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Bellefonte, Pa., June 11, 1926.
To Raise $300,000 for Care of Or-
The appeal to Pennsylvanians made
generally throughout the State by
Major General William G. Price, Jr.
that the effort of the American Le-
gion to raise $300,000.00 in this cam-
paign which started May 17th, for
the care of the orphans of the veter-
ans who gave their lives during the |
war, has been meeting with a gener-
ous response in many localities
throughout this Commonwealth.
One particularly touching instance
was the case of Ferdinand Martini
who lost both his arms and his right
leg in the Argonne, and who today is
making a real livelihood for himself
through the education which was sup-
plied him through the United States
Veterans Bureau. Out of his small
income he forwarded to Campaign |
Headquarters a check for .
with this statement—“My education
stops me from writing much. I gave
my arm and leg 2s my sacrifice to the
Country of my adoption. Many of my |
brave comrades did more—they died
and left children. The Soldier’s first
love in France was the Country he
was fighting for, next, he thought of
France's children. He loved them and
tried to make them happy. Today
you ask us as Americans to give to
our Buddies’ orphans. If it was my
last dollar I would have to give some
part of it to these dear children.
Please accept my gift, because it
breaks my heart when I know these
children need care.”
This particularly humanitarian ef-
fort to alleviate the suffering among
America’s children and plant in their
minds the proper seed to be better
Americans has been a theme that has
touched upon by members of many
ministerial associations in sending
their indorsement of this campaign.
Spangler, Pennsylvana, Post was
the first town over the top, with a
quota of $48.00. Quite a few others
are nearing their goal.
In the eyes of the general public
this is the greatest service to the
community that the American Legion
has ever attempted, and one which
should encourage a deeper interest
in the principles ‘of this organization.
1,363,000 French Killed in Battle.
Paris.—The most striking appeal
against future war is contained in
statistics finally worked out regard-
ing the lasting records of France's
war losses. M. Gaston Cadoux, for-
mer president of the Paris Statistical |
society, now has made reckonings
which peace organizations in every
country might well keep in mind for
The population of France at the
outbreak of the war was 39,600,000.
From these the government mobiliz-
ed for the army and navy 8,355,000.
Of this number 1,362,000 lost their
lives. This figure represents one-
sixth of the mobilized effectives, one-
seventh of the masculine population
of the country and one-twentieth of
If the dead alone might be drawn
up in a serried line it would require
the Twentieth Century Limited, trav-
eling without stop at sixty miles an
hour, some nine hours to reach the
end. The entire mobilization of hu-
man material by France would have
reached from San Francisco to New
York if placed shoulder to shoulder.
Comparing the percentage of losses
suffered by the principal belligerents,
M. Cadoux reckons that his country
had one dead or missing per 28 inhab-
itants, as against 35 in Germany, 50
in Austria-Hungary, 66 in Great Brit-
ain, 79 in Italy, 107 in Russia and 2,-
000 in the United States.
France’s agricultural male popula-
tion of 5,608,971 lost 699,219. Of 1,-
327,156 engaged in commercial pur-
suits, 155,977 were lost. Of 915,186
artisans of the building trades, 168,-
747 did not return. There were 235,-
320 men of liberal professions mobii-
ized and 40,432 died. Transport
workers numbering 60,972 failed to
return of 665,029 who went to war.
There were 21,426 civil servants, 2,-
712 ecclesiastics, 80,190 students and
9,493 persons of independent means
without profession killed.
The statistician’s reckoning shows
that the return of Alsace-Loraine did
not compensate for the ghastly hole
torn in the populace by war. Where-
as the population of France was 39,-
600,000 in 1914, it has fallen to 39,-
209,000 after these provinces return-
ed to the fold.
Science May Rob Summer of Terror.
Science is opening a new field for re-
frigeration, making it possible to util-
ize the pipes which supply heat in
homes during the winter months to
furnish cool air in the hot months
and thus lower the temperature.
Sixty experts who were in consul-
tation recently with representatives
of the American Gas Association ex-
pressed the belief that the innovation
is practical and that it can be made
available for public use next fall.
House cooling is merely an extension
of ice-box cooling and as the principle
is already applied to theatres and de-
partment stores, its extewsion to
homes and offices will naturally fol-
low if practical devices (re adopted
and the cost is low enough to en-
courage private use.
According to N. T. Sellman, utili-
zation engineer of the Consolidated
Gas company of New York,, one cubic
foot of standard test gas is the equiv-
alent of one pound of ice-melting ef-
fect in winter, and one and one-fourth
cubic feet of gas are equivalent to
one pound of ice-melting effect in
summer. This means that the pubic
will be able to get the benefit of 1000
pounds of ice for the price of 1000
cubic feet of gas in winter and the
price of 1250 cubic feet of gas in sum-
—Subscribe for the “Watchman.”
