Democratic watchman. (Bellefonte, Pa.) 1855-1940, April 07, 1922, Image 2

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    Tenoreatic; atdguont
Bellefonte, Pa., April 7, 1922.
ES —
By Donald W. Barr, State College, Pa.
The beggar sat at the city gate,
Ragged and unattended,
Asking alms of the passing great,
Clad in their garments splendid.
Some gave silver and some gave gold,
And some gave none at all;
But each one cursed the beggar bold
With a curse as bitter as gall.
A lowly stranger one day passed by,
And the beggar bade him stay,
Imploring gold with a doleful cry
In the long-accustomed way.
The stranger paused and a genial smile
Spread over his noble face.
“TI’ll tarry,” he said, “with you a while,
And share your humble place.”
He filled with gold the beggar’s hands,
And he spoke a word of cheer:
“Giving, to one who understands,
Is a pleasure held most dear.”
The beggar returned his gold, and said:
“Take it back—I have sadly erred;
You have given me greater wealth in-
A smile and a pleasant word.”
We hear much criticism these days
of the “Little Red School House.” One
writer in a popular magazine calls it
“a pest and a handicap in these later
We, who have been pupils in the
one-room school house, wish to say a
word in its favor. At the same time
we will take the liberty to make a few
criticisms ourselves.
That which stirs the greatest re-
sentment among rural people against
the program of the State Department
of Education is the strenuous inter-
ference by the State in local affairs.
It is taking over almost entire control
of roads and schools, and besides it
is taking steps in other directions with
a view toward limiting local control.
It is time to become alarmed lest lo-
cal government become entirely ab-
sorbed and local talent completely sti-
fled. The patriotism of a nation is
largely bound up in the interests and
pride of people in their local affairs.
What patriotism can there be where
the State monopolizes all these little
community interests?
The school term is too long in rural
communities. These three requisites
for happy youth—study, work and rec-
reation—are not properly balanced.
The long term may be advisable in
towns and cities, where one of its ob-
jects is to keep children, who other-
wise might frequently get into mis-
chief, under surveillance of teachers
as much of the time as possible, but
in the conutry, where the children are
used to being in the open air, confine-
ment in the school room for eight or
nine months is detrimental to health.
It is a fact that the liability to con-
tract diseases increases with the
length of the term. Child welfare
workers may talk as they will; but, to
become industrious men and women,
children must have a considerable
amount of manual employment in
youth, and to teach them carefulness
and continuity they should be held re-
sponsible fo these tasks, whatever
they may be. The pupil who has too
much study time compared to his
work or play time will become indo-
lent. Anything capable of growth is
strengthened by judicious use, hence
the industry of the youth is strength-
ened by moderate work. If he spend
too much time in school he will nat-
urally become unused to work. This
may be the reason for the deplorable
lack of interest which many young
men and women have for their em-
ployment in these times. Too many of
them are expecting “white collar
Let us turn for a moment to the effi-
ciency of modern school work. The
education of the youth just out of
school does not compare favorably
with the education of older men and
women. Compare the average intelli-
gence of the old people of a communi-
ty with the intelligence of the youth
of the same community. Or, better
still, compare the letters, papers, dia-
ries and autographs of fifty or sixty
years ago with the same kind of com-
positions of today.
Remember in those days they had
three or four months of a school term
and very little state supervision. The
percentage of illiteracy was not so
high then as now, I believe. This be-
ing so, of what value is such a wealth
of state supervision and the long
school term of today? .
Remember, that Abraham Lincoln
said, that men with sufficient ability
to conduct the government in those
trying times, equally as well as he
and his able advisors, could be select-
ed from any regiment in the Union
armies. He must have rated the in-
telligence of we soldiers of those
times pretty highly.
It in ete forgotten that the
one-room school has some advantages
which the graded school does not pos-
sess. For instance: The children in
the primary grades are continually
hearing about, and having an interest
created in subjects in advance of their
grades. Thus, they are always looking
forward to the higher grades. There
is always an incentive to advance.
The instruction given must be of a
more general and broader nature.
Thus, the recipient of this instruction
becomes a better opportunist, better
able to take advantage of any circum-
stances in which he may find himself.
