion between such settlements and
the aborigines, tbe fact is they do not
nxrmon'z" well.and oneor the other must
give way in the end. A system which
looks to the extinction of a race is too
norribie for a nation to adopt without
entailing upon itself the wrath of ali
Christendom and engendering in the
citizen a disregard for honor, life aud
'he rights of others dangerous to