Modern Home Aided Byrd Pole Dash;
ate a" te"
otete te tate tte!
defied the death-dealing cold of the
Polar Regions and proved an in-
valuable aid to Lieutenant Commander
Richard E. Byrd in his successful flight to
the North Pole, which he circled three
times in a record breaking flight of 1,500
miles in 15 hours and 30 minutes at an
average speed of 98.75 miles an hour.
It was at the Spitzbergen base, King’s
Bay, where this first modern house was
constructed amid the snow and ice of the
‘Arctic immediately upon the arrival of
Lieutenant Byrd and his companions, as
a permanent home and observation sta-
tion for the explorers. The house, which
rose up on the horizon of the frigid north -
trast to the igloo of the eskimo, was Pa Jo marked ind
plete radio outfit that those who remained at the base
while Lieutenant Byrd made his thrilling dash to the
Pole in his speeding Fokker might keep in touch with
their chief and the outside world, which they kept in-
formed as to the progress and success of the flight
It was to this same home that he returned after his
hazardous trip and from which some of the first mes-
sages were sent to the waiting public, telling them
through the lanes of the air that Byrd had circled the
pole three times and had returned to his Spitzbergen
home in safety, adding one of the most memorable pages
to the history of Arctic exploration.
; Sugar Cane Fights Polar North.
When Lieutenant Byrd left the Brooklyn Navy Yard on
the ship Chantier he declared he had the best and most
gcientifically equipped expedition that ever had started
for the North Pole. Special plans were made for the
erection of his Arctic home. Boards of celotex insulating
lumber made from bagasse (sugar cane fiber after all
sugar juices have been extracted) were carried along
with the latest inventions to aid in polar exploration.
This building material is very light and is filled with
millions of air cells, which give it great insulation value
and resistance to change in temperature, especially the
severe cold. One odd circumstance in connection with
the use of this material is that the sugar cane of the
south was utilized to fight the cold of the north.
Celotex was selected instead of lumber because tests
made by the United States Bureau of Standards and
its universal use in building construction all over the
world, had demonstrated that this insulating lumber
would keep the quarters of the explorers warmer and
protect their living conditions more securely than ordi-
nary building material.
It was only after careful investigation by the scientific
men in the expedition that celotex was selected. These
authorities pointed out that the protection afforded by
its insulation efficiency was three times as great as ordi-
nary lumber and nearly twelve times as great as that
of brick and other masonry material. The ship Chantier
also was lined with celotex as an added precaution to
keep the ship warm while the explorers used it in the
preliminary stages of the expedition.
In practically every other way this expedition was
amore scientifically prepared than any of its predeces-
sors. These included inventions of Commander Byrd
himself. A simple sun compass conceived by Byrd and
developed by Mr. Bumstead of the National Geographic
Society, superseded the complicated German device, de.
veloped three years ago for Amundsen. The drift in-
dicator also was Byrd's invention. The bubble sextant
by which the navigator obtains his bearings while in
flight was another one of his ifiventions. Still another
scientic development was a quick method of telling when
one is at the North Pole. This has been worked out
by G. W. Littlehales, the navy’s hydrographic engineer.
Device Locates the Pole.
Byrd and others contributed to a chart of the mag-
aetic lines flowing toward the magnetic North Pole,
which is in Bolthla Land, 1,200 miles south of the Pole,
Between Bolthla Land and the Pole the campass points
south instead of north and over much of the Arctic
it is badly disturbed by the discrepancy of position be-
tween the geographical North Pole and the magnetic
This chart of the magnetic lines, flowing to the mag-
netic North Pole, although it was far from complete, was
such as to enable the navigator to tell in what direction
the compass should point from any spot in the Arctic.
With this knowledge, the erratic behavior of the com-
pass becomes orderly and it is once again a useful instru-
A third type of compass used was a device of infinite
sensitiveness—a revolving electrical coil,, which 1s ad-
justed to a given relation with the magnetism of the
earth, This, the sun compass, and the magnetic com-
pass were each used to correct the other.
Lieutenant Byrd in his flight used a quick method of
.elling when he was actually at the Pole. This was the
invention worked out by Mr. Littlehales, the U. 8.
Navy hydrographic engineer. It shows the sun's posi-
tion from the North Pole at every hour of the day and
every day of thq year. When the flyer is near the Pole
he can, by ascertaining the exact position of the sun,
prove that Le is near the Pole.
Flies 3,000 Miles Over Arctic.
The expedition, backed by such men as John D.
Rockefeller, Jr.,, and Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., had three
main objects, I
A MODERN home built in the Arctic
Sugar Cane Fought Cold of Nort
1—To prove that air navi-
.. gation in the Arctic is feas-
‘ible and that freight and mes-
senger travel over the top of
the world is certain to come.
