Democratic watchman. (Bellefonte, Pa.) 1855-1940, January 22, 1932, Image 6

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* E——
Bellefonte, Pa. January 22, 1982.
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The earth's heat and light come
from the sun's rays and not
from the interior of the earth.
The earth is dependent on the
sun for both heat and light, and
no form of life could exist if the
influence of the sun were with-
drawn. There are several rea-
sons why high altitudes are cold-
er than low ones, even though
they are nearer the sun in the
daytime. The air in high alti
tudes is thinner, absorbing less
heat from the direct rays of the
sun because it has less carbon
dioxide, water vapor and dust;
being thinner, it is less effective
In retaining the heat radiated
from the earth below. The wind
in high altitudes keeps the alr
in contact with the heated moun-
tain sides In constant motion,
There are likely to be many
cloudy days in mountainous re-
gions and the clouds shelter the
mountains frem the sun, The
side of a mountain toward the
equator may receive the sun's
rays more perpendicularly than
a flat surface and may become
very hot in the daytime, cooling
off rapidly at night. The side
turned away from the equator
receives the sun's rays more
obliquely than a flat surface and
for a much shorter time, This
tends to reduce the average tem-
perature of mountain regions,
wn sbi oli
. oo.
Ic asssasvsnsausnnsnssas andl
How Fishes Use Sense
of Smell to Get Fooa
The sense of smell is highly devel:
.aped In fishes, and this sense prob.
‘ably plays the leading role in obtain-
ing food. Scientists, however, have
mot yet heen able to determine accu-
rately the relative extent and intensity
-of perception of the various sense or-
‘gans In fishes, “From what is known
“at present,” says the United States
“pureau of fisheries, “it is believed that
the sense of smell, along with that of
touch, plays a greater role in the life
“of a fish, as far as obtaining its food
is concerned, than that of sight. The
sense of sight in fishes seems to be
limited more to the perception of
~changing lights and shadows, since a
fish will snap more quickly at a mov-
Ing object.” There Is a common but
~erroneous notion that fishes smell with
“their gills, They smell with their
“mnoses.—Pathfinder Magazine,
How Electric Current Acts
Quoting from Thomson's “Outline or
Acience”: “In itself an insulated con-
“ductor carrying current is not danger-
‘ous. A bird may perch on it with im-
munity, and men who repair the over.
‘head wires of tramways handie them
safely with bare hands, because the
‘platforms on which they work are in-
‘wulated from the ground, But if n
‘person touches both the insulated con-
‘ductor and the earth or the other con-
‘ductor, he completes the circuit and
“may be killed at once, In con-
“tinueus-current circuits for trac-
tion purposes It is usual to in-
‘sulate the positive conductor and use
‘the rails as the return or negative
How Neon Signs Are Made
Neon is a colorless, inactive gas
whieh occurs, in the atmosphere. Neon
‘Was the property of glowing with a
‘peculiar brilliant fiery-red tint when
an electric current is passed through
it in a near vacuum, For advertising
purposes the gas is put into hollow
‘glass tubes, which are twisted by a
combined heat and blowing process
inte the required shapes to make
script letters, The air Is removed by
a vacuum pump. If a few drops of
reury are inserted in the tube of
meon, the light hecames a brilliant
dlue. In a yellow-tinted tube it ap-
pears green, A
How Fog Can Be “Lifted”
Is one of the motorist’'s worst
“enem But by means of an at
‘®achment to the exhaust of a car, it
“Bas now been found possible to create
a rising current of heated air which
Titerally lifts the fog for about 10 feet
the front wheels, The process
“is rapid enough to allow a forward
“speed of ahout 15 miles per hour, no
“matter how dense the fog may be.
"This invention for dissolving fog can
"be attached easily to the car, and is
«ven simpler in operation than the or-
«dinary windshield wiper,
How to Test Water
"Here is a simpie way to test the
“purity of water: Put half a pint in
a clean bottle, and add a few grains
‘of lump or loaf sugar. Make the bot-
tie tight—a glass stopper Is preferred,
‘*Place the bottle in a warm, well
lighted room. If it remains clear after
an exposure of eight or ten days it is
safe to use: but if it becomes turbid.
4t ts impure and unsafe to drink.