The bright children may advance
and not be held back until the medi-
ocre can make the grades. Another
advantage is that a pupil who is
bright in one branch may advance in
that branch and not be retarded by
his lower proficiency in other branch-
It is an established fact that any-
thing too easily obtained is seldom
very highly valued. It often happens
that the possessor makes little use of
it. An education which may be too
easily acquired is not appreciated. COMISSIONER MARTIN ISSUES ' Presbyterial Societies Unite and
Here is where educators all over our :
land are making a mistake. They are
trying to carry the pupils to an edu-
cation on “flowery beds of ease.” We |
It may seem like past history to say
have free schools, free school books, | that there were 3403 cases of typhoid |
stringent compulsory attendance laws, '
instruction simplified to the limit,
ever lengthening school terms and
finally wealth of county, State and |
national oversight which frequently :
is becoming burdensome.
This is all on the theory that the
more corn and hay you keep in a;
horse’s manger, the better the horse |
will do, or that if two potatoes are |
good for a boy’s dinner, a half bushel
would be a couple of dozen times bet-
A student who has continually be- |
fore him an intellectual diet will prob- -
ably develop mental indigestion. |
It might be well to call the atten- |
tion of the reader to the fact that
many of our broadest minded and best
fever and 387 deaths from this disease
in Pennsylvania during July, August,
September and October, 1921,
the approach of another summer,
typhoid fever of every summer has
been traced to milk and milk products,
which could be prevented by proper
inspection of herds and correct pas- and it was only fitting that the change |
teurization of milk.
Elect Leaders.
An amalgamation of the Women’s
Foreign and Home Missionary socie-
ties of the Huntingdon Presbytery,
embracing seven counties in central
Pennsylvania, was consummated at a
but with | meeting of the societies at Lewistown
its | last week by the adoption of a new
parties and ice cream festivals, ! constitution and by-laws and the elec-
|it is a timely statement. Much of the | tion of new officers.
In the year 1875 the Foreign Mis-
sionary society of the Huntingdon
Presbytery was founded in Lewistown
so long sought by the organization
Inadequate pasteurization is worse | should have been accomplished there.
than useless. One of the largest epi-
demics of typhoid fever with which
Pennsylvania was cursed came from
The uniting of the two missionary
bodies was apparently a very popular
move as it passed through the conven-
milk pasteurized in a machine the tion without a dissenting vote. A
thermometer of which was, and had large majority of the members of both
been, broken for a long time.
The State Department of Health
inf! d men have had little school | has drafted a model milk ordinance
Home z which has been adopted by 12 commu- ,
training. We may well call Franklin, |
Washington, Webster, Lincoln, Roose-
velt and Edison—the six intellectual
giants of our country. Of these, Web-
ster broadened his character by work-
ing his own way through school and
Roosevelt by “roughing it” on western
These were the only two of the six
who had any college training. The
other four had very little school train-
ing of any kind. The lesson is that
too much school work narrows rather
than broadens the mind.
The “little red school house” has
been called a lot of hard names lately,
but when you do away with it, you
will destroy the greatest single agen-
cy for the building of the kind of char-
acter which counts, the kind that gives
to its possessor initiative and indi-
viduality. This is what makes for
strength and resourcefulness. The
standardized education gotten in reg- |
ular order from the graded school and |
then on up to the colleges and univer- |
sities is too mechanical. Each stu-
dent is a stereotyped copy of a single |
original. It is like turning out copies
of a standardized part to a machine. |
There is too much sameness. |
Let the power of thought which de-
velopes mainly in the quiet and seclu-
sion of rural environment have a!
chance to grow to some extent along |
original lines. This gives individual- |
ity, which in turn makes for progress. |
Let us get back to first principles in |
education. Let us educate for the best |
enjoyment of life and liberty rather!
than for efficiency in creating wealth |
and empire. This was Germany’s
Let us try to get quality in educa- !
tion rather than quantity. Let us get |
away from the domination of the ex- |
tremist. There is a golden mean in an |
educational policy as well as in other
things. In short, let us get back to |
common sense.—By Chas. S. Whitta-
ker, in The Huntingdon Monitor.
TT |
It has long been known that oil
poured upon the surface of stormy |
waters has a wonderful effect in calm- !
ing it. Many vessels have probably
been saved from destruction by this |
simple method, and every month the |
Hydrographic office at Washington !
publishes along with its pilot chart, |
statements from ship captains de-!
scribing the results they have obtain- |
ed by the use of oil in smoothing the !
waves of an angry sea. i
The reason of this curious effect of
oil upon water is, in a general sense,
perfectly apparent. It depends upon
the viscosity, or adhesiveness, of the
oil, which causes it to act somewhat
like a skin drawn over the more un-
stable surface of the water, so that
the tendency of the latter to break in-
to spray as it is driven by the wind is
restrained. The danger to ships from
a high running sea arises from the
breaking of the waves. As long as
the surface of the waves is smooth
and unbroken, the ship rides easily
upon them.
