Democratic watchman. (Bellefonte, Pa.) 1855-1940, January 14, 1921, Image 2

Below is the OCR text representation for this newspapers page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

    Demonia atom
Bellefonte, Pa., January 14, 1921.
1 think, oftentimes, of a laddie I know,
And who lives just over the way,
His clothing is ragged, his hands stained
and rough,
And he knows more of work than of
He owns naught of beauty, of wit or of
Yet his presence brings comfort and joy,
For when help is needed, he's always at
This blessed, dependable boy.
Has a cog slipped its place in the wheels
of the day?
And we're puzzled and troubled the
He knows what to do, and he does it at
With a song and a bright, cheery smile.
Then, here's to the laddie that everyone
Whose presence brings comfort and joy:
Life's tangles all straighten and troubles
take wing
For this blessed, dependable boy.
—TFlorence Jones Hadley.
Revenue Officers to Visit Every Coun-
ty to Assist in Making Out
Work has begun on the collection
of the income tax for the year 1920.
Uncle Sam, through the Bureau of
Internal Revenue, is addressing to
every person in the United States the
estion, “What was your net income
for 19207?” The answer permits of no
guess work. Every single person
whose net income for 1920 was $1,000
or more and every married person
whose net income was $2,000 or more
is required to file a return under oath
with the collector of internal revenue
for the district in which he lives on
or before March 15, 1921.
The penalty for failure is a fine of
not more than $1,000 and an addition-
al assessment of 25 per cent. of the
amount of tax due. For Willful re-
fusal to make a return the penalty is
a fine of not more than $10,000 or not
exceeding one year's imprisonment, or
both together with the costs of prose-
cution. A similar penalty is provided
for making a false or fraudulent re-
turn, together with an additional as-
sessmert of 50 per cent. of the
amount of tax evaded.
The income tax applies to women
as well as men. Husband and wife
must consider the income of both plus
that of minor dependent children, and
if the total equals or exceeds $2,000 a
return must be filed. A minor who
has a net income in his own right of
$1,000 or more must file a separate
return. To be allowed the $2,000 ex-
emption a married person must be liv-
ing with husband or wife on the last
day of the taxable year, December 31,
1920. Divorcees, persons separated by
mutual agreement, widows and wid-
owers, unless they are the sole sup-
port of others living in the same
household, in which case they are al-
jowed the $2,000 exemption granted
the head of a family, are entitled only
to $1,000 exemption.
The normal tax rate for 1920 is the
same as for 1919—4 per cent. on the
first $4,000 of net income above the
exemption and 8 per cent. on the re-
maining net income. This applies to
every citizen and resident of the
United States. In addition to the
nermal tax a surtax is imposed upon
net income in excess of $5,000.
Full instructions for making out re-
turns are contained on the forms, cop-
jes of which may be obtained from
collectors of internal revenue. Per-
sons whose net income for 1920 was
$5,000 or less should use Form 1040A.
Those with incomes in excess of $5,
000 should use Form 1040.
Revenue officers "will visit every
county in the United States to assist
taxpayers in making out their returns.
The date of their arrival and the lo-
cation of their offices will be an-
nounced by the press or may be ascer-
tained upon inquiry at the offices of
collectors. This advisory service is
without cost to taxpayers.
Returns must show both gross and
net income. Gross income includes
practically every dollar received by
the taxpayer during the year 1920.
The net income is determined by sub-
tracting from gross income certain
deductions specified by the revenue
law, and fully explained in instruc-
tions on forms 1040-A and 1040 for
filing returns.
Business expenses are the principal
allowable deductions in computing net
income. The law specifically prohib-
its the deduction of household and liv-
ing expenses. Typical deductible bus-
iness expenses are for salaries, labor,
cost of merchandise, raw materials
and supplies, rent, repairs, light, pow-
er, delivery, selling cost, advertising,
and insurance. Doctors, lawyers, and
like professional men may deduct
from their gross income dies paid to
professional societies and subsecrip-
tions to professional journals, rent
paid for offices, amounts paid for
light, fuel, water, and telephene used
in such offices, and the wages paid to
office assistants.