How Patent Grant Operates
A patem grant conveys to the owner
of the patent the exclusive right to
snake, use and sell, and to grant to
-=mthers the right to make, use and sell
‘he thing patented within and through-
~gut some specified part of the United
“States, for the term of 17 years,
———— A ——————
—We will do your job work right
Bankers Association President
Asks If Unfair Aid Is Given
Motorized Transport—
For Rail Mergers.
NEY ORR. Pais treatment for the
railroads in respact to highway
| motor competition was called for by
| Rome C. Stephenson, President Ameor-
. ican Bankers Association, in a recent
address here. He also strongly en-
dorsed “sound economic railway con-
' solidation” and praised President Hoo- |
| ver for his initiative in this respect.
“I am very strongly of the opinion |
that one of the measures which would
help materially to put back business
where it ought to be is the Eastern
four-system plan of railroad consoli- |
dation as announced recently follow-
ing negotiations instituted by Presi-
dent Hoover,” said Mr. Stephenson.
“Its adoption by the Interstate Com-
merce Commission would tend to stabi:
lize the transportation industry, fa
cilitate operation and exert a favorable
influence on business in general.
“It is a fact well known to busines.
.eaders that our railroads are now fac. |
ing a crisis. Not only do they need
protective laws to meet competitive |
situations arising from increased use
of our highways and waterways by
other carriers, but they need uniiica-
tion such as the proposed four-system
plan provides. Our President has
acted wisely in assuming a leadership
in this respect and his move deserves
the support of every clear-thinking
Mr. Stephenson declared that th
-ailroads have served this country ‘sc
superlatively well that we are prone in
our public affairs to overlook our de-
pendence upon them and our obliga
tions to them. The past, present and
future progress of the United States is
inseparably bound up with their wel
fare. In neglecting just consideration
for them we are even more neglectful
of the public's best economic interests.
A Question of Public interest
“We are confronted with the ques
tion as to how much more the public
economic interest will stand an inva
sion of the welfare of the railroads by
forces and difficulties not of their own
creating and not within the scope of
their own unaided powers to combat,”
said Mr. Stephenson, “I refer especially
to new competitions that are undermin-
ing the hard-earned position of the rail:
roads, not only with the aid of natural
economic forces but also through the
aid of government policies which, posi-
tively or negatively, tend to give these
competitors undue advantages over the
“It goes without saying that the rai
roads have no right, nor claim any, so
far as I have beep able to discern, to
complain at legi competition in
the fleld of transportation, for the pub-
lic is entitled to the best possible trans-
portation at the lowest practical cost.
But equally does it go without saying
that this cannot be fairly brought about
by using, or by failing to use, the tax.
ing powers of government to enable
competitive methods of transportation
to do things they could not otherwise
do as unaided private enterprises, par-
ticularly when such action impairs the
invested rights held in good faith by
great masses of our people in estab-
lished enterprises that are serving the
public well.”
Mr. Stephenson said it was not hi
purpose to argue against such com-
petitive transportation as the highway
passenger motorbus and motor truck
as such, when conducted under proper
conditions and in keeping with public
welfare and benefit. He declared, how-
ever, there is need for serious consid
eration whether such competition is
being developed under conditions that
are unfair to the railroads, because
either the outright or obscure aid of
government policy is the deciding eco
nomic factor in that competition.
Would Investigate Bus Traffic
Railroad rights of way, he declared.
represent tremendous capital invest.
ments, on which the railroads have
also heavy current costs to meet.
“They pay every day a million dollars
in taxes and most of this is on their
rights of way,” he sald. “Also they
spend daily over two million dollars ad-
ditional for the proper maintenance of
way.” He asserted that the motor
buses have not had to pay for their
rights of way in any sense that the rail-
roads paid for theirs.
“They have simply taken possessio)
Jf public highways built by public
funds, both state and national,” he con-
tinued, “and they have extensively
made those highways vastly less com-
fortable, less safe and less serviceable
for private motorists and others who
are contributing chiefly to their crea-
tion and maintenance.”
Mr. Stephenson declared that al.
chese matters should be thoroughly in-
quired into by competent public
bodies, both state and national, with
a view of determining the equities and
basic public economic interests in-
volved, “particularly in respect to their
effects upon the nation’s railroads.