But while the principle upon which
the oil acts is thus evident enough,
the real method of its action is not so
apparent. This has been subjected to
a mathematical investigation.
The investigator shows that the
viscosity of oil is so much greater
than that of water, being in the case
of olive oil more than 230 times as
great, that the water may be regard-
ed as a frictionless liquid in compari-
son with the oil. The surface ten-
sion between the oil and the air is
also shown to be considerably greater
than that between the oil and the wa-
ter. With these data it is found that
the motion will be stable, or there will
be no breaking of the waves unless
the latter vary in length between two
certain fractions of a centimeter,
namely nine-elevenths and six fifths.
—Edwin Tarrisse.
ee ————— peer emrn.
Milk inspection is of prime neces-
sity. In most of the larger cities
laboratories are maintained where
bacteria counts and chemical analy-
ses are frequently made on samples
collected from retail delivery wagons,
stores, and restaurants. But the
small cities and towns that cannot af-
ford the expense of a tester and labor-
atory find it hard to give proper su-
‘pervision to their milk supplies.
The United States Department of
Agriculture suggests that a practical
way for such cities and towns to in-
sure a safe milk supply is through the
co-operation of two or more adjacent
towns in hiring a milk inspector and
maintaining a laboratory. The cost
of supervising such a plan may be
prorated among the different towns
on the basis of population without the
expense being burdensome to any one
of them, State and Federal authori-
ties are always willing to co-operate
in work of this sort. ihe
This plan of town co-operation in
milk and dairy inspection has been
carried out in different parts of the
country, probably the most conspicu-
ous example being the group of towns
in northern New Jersey own as
“The Oranges.” In these towns the
plan has been in use for a number of
years with results that have been very
satisfactory to all concerned.
nities, assuring 550,352 citizens a safe
milk supply. Not one of these com-
munities reported a milk borne case
of typhoid fever since the adoption of
the ordinance.
R. E. Irwin, chief of the Bureau of
Milk Control, State Department of
Health, states:
“There are many tuberculous cows
in Pennsylvania; so many, that if they
were all killed there would be a milk
famine, but a tuberculous cow may
yield milk which will give bovine tu-
berculosis to the baby. However, a
typhoid carrier could milk a tubercu-
lous cow into a can contaminated by
a diphtheria patient and if the milk
i were adequately pasteurized it would
be safe for use in so far as the trans-
mission of disease is concerned. Un-
til a Pennsylvania Legislature defines
pasteurization, this department rec-
ommends the standard of the U. S.
Department of Agriculture—a tem-
perature not lower than 145 degrees
Fahrenheit for not less than 30 min-
From a health standpoint alone, the
State Health Department is urging
every Pennsylvania community to se-
cure proper milk inspection and pro-
tection before the usual summer in-
cidence of typhoid fever begins.
“The eagle is an inspiring bird but
the nation’s future depends upon the
cow,” was the comment of the State
Health Commissioner, when asked
about his campaign for a safe milk
supply in Pennsylvania. “There is no
question about the food value of milk
and milk products. The health of the
people is built upon milk; therefore,
milk must not only have its nutrition-
al value, but must be safe. The con-
sumer should have no other choice—
r ilk,” - 4
or chance—than clean milk,” he con Lewistown;
Within the past year the following
communities adopted the model milk
Scranton, Lackawanna Co., Pop. 137,783
Milford, Pike Co., Pop. - 7
Milford is a summer resort with a
shifting population of many thousands
during the summer months. The ac-
tion of the local officials assures visit-
| against typhoid fever or other diseas- |
es through milk or milk products. It
from typhoid fever disseminated by |
guests to this locality, after they re-
turn home.