This year, as last, the tax may be
paid in full at the time of filing the
return, on or before March 15, 1921,
or in four installments, the first of
which is due on or before March 15,
the second on or before Jume 15, the
third on or before September 15, and
the fourth on or before December 15.
The return must be filed with the
collector of internal revenue for the
district in which the taxpayer lives.
Heavy penalties are provided for fail-
ure or willful refusal to make a return
and pay the tax when due.
The district revenue collector for
this district is T. C. Kirkendall,
Scranton, Pa. 5
Men who will assist you in making
out your report if you live in Centre
county are Col. Hugh S. Taylor and
Mr. Schwepenheiser. The latter will
be located here for a period.
P. O. S. of A. Installations.
On the 3rd inst. E. S. Ripka, dis-
trict president of the Third district of
Centre county, assisted by past presi-
dent T. L. Smith, of Centre Hall
camp, installed the following officers
in Washington Camp P. O. S. of A.,
No. 891, Spring Mills, Pa.
Past President—W. H. Smith,
President—Charles R. Zerby.
Vice President—Harold E. Stover.
Master of Forms—Jerry Albright.
Recording Secretary—Grover Walker.
Ass’t’ Recording Sec’y—Wm. H. Hettin-
Financial Secretary—Calvin King.
Treasurer—S. L. Condo.
Chaplain—Howard Weaver.
Conductor—Ray Zeigler.
Inspector—J. F. Carter.
Guard—H. 8. Ulrich.
Right Sentinel—John Moser.
Left Sentinel—J. O. Crater.
Trustees—Ed. C. Zerby,
Jerry Albright.
Spring Mills camp is in a. good
financial condition and has good pros-
pects for a nice increase Eni this
On the 6th inst. the district presi-
dent also installed the following offi-
cers in Camp 889, Centre Hall, Pa.
Past President—Hugh M. Ralston.
President—Harold H. Keller.
Vice President—Thomas A. Hosterman.
Master of Forms—R. D. Foreman.
Recording Sec.—T. L. Smith.
Ass't. Recording Sec’y—N. L. Bartges.
Financial Secretary—E. 8S. Ripka.
Treasurer—D. W. Bradford.
Chaplain—Rev. M. C. Drumm.
Conductor—Paul Ripka.
Inspector—Norman Walker.
Guard—Lewis A. Beightol.
Right Sentinel—Miles Snyder.
Left Sentinel—Clyde Walker.
Trustees—N. L. Bartges, E. 8. Ripka, A.
C. Ripka.
Centre Hall camp is in a very flour-
ishing condition in every way. Ithas
had an increase of over twenty dur-
ing the past six months, with a mem-
bership now of 134, a half dozen more
elected and more applications to be
presented. There is every reason for
another big increase during 1921.
8S. L. Condo,
States Support Enforcement Law.
Reports from ‘the important dis-
tricts, including the States of Penn-
sylvania, New Jersey and Delaware,
show that the federal authorities are
receiving excellent suppert in the en-
forcement of the prohibition law by
the state constabulary of Pennsylva-
nia, and that, in the main, the State
officers of New Jersey are co-operat-
ing effectively, John F. Kramer, Pro-
hibition Commissioner, said:
“We are not as yet receiving the
assistance and co-operation of the
police authorities of these two States
as we would like to have it, but there
is a tendency in this direction, and
I feel quite sure it will not be long un-
til the police authorities of the mu-
nicipalities of these States will be
rendering ‘us the support and co-op-
eration which we need in order to se-
cure the best results under the law,”
said Mr. Kramer. “In reference to
the State of Delaware, we are not hav-
ing a great deal of trouble with con-
ditions there.”