“I venture to say,” he added, “tha.
such inquiries would show whether it
is to the public interest to let things
remain as they are, whether the situa-
tion calls for a new basis of motorbus
and truck taxes to satisfy the equities
of the case or whether it would call for
such drastic action as the exclusion of
this trafic from our public general
highways, and the requirement that,
even as the railways, it provide as a
part of its own private capital invest-
ment its own rights of way and for its
own maintenance of way nut of operat.
Ing income.”
Aemains of a Ceiba Tree in Santo Domingo to Which Columbus Moored His Ships.
{Preparsd by National Geographic Society,
ashington, D. C.)—WNU Service.
HE dark, unmarked Santo Do-
mingo harbor into which Colum-
| bus’ three diminutive vessels
sailed in 1492 soon will be light-
ed by a new lighthouse, a memorial
to the Great Discoverer. Plans have
already been chosen from those sub-
mitted by architects representing the
United States and several countries of
Although now modernized, Santo
Domingo still retains much of its
early Spanish aspect. “Oldest in the
New world” and “First to be estab-
lished by white men in America” are
phrases of Inevitable recurrence in
any descriptive list of the historic
buildings and ruins of this ancient
city. The early colonists built for the
centuries, and many edifices dating
from the Sixteenth century are still
in use,
The ministry of foreign affairs and
sther departments of the Dominican
government occupy the old colonial
palace of government—a spacious
structure that was venerable long be-
fore the first buildings rose at James-
town, Va,
Surssounting a bluff which com-
sands the entrance to the inner har-
bor rises the ancient Tower of Homage.
Unshaken through the centuries this
ploneer outpost of New world con-
quest seems to dream of the golden
age when it guarded the key city
of the far-flung empire of Spain in
In the tower Is a small barred aper-
.ure that sometimes is pointed out
as the window of the cell in which
Columbus was imprisoned before being
sent back to Spain In chains—a state-
ment that cannot be true, since Colum-
bus’ imprisonment took place in 1500,
when the city was situated on the op-
posite bank of the Ozama river. The
same hurricane that destroyed the
home-bound fleet in 1502 so damaged
the city that it was decided to re-
build it on the higher western side of
the Ozama, the site it now occupies.
House of the Admiral.
Of the buildings now in ruins one
of the most interesting Is the castle
of Diego Colon or House of the Ad-
miral, the ancestral home of the
(Columbus family in America. Its con-
struction was begun in 1309, when
Diego Columbus, second admiral and
son of the discoverer, came to Santo
Domingo as governor of the colony.
The house was occupied by members
of the Columbus family until the death
of another Diego, great-grandson of.
the discoverer and last of the direct
line of his male descendants,
Although the House of the Admiral
aas been allowed to fall into ruins,
with its destruction further hastened
by the vandalism of treasure-seckers,
it historic walls will bear mute testl-
mony to its former magnificence, It
was to this and other pretentious
mansions of the city that the chron-
icler Oviedo referred when in a letter
to the king of Spain he sald that his
Royal Highness often lodged in palaces
far inferior to those of Santo Domingo,
and added that he considered the
city superior to any In Spain In its
location, beauty and arrangement.
Fifty years after Its founding,
Santo Domingo had passed the apex of
its first glory. Interest in the new
colony was eclipsed by desire for fur-
ther conquest, and its meteoric rise
was almost equaled by the rapidity of
its decline. From a goal, Santo
Domingo became a base for expedi-
tions farther westward. Cortez, Pizar-
ro and Ponce de Leon were only a few
of the gentlemen adventurers who
sailed out of the mouth of the Ozama
with their eyes strained for the glitter
of gold on the western horizon.
By 1586 the power of Santo Domin-
40 had so waned that the capital fell
an easy prey to Sir Francis Drake,
and a ransom was extorted by meth-
ods smacking of the torture chamber,
Each day proscribed buildings were
demolished until abont a third of the
city lay in ruins, ‘Then the citizens
managed to scrape together a going-
away present amounting to about $£30,-
000 with which Drake took his leave
after hanging a few prominent citizens
by way of valediction,
Of less stern caliber were the war-
ciors of the Admiral Penn expedition
which in 1655 was sent to the island
by Cromwell with the object of gain-
ing permanent possession of the col-
ony. Landing on the coast west of
Santo Domingo city, the English
forces were met by determined resist-
ance in their advance on the eapital
aad were soon glad to leave Hizpaniola
and regain some prestige by seizing
the more defenseless colony of
“Battle of the Crabs.”