2—To hunt for new land
in the unexplored areas of
3—To conquer the North
Pole from thé air as a sport-
ing adventure and as a dem-
onstration of what a plane
can do—not a geographical
study, as the Pole was bagged
for all time by Admiral Peary.
‘Probably no one knows more about
Arctic flying than Commander Byrd. From
the Greenland base of the MacMillan ex-
pedition at Etah last year he flew 3,000
miles over the Arctic, studying the be-
havior of oil, motors, compasses, and
other navigation instruments at great
altitudes over the Polar sea.
With him this time Commander Byrd tock a noted fuel
expert, who is Flying Commander G. O. Noble, as it
requires great skill and pains to prevent the freezing
of lubricating oil and stiffened action of the motors, if
forced to work on the plane in the open at great
altitudes with the thermometer at 60 to 70 below zero.
The points which favored the month of May were that
the Arctic fog had not begun to rise and heavy snows still
covered the land and afforded many good landing places.
A factor of safety pointed out by Commander Byrd in
connection with the use of the Fokker machine is that it
carries a reserve engine. It has three engines. With a
light load one is expected to be sufficient to maintain the
plane in flight. With a normal load, two engines will do
the work. If two engines break down at one time, when
the plane is not tao. heavily loaded, it may fly with the.
use of one engine. The Fokker machine has a wing-
spread of slightly more than 64 feet. It is said to be
a marvel of airship construction.
The other airplane—the Curtis Oriole—was to have
been used chiefly in finding landing fields so that if
the fliers found their main landing place covered with a
fog they might go elsewhere.
The Chantier was equipped with a powerful radio trans-
mitter to send back the news of the, expedition. The
Fokker also is equipped with a receiving and trans-
mitting set. Commander Byrd not only kept the world
informed of the progress of the expedition, but received
through the Chantier weather warnings to guide him in
How Expedition Was Equipped.
Forty-five hundred pounds of whole beef were included
in the rations of the Byrd crew of forty-seven fliers,
seamen and technicians, Also four hundred pounds of
pemmican (meat fats and raisins), huge quantities of
bacon, dried milk, erbswurst (pea soup) and other sup-
plies in proportion were carried along. Cod liver oil was
included for its healthful properties. Herbert Griggs,
who had charge of provisioning Peary’s expedition in his
famous dash to the Pole, worked out the rations for the
Byrd explorers. Two pounds per man per day was the
allowance to take care of all emergencies.
No amount of clothing is really sufficient when flying
1,000 or more feet in the air In the Polar regions, but
every possible precaution was taken by Commander Byrd
against exposure. The men were equipped with the
warmest and lightest of reindeer suits and with fur
parkas, a garment that reaches to the knees and has a
hood covering the head. Plenty of goggles were found
to be an absolute necessity to protect them against the
glare of the snow.
In spite of all the precautions the undertaking was
full of unseen danger. None of this equipment would be
of the slightest avail against some unexpected and un-
precedented situation which might arise. There is always
the danger of snowblindness, exhaustion, freezing, some
mishap to the engine. Lieutenant Byrd and his com-
panions, however, were particularly fortunate in escaping
with practically no ill effects except the exhaustion due
to such a perilous trip,
Pick Up Ice Pilot.
The ship Chantier’s first stop was at Tromso, Norway,
where an ice skipper was taken on to pilot the Chantier
and its crew through the ice-filled waters around Spitz-
bergen to King’s Bay, where preparations for the first
flight to the Pole were made. The planes, the instruments
and the various oil mixtures used in connection with the
airship tests, were carefully examined. and tested. Lieu-
tenant Byrd's original plans called for six flights as follows:
1—A 400-mile flight from Spitzbergen to Peary Land
to unload ofl, provisions and equipment at a place that
looks promising for a landing.
2—A 400-mile flight back to Spitzbergen.
8—A second 400-mile flight from Spitzbergen to Peary
Land base with further food, fuel and equipment.
4—An 850-mile flight to and around the Pole and back
to the Peary base.
5—An 800-mile round trip fiight to the northwest over
unexplored areas in search of new lands.
6—A 400-mile flight from the Peary Land base back to
It was his plan in his second flight to attempt to dis-
cover new land, but when he received the report of the
flight of Amundsen in his dirigible, in which it was stated
that the Norge had failed to find any trace of new
land, Lieutenant Byrd decided to abandon further flights
and the trip over land on sleds he had planned in his
search for new land In unexplored areas. Now he has
decided te try to accomplish by airship at the South
Pole what he did at the North. As he left the Spitz
bergen base he stated that he would have just as well
an equipped expedition for his southern flight as he had
in his recent adventure in the North. !
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