Harrisburg.—Inadequate facilities |!
in county almshouses are responsible
for the housing together of sane per-
sons and the violently insane, accord-
ing to Dr. John M. Baldy, head of the
State Welfare Department, whe will
ask the next Legislature to enact leg-
islation centralizing the care of all in-
sane under the direct control of the
A survey of the present method of
care of insane partly by counties, it
is said by Dr. Baldy, has disclosed
conditions that are “inefficient and
deplorable.” The same buildings and
facilities now in use, he says, would
house 25 per cent. more patients if
placed under state control and super-
“In many counties,” says Dr. Baldy,
“dangerously insane patients are car-
ed for in the same institutions as the
poor. They eat at the same table and
are forced to associate with each oth-
er. That is deplorable. It is unfair
to the poor, who deserve better care,
and it is equally unfair to the insane,
as they do not get the treatment that
might restore many of them to sani-
ty. ,
“Under state supervision we could
remedy all that. We could segregate
in separate institutions those requir-
ing different care; we could put the
tubercular in one place and the dan-
gerously insane in another, and so on.
Moreover, it would cost less to care
for them adequately.”
How many pigs are there in the
United States? Because of the un-
certainty regarding the size of the
population of animal life the Depart-
ment of Agriculbure, co-operating
with the Postoffice Department, is
going to conduct a pig census begin-
ning in May. When the census is
completed the department will know
as much about American pigs as it
does about American men, women and
Instead of hiring an army of infor-
mation gatherers, such as is necessa-
ry in the decennial census of humans,
the Department of Agriculture has
made an arrangement with the Post-
office Department whereby letter car-
riers, and rural carriers particularly,
will do most of the work. It is esti-
mated that the carriers can cover the
country closely, as there are 24,000 in
the rural service alone.
societies realized that under the old
regime their efforts overlapped and
there was an abundant of lost motion
in the conduct of affairs.
The united societies unanimously
elected the following officers: Presi-
dent, Mrs. Mary Newlin, Spruce Creek
church, Franklinville, Pa.; associate
president, Mrs. H. R. Smith, First
church, Altoona; first vice president
or the chairman of the society of
Home Missions, Mrs. H. H. Stine, of
the Second church, Altoona; second
vice president or chairman of the so-
ciety of Foreign Missions, Miss Eliz-
abeth Findley, Second church, Altoo-
na; third vice president, Mrs. M. F.
Fisher, Huntingdon; fourth vice pres-
ident, Mrs. John T. Scott, Philipsburg; '
fifth vice president, Mrs. O. H. Travis,
First church, Altoona; sixth vice pres-
ident, Mrs. Samuel Barber, Bellwood;
seventh vice president, Mrs. Charles
Reed, Huntingdon; eighth vice presi-
dent, Mrs. G. L. Russell, Lewistown.
District presidents: Mrs. M. H.
Alexander, Hollidaysburg; Miss Grace
Woodcock, Birmingham; Miss Som-
merivlle, Winburne; Miss Mary H.
Linn, Bellefonte; Mrs. Allison Miller,
, Huntingdon; Mrs. M. K. Gifford, Mt.
Union; Mrs. J. M. Ewing, Lewistown;
Miss Nellie Morrell, Hollidaysburg;
Mrs. S. R. Lowrie, Warriorsmark;
Mrs. Samuel Barber, Bellwood; Miss
Anna McCoy, Bellefonte; Mrs. J. W.
. Galbraith, Bedford, and Mrs. F. M.
Emerick, Mifflintown.
Recording secreary, Miss Elsie Clif-
ford, Altoona; corresponding secreta-
ry, Mrs. J. H. Fretz, Lewistown;
treasurer foreign missions, Mrs. Theo-
dore Jackson, Philipsburg; treasurer
home missions, Mrs. E. E. Sanford,
Secretaries of the young peoples
work, Miss Anna Fisher, Huntingdon;
Miss M. Boob, Huntingdon; Mrs. Wil-
Reading, Berks Co., Pop. - - AO T
Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne Co., Pop. 73,828
Bethlehem, Northampton Co., Pop. 54,149
| York, York Co., Pop. - - 47,514
Williamsport, Lycoming Co., Pop. 36,198
New Castle, Lawrence Co., Pop. 44.938
Butler, Butler Co., Pop. - - 23,788 ¢
Waynesboro, Franklin Co., Pop. 9.720
Kingston, Luzerne Co., Pop. - 8.952
Grove City, Mercer Co., Pop. - 4.944
with it.
liam Stahl, Juniata; secretary West-
minster Guild, Miss Catherine Woods,
literature, Mrs.