According to legend, the defenders
of Santo Domingo were aided by
strange allies, and along the beach
near Jaina the site of the traditional
“battle of crabs” is still pointed out.
The story runs that the invading
forces encamped here one night. With
their nerves on edge from constant
ambuscades and surprise attacks, they
mistook the clattering of the large
number of land crabs hereabout for |
the hoof-beats of charging cavalry, and |
they were soon retreating pell-mell, |
Between 1730 and 1740 the popu
lation of the eapital fell to about five
hundred, but fifty years later it was
again riding on one of its high tides
of greatness us a Spanish colonial
city, enly to be overtaken within a
decade by another period of adver-
Now, after more than four cen
turies of varying fortunes and despite
siege, earthquake, and tropical hur-
ricane, the brave old city stands de-
flantly at the mouth of the Ozama—
a little bewildered, perhaps, as If un-
decided whether definitely to capitu-
late to the march of modern progress
‘real cold weather occurs.
or wait patiently a little longer for |
galleons long overdue. |
In the last thirty years the capita. |
of the old town,
One with a romantic turn of minu
could wish that the streets In the old
part of the city had been allowed to
retain thelr original names, but these
have nearly all been rechristened in
honor of men and dates prominent in
the history of the Republic. Of the
old names, only the “Street of Isabel
the Catholic” remains, and much of its
romance is dispelled by the traffic po-
licemen who briskly “shoo” automo- |
biles along the narrow thoroughfares.
Visitors may hunt a long time for a |
in a
swimming pool
oney and at is the latest winter indoor sport in
Now is the time to You can fish all day for 12 cents
—During 1932 thousands of fam-
ilies again will rely on the home Trout
garden to save them m
the same time provide them with Paris.
healthful food.
plan the 1932
order to purchase seed more effi-
—When the ground has frozen
several inches straw can be applied
as a mulch to the strawberry bed
for best results. The rows should
be covered with 5 or 6 inches of
wheat straw as soon as the first
Two to
three tons of straw per acre should
be sufficient to give the plants prop-
er insulation against alternate freez-
ing and thawing during the winter.
-This is a good time to recon-
struct the producing units on the
farm. The woodlot is included in
this group. To sell the prize trees
when prices are low is destructive.
To remove the weeds and culls from
the woods is constructive work.
This will aid in’ developing more and
better timber for the time when it
will sell at a premium.
--It is not advisable to hold eggs
for hatching purposes more than 10
days before putting them in the in-
—Sixty-six management demon-
strations conducted in as many com-
munities under the supervision of
the State College extension service
during the past year brought bet.
ter mehods of handling sheep to the
attention of 1506 Pennsylvania farm-
—San Juan National Forest offi-
cials have discovered a new enemy
of trees-—porcupines.
The animals rub trees with their
sharp quills, stripping a ring round
them and causing them to “spike
top,” or die at the top first.
Forest Supervisor Andrew Hutton
estimated porcupines have caused as
much damage tc the timber during
the last few years as that caused
by fire.
A campaign against them, he
said, would be made this winter.
—Treated with reasonable care the
farm woodlot is a perpetual sort of |
and timber, young ones spring
milk-making grow.
too, cattle get little nourishment in
the woods and eventually will elim-
inate natural regenera of the
Good woodland ent also
directs natural thinning ge using the
ax to eliminate
not have the inherent characteristics
necessary for the making of val-
uable trees. The aim is to produce
Constant replacement takes place
those trees which do |
horse-drawn coche in which to drive | 109 trees to the acre which will be |
about and view the city, but when one '
of the few left in commission finally
is tracked down, they lack the moral
courage to charter it for fear of being |
thought eccentric—or worse. It just
isn't done any more,
Ashes of Columbus There. |
The chlef pride of the Dominicans |
is their faith that the ashes of Chris- |
topher Columbus rest within thelr |
cathedral at Santo Domingo. In 1795 |
Spain, having ceded Santo Domingo
to the French, removed what its offi-
cials believed to be the ashes of the
Great Discoverer to Havana. Upon
the evacuation of Cuba by Spain in
1808, the Spanish government moved
the Havana remains to Seville, Spain.
But in 1877, while the Santo Domin-
go cathedral was being remodeled,
another vault containing a leaden
casket was found. As soon as the
casket surface appeared everything |
was sealed, and in the afternoon the |
‘president and his cabinet, the mem- |
bers of the diplomatic corps, the bishops |
and Apostolic delegate, and many
others assembled to witness the com-
pletion of the excavation and the
opening of the casket.