Leo A. Crossen, supervising feder-
al prohibition agent for the States of
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Dela-
ware, reported that between the dates
of January 16 and October 1, 1920,
over 2500 arrests were made in his
district, the same being reported to
the United States district attorneys
for prosecution. The number of con-
victions, acquittals and seizures arc
as follows:
Pennsylvania, convictions, 164; ac-
quittals, 84; seizures, 875; automo-
biles seized, 70.
New Jersey, convictions, 26; acquit-
tals, 3; seizures, 185; automobiles
seized, 30. °
Delaware, convictions, 3; acquittals,
0; seizures, 7; automobiles seized, 2.
The quantity of spiritous liquors
seized from March to September in
the different States is as follows:
Pennsylvania, 18,7756 gallons; New
Jersey, 6141 gallons; Delaware, 176,
25 gallons; total, 25,092.25 gallons.
State College to Plant Waste Land to
Following its policy adopted sever-
al years ago of putting land not now
valuable for farm crops or pasturage
into timber crops, the forestry depart-
ment of The Pennsylvania State Col-
lege will plant fifteen thousand trees
on thirteen acres of college land next
spring. This practice is generally rec-
ommended to Pennsylvania farmers as
a means for meeting future timber
needs, and the college work demon-
strates its advisability.
In the pasttwo years nearly 24,000
trees have been planted at the college
on what was considered worthless
land. The species included 11,200
white pine trees; 7,900 red pine; 2,500
pitch pine; 1,900 European larch and
100 Douglas fir. Most of the stock
was two, three and four years old ma-
terial secured free of charge from the
State Department of Forestry at Har-
risburg. The balance came from the
college nurseries. Spring plantings
will be made on land that was farmed
at one time, abandoned and uncropped
for years because of the poor soil, and
recently acquired by the college. Or-
ders for the planting include 10,000
white pine, 3,000 red pine and 2,000
Norway spruce seedlings.
Making Bad Things Worse.
Winter, as if it were an evil spirit,
seems to take delight in making bad
things worse. Rheumatism twists harder,
twinges sharper, catarrh becomes more an-
noying, and the many symptoms of scrof-
ula are developed and aggravated. These
are common diseases, and it is a wonder
that more people don’t get rid of them.
Hood's Sarsaparilla has been very suc-
cessful in the treatment of these com-
plaints. It is easily obtained, and there
is abundant testimony that its effects are
radical and permanent.
In cases where a laxative or cathartic is
needed, it is well to supplement Hood's
Sarsaparilla with Hood’s Pills, which are
gentle, therough and effective. 66-2
We lie in the lap of immense intelli-
gence, which makes us organs of its ac-
tivity and receivers of its truth.—Emerson.
For a calendar luncheon, which is
quite a novelty and fitting for any
time during the first month of the new
year, ask just 12 guests. Write the
invitations on small calendars just to
fit the envelope and for place cards
use a wee pad and pencil attached, the
name of the guest on the top of the
first page. With each course (six in
all) two resolutions are to be written,
after which the pad is passed to the
next-door neighbor, so the next two
resolutions will be written by another
person. When the dessert course
comes the hostess collects the pads
and reads them aloud with very amus-
ing resulis:
ere is a lively game to complete
the party; it is hard, but good fun:
Suspend 12 baskets from an arch or
door way, each one with the name of
a month on it. There must be 12 rub-
ber balls with the same name of the
month printed on in black ink so it
will not rub off.
The trick is to see who can place the
greatest number of balls in the right
‘baskets. “The score does: not count if
“the ball does not.go into the basket of
the same month. Each player is per-
mitted two throws with each ball. A
calendar is awarded for the prize to
the one having the lowest score. This
in itself is a surprise.
A calendar tea is arranged in this
way: In the invitation ask each guest
to state the month of her birthday
when she accepts, then see that all
those who have the same month meet
each other or are served at the same
time. Cards may be prepared having
the name of stone, flower and verse-
let on them. Also the names of prom-
inent people born in that month. This
promotes conversation and is a fine
scheme for a church social.