ucation, Mrs. H. H. Boor, Altoona;
associate members, Mrs. J. O. C. Me-
Cracken, Altoona; Standard of excel-
lence, Miss Virginia Zerby, Philips-
There is a great deal of misunder-
standing about what an elephant can
do with his trunk. It is a sensitive
organ and he never uses it for heavy
labor, but he can strike a terrific blow
I have seen many a man’s
ribs and arms broken when he neg-
| lected to take the proper precautions.
ors a clean milk supply and protection |
In approaching a dangerous elephant,
a man should come up sideways, with
| the nearer arm folded to protect the
also means that Milford is protecting :
Pennsylvania and adjoining States’
ribs. Then, if the blow fell on the upper
part of the arm, there is the
most flesh to protect the bone. Such
a blow never knocks a man flat; it
tumbles over.
The elephant uses both his trunk '
and his lungs in calling, and he has a
large variety of sounds and combina-
tion of sounds with which to express
himself. When rushing an enemy, he
trumpets shrilly; when enraged by a
wound, he grumbles hoarsely from his
throat; he expresses fear by a shrill,
brassy trumpet and a roar; and pleas-
ure by a continued low squeaking
through the trunk. When apprehen-
sive of danger or when attempting to
intimidate an enemy, he raps the end
of his trunk smartly on the ground
and trumpets. The peculiar noise
sounds like that produced by the roll-
ing up of a sheet of tin,
In a moment of danger, the ele-
phaat coils his trunk to protect it
from injury. When he is engaged in
heavy work, such as piling lumber, he
may use his trunk to balance the load
he is carrying on his tusks, but never
to bear part of the burden. If an un-
harnessed elephant must pull a rope,
he holds it in his mouth, taking good
care to keep his trunk out of the way.
It has happened many times that an
elephant keeper—not a trainer, for a
trainer knows better—has used a hook
a little too freely on an elephant’s
trunk. If he doesn’t get killed, he
picks himself up, several yards from
where he was standing. A trainer is
invariably pleased at such an occur-
rence, because it shows that the keep-
er was abusing the elephant and has
merely received his deserts. The ele-
phant is a good, faithful animal, and
he does not attack his keeper without
excuse.—Charles Mayer.
rr—————— ron ———
——The German women are solving
the problem of shortage of men
through the employment of a sort of
marriage market. Matrimonial bu-
reaus in Berlin have been carrying on
a very active and extensive business
finding husbands for the German wom-
en in Europe, America, Asia and even
Africa. The surprising feature of the
business is the patronage of people of
high social standing. Since the war
there has been a breaking down of so-
cial barriers and weddings are fre-
quent between members of old nobiti-
ty and commoners, American soldiers
figure largely in the marriage trans-
action, and even Frenchmen find suit-
able matches in Germany. Widows
are very popular with those seeking
wives, for there are many of these
who own furnished homes for the
bachelors to move into.—Reformatory
——Most of us know better but few
of us do better.
Campbell, Petersburg; missionary ed-
The cares which are the keys to riches
hang often so heavily at the rich man's
girdle that they clog him with weary days
and restless nights, when others sleep qui-
etly.—Izaac Walton.
The dressmakers, watching their
colleagues, determined to try the
trick. They were weary of plain
clothes. They believed that such
clothes kept women from spending.
So they invented ingenious ways of
decorating a frock. Some of them are
novels, others are revivals.
Jenny has put her faith in English
eyelet work. For this the Island of
Madeira is famous, and any one who
| has been a tourist in those crooked lit-
| tle streets waiting for an ox-cart with
‘a canopy for an afternoon drive has
, stopped at small booths and bought
the coarse linen handkerchiefs, table
{ linen and badly cut underclothes which |
! the country offers as a means of sell-
| ing its eyelet work. Jenny has adopt-
"ed the exact Madeira patterns.
cue from the exile of Charles and Zi-
ta, of Austria. Not only does Jenny
put this eyelet work on frocks, but she
uses it on heavy white linen for collar
and cuffs, on blue serge gowns, also
on black crepe ones. Paris, you know,
is amusing itself with the American
Peter Pan collar, which the Americans ,
wore at Deauville last year and at
Nice and Cannes this February. Such
collars give a firm foundation for eye- °
let work.
The dressmakers have caught a
trick from the interior decorators as
well as from milliners when they use
white cotton and linen tape in Renais-
sance designs on street frocks; and,
by the way, the Renaissance patterns
have preference over the Egyptian
points and Moroccan triangles.
interlocking loops and the wheel with
its many spokes and ornamental cen-
ter are designs that the dressmakers
use when they want to splash white or
colored linen tape on, say, a blue serge
It might be said in passing that
blue serge has come forward like a
debutante. It has many rivals, but its
backers are powerful dressmakers.
Trimmed with white cotton tape, half
! covered with eyelet work, it presents
itself as an easy victim to those who
i turn out hundreds of gowns at small
prices, ready to wear.
linked with the sea. Fish scales are
made into ropes and garlands. Flakes
' of seashells, pink and opalescent, are
made into flowers which are used on
i the drapery of skirt or as a girdle, and
these are new. They are sometimes
: strung together for long earrings, for
| the jewelers have permitted the dress-
makers to encroach upon their prerog-
atives, and it is now possible to buy a
tiara, a pair of earrings, a jeweled
girdle from the house that makes
your frock. Not only are snail shells
strung together for earrings, but one
girl in Paris wears bunches of frost-
ed silver grapes in her ears.
Silk ginghams from France have a
strong appeal to many, and these are
usually found in the two-toned check-
ed design that gained such enormous
vogue in cotton ginghams last season.
Extremely small and extremely large
checks divide the honors.
That white will be even more popu-
lar this spring than last is every-
where predicted. The all-white frock
or suit worn with a bright colored hat
is noticeable at many of the smart
winter resorts, where one may get a
foretaste of general spring tenden-
| cies.
| French silk makers do not overlook
the persistent vogue for materials
sends him spinning like a top until he with a highly lustrous finish and much |
| has been made in Paris of a so-called
metallic satin, made of silk and cot-
out containing any metal.
White and oyster-colored pongee
has been shown by some of the clever
dressmakers in the gowns shown for
early spring resort wear.
themselves to the woman who must
be economical.
Wear canary yellow or cinnamon
brown if you want to be smart this
So said the backers of the Philadel-
phia Fashion Show and Pageant that
took place in the Bellevue-Stratford
last week. Sixty mannequins display-
ed the gowns, shoes, hats and dress
accessories shown by fifty exhibitors
from Philadelphia. Students of the
School of Industrial Art also showed
their skill in fashioning the latest cre-
ations for the well-dressed woman's
wardrobe. :
Individuality in style is said by the
exhibitors to be the guiding principle
behind the designing of the clothes in
the coming spring season, making a
complete departure from the uniform-
ity in dress that exists at present.
The Oriental and Russian influences
will strike the exotic note in dress.
For afternoon and evening gowns
canary yellow threatens to be the fa-
vorite. For street and outdoor wear
cinnamon brown is being strongly
backed. Combinations of red will be a
close second in popularity, with black
still holding on well in the forefront
of fashion.
Remedies for Burns.—The house-
keeper who numbers cooking among
her many household duties is always
liable to be burned when around the
stove. For small scorches an appli-
cation of cold cream, or a greasy so-
lution of any kind keeps the air from
the raw flesh and eases the pain.
In the case of deep burns a box of
bismuth ointment should be at hand,
as this is cooling and healing where
another application might cause in-
tense pain. The remedy for the slight
burns is really to keep the air from
the raw places, and if salve applied is
of a healing nature the new skin will
form much quicker.
Scalloped Steak.—One pound ham-
burg steak, one egg, teaspoonful salt,
half teaspoonful pepper, tablespoon
of cracker crumbs, cup sweet milk.
Mix in order named and turn into a
bread pan in which a large piece of
butter has been melted. Bake for 30
No |
doubt the French imagination took its |
The !
Ornate trimmings are still closely
ton, producing a metallic sheen with-
And these
are both fabrics that recommend !
| —
| —This is a good time to start a ber-
- ry patch.
| —In the souuthern part of the
i State, as soon as the ground becomes
| dry enough to work, plant onion sets
and sow spinach, beets, peas, carrots
and lettuce. This may be done about
April 10th in other parts of the State.
| —Disease-free potato seed last sea-
son in Pennsylvania averaged 45 per
cent. increase over ordinary home
grown seed. This is one reason why
farmers of this State have bought
: 100,000 bushels of good seed for plant-
ing this year, more than twice as much
as was planted last year. They yield-
ed almost 70 bushels more to the acre
last season.