Outside and inside were found in
scriptions which bear alike the name
and the titles of Christopher Colum-
bus, All present, Including even the
Spanish consul, joined in a notarial
affidavit of the circumstances of the
opening of the vault and casket and
the description of their contents.
The late American minister, Thomas
C. Dawson, pronounced the evidence
complete, and the late American secre-
tary of state, Philander C. Knox, on
his visit to Santo Domingo in 1912,
declared that any impartial court
would sustain the contention that all
that is mortal of the Founder of the
New World rests within the Cathedral
at Santo Domingo. Charles G. Dawes,
United States ambassador to Great
Britain, while in Santo Domingo in
1929 as the head of a commission to
work out a budget system for the
Dominican government, made a study
of the evidence and reached the same
conclusion as Minister Dawson and
Secretary Knox. |
One of the most tragic experiences
in the history of Santo Domingo oc-
curred in the afternoon of September
8, 1020, when a hurricane swept over
the capital. Outside the walls of the
stricken city the devastation was prac.
tically complete; inside the walls 70
per cent of the buildings were dam-
aged and practically all of the 4000
smaller homes were destroyed, Up-
wards of two thousand people were
killed ana six thousand were injured.
| ideal in shape, quality and kind for
either use or sale. The favored
trees are those which are straight,
tall, sound, and of the kind growing
the fastest and being he most val-
{uable for use.
As the farm woodland trees grow
in size, the im operations
10 gradually
eliminate all t the choicest ones.
To balance the improvement work in
an average farm woodlot so that it
can be fitted into the farm work
schedule without interfering with
other duties, many owners thin one-
tenth of their wooded acreage each
winter. ‘The sale of wood and tim-
ber pays for the work.
—Dairymen can cut feed costs by
substituting wheat, barley, and oats
for corn and feed in dairy
rations, at present prices, and by
| feeding a grain mixture with a pro-
tein content that corresponds to the
roughage fed, advises Prof. F.
Morrison, head of the de
animal husbandry at the New York
State College of Agriculture. He
suggests formulas for use with va-
heavy, concentrated feed, it is best
not to use more than 600 pounds of
ground wheat per of dairy feed
garden on paper in and then put your catch on the
scales and pay for it at the current
ciently. Arrange fos inter-cropping market rate. Just for convenience,
{and succession planting in the small there is a bar across one end of the
hall. Isaac Walton never enjoyed
such sport.
The pool is stocked every morn-
ing, but the fish are never fed, thus
making them ravenously hungry and
easy prey. The pool is stocked with
trout, carp, pike and eels.
There is only one rule and that is:
“Catchers, keepers.” Floor-walkers
keep moving around to see that the
fishermen pay for their sport. It
is forbidden to catch a dozen fish
and then throw them back in to
avoid buying them.
Since there are no minnows, but
only full-sized fish of a half pound
or more, the place does a thriving
business as a fish market. It isnot
uncommon for a fisherman to leave
with a string of a dozen bass.
Landlady: “There is a hole burnt
in this sofa cover, and I expect you
to pay for it.
New Lodger: “Certainly not. I
don't smoke, so you can't blame me
for it.”
Landlady: “What impudence! You
are the first lodger for three years
who has refused to pay for that
Each Week
T was lonely on the farm
now that winter had set-
tled in. Mrs. Kemp would
sometimes catch
listening for footsteps. But
no one came.
Tom was back at his job
in town. Jim was in col
lege. And Sue, with her
children, couldnt come
home very often.
Then one evening the
telephone rang. It was 1
Jim. “Just wanted to
chat,” he told his Mother.
“How're you and Dad?”
For several minutes fam-
ily news and happy confi.
dences flew back and forth
between mother and son.
The conversation ended,
Mrs. Kemp turned from
the telephone with eyes
shining. “Dad,” she ex-
claimed, “Jim gave me an 3
idea! Let's call up Tom
and Sue. From now on
I'm going to visit the
children by telephone and
not sit here alone!”
The modern
at the
ihe Chanpest” “Bader” "ie ine. fn
This Interests You
It will be to your interest to
consult us before your
State College Bellefonte
eal | Ask Your Druggist for Particulars