Readers are continually requesting
schemes by which to find partners and
Yhep ask also for guessing contests,
so here is a combination which I am
sure will be welcome. It was used by
an up-to-date teacher of music at one
of her recitals, at which each pupil
was told to bring a guest. After the
program slips of paper were passed,
half .of which bore the questions and:
the other half the answers. en a
“question” found her “answer” part-
ners were found for refreshments,
which were served in the dining room.
Try it, all you musically inclined, as
it does not necessarily have to be used
to find partners, but makes a good
contest. ,
Used on a bundle............ Chord (cord)
A place of abode............cen0iueis Flat
A reflection on character.............. Slur
Bottom of a statue............ Bass (base)
An unaffected person.............. Natural
Used in driving horses............... Lines
What makes a check valid ?...... Signature
What we breathe every day............ Air
Found on the ocean................. Swells
What betrays nationality ?........../ Accent
An association of lawyers............. Bar
Part of 8 Bia... c.oinveerssarisenins Scales
Used in climbing a hill............... Staft
Part of .a sentence..... cups sveses Phrase
Used on an Organ...........eeveess Pedals
Here is a clever way for either a lit-
erary club or an evening party to
spend an hour. Have score-cards
decorated with a woman’s head, done
in water colors, or a pretty head cut
from an advertisement will answer,
then have numbers from 1 to 20.
Write the following sentences, ex-
plaining that the first letter of each
word is the initial letter in some well-
known woman’s name.
Has Helped Justice.
Kindergarten’s Dearest Writer.
Mystic Characterizer.
Even Betters Browning.
Reproduced Beasts.
. Ever Spiritually Pondering.
Little Men's Advocate.
Has Blessed Slaves.
. Faithful, Enthusiastic Worker.
Lessens Every Pain.
Courageous Benefactor. :
Energetically Champions Suf-
Famed for Courtesy.
Always Parting.
Modest Actress.
Loquaciously Belligerent.
Charming Nightingale.
. Cheerfully Destroyed Many.
The key to this entertainment will
be furnished by Madame Merri if a
self-addressed and stamped envelope
is enclosed.
No dentist’s office nowadays is con-
sidered well equipped without an X-
ray machine.
The X-ray, as everybody knows, is
of enormous usefulness for many pur-
poses that have to do with medicine
and particularly surgery. But beyond
a doubt its value in connection with
surgery of the mouth is most import-
ant of all.
Many dentists, before beginning to
operate on a new patient, make an ex-
amination of the jaws by the X-ray.
Only in this way is it possible to know
with certainty the exact conditions de-
manding treatment.
Above all, it is necessary to know
whether or not any abscesses lie con-
cealed in the gums. For these, as sci-
ence has only of late discovered, are a
fruitful source of many miseries.
There is an old saying to the effect
that “what one does not know will not
hurt him.” But this idea certainly
does not apply to abscesses at the
roots of the teeth, which may long ex-
ist unsuspected.
Abscesses rarely form at the roots
of live teeth; but often it happens that
a tooth dies, and no notice is given of
the funeral. Or, perhaps the nerve
has been intentionally killed. In either
case it is a dead one, and an abscess
is quite likely, sooner or later, to form
at its root.
The X-ray shows up such an abscess
clearly. It appears on the “shadow-
graph” film as a dark spot. Then the
tooth should be pulled without delay.
Every such abscess is a germ fac-
tory. It produces a continuous crop
of pus-forming bacteria, which, being
swallowed, find their way through the
stomach into the blood.
These germs are liable to lodge in
the joints, where they proceed to
breed, feeding on the tissues and
thereby engendering inflammations.
As a result, there is rheumatism, with
its attendant pains, and perhaps
eventual deformation of the bones, if
the trouble is prolonged and severe.
Until within the last few years den-
tists made no inquiry in regard to