—The regular pruning is best done
during the dormant season, in spring,
for then growth soon heals the
wounds. There is a popular notion
that there is danger in pruning when
the wood is frozen, though there is re-
ally little to this. Serious injury has
seldom been known as the result of
winter pruning. In case of such ten-
der fruits as the peach, pruning may
well be delayed until spring, when
the extent of the crop is known.
—Do not delay further the pruning
of grape vines. Many home vines are
not pruned as severely as they should
be. Strong vines should be cut to car-
ry not more than twenty to fifty buds,
and weaker vines will do best on even
fewer buds. The new crop comes
{from the buds now present on last
year’s wood. Eight canes with about
six buds each is a good proportion for
strong vines. Write to The Pennsyl-
vania State College agricultural
school for extension circular No. 81,
which gives detailed information on
grape pruning.
—The three new tomato varieties
developed by Professor C. Emery My-
ers, of the agricultural school at The
Pennsylvania State College, and an-
nounced but a few weeks ago, have al-
ready gained a national reputation.
During the past three weeks Profes-
sor Myers has received hundreds of
requests for seed samples. They have
.come from almost every State in the
Union, and several from Canada. Cal-
ifornia, Texas, Florida, New Hamp-
shire and Washington are represented
in the queries for additional informa-
. tion and seed.
One of the first requests of William
Jennings Bryan on his recent visit to
| State College was to meet rose
Myers and see his new tomatoes.
; had heard about them in Florida, and
. was greatly interested. The new to-
. matoes are noted for their ability to
- yield better than the average, and for
i their appearance, flavor and manner
of growth without cracking. They
have been called “Nittany,” “Match-
um,” and “Penn State Earliana.” The
first named was obtained through
crossing a lage red tomato and a small
yellow pear tomato; the second result-
ed from a cross with Matchless and
Hummer varieties, and the third came
from the development of an especially
fine fruit of Earliana. Professor My-
ers has some seed left for distribution
to those interested.
—Making the Hotbed and the Cold
Frame.—Hotbeds are made by dig-
ging a pit three feet deep and as large
as desired. For the average farm a
one-sash bed is generally large
enough. Hotbed sash measures three
feet in width and six in length; the
pit should extend six inches beyond
it all around. For the frame-work
two-inch stuff should be used. The
; back of the bed should be 8 or 10 inch-
! es deeper than the front, and 8 and 18
. makes a good depth.
The frame should be so constructed
that the sash will fit it snugly, and be
; made so it may be pushed either back
‘or forth to permit easy working at
i either end, and to ventilate on bright
days. Double-glass sash are best.
| Where more than one sash is used,
'a partition must be constructed be-
' tween each frame, sufficiently high to
admit of this strip above the sash on
each side, or else it may be a little
more than flush with the top of the
sash and a four inch board nailed on
top. This will prevent swelling of the
partition boards, by shedding the rain.
Manure fresh from the horse barn
is packed evenly and firmly in the pit
and covered with six inches of rich
soil. The manure, if heating when
used, should be forked over a few
times to secure an even distribution
of the heat before being packed in the
pit. It should be fairly moist or it
will fire in the bed with a strong heat
and not last long. On the other hand,
if the manure is wet enough it will
heat evenly and slowly, and will last
until warm weather, and rot without
burning black to any great extent.
There must be a lot of humus in hot-
bed soil, and it should be fairly rich.
The difference between a hotbed
and a cold frame is that no pit is pro-
vided for the latter, and no manure is
used for heating. The only heat a
cold frame has is that which comes
from the sun. The mission of the
cold frame is to grow and harden the
plants, after the hotbed has started
them. They remain in the cold frame
until ready to set out. Plants of a
large size cannot be grown in hotbeds.
The plants in the hotbed require
plenty of water, and when needed it
should be given in large doses, rather
than in frequent small ones. This
watering should be continued so long
as the soil will readily absorb it. The
soils should then be watched, and
when the ground is dry enough so it
will crumble at a touch when pressed
into a ball, it should again be watered,
but not before. The seeds should be
sown in rows about three inches apart,
so as to enable one to stir the soil and
thus admit air.
Both hotbeds and cold frames, when
covered with glass, need close watch-
ing, for a bright sun is very apt to run
up the heat. It is advisable to keep a
thermometer in the bed, and when the
temperature gets above 80 degrees on
the shady side of a board, the sash
should be opened a little, regardless of
the coldness of the weather. All the
air possible should be given, and the
temperature kept up to a growing
heat. Toward the last the sash should
be left off as much as possible. Let
the plants have every warm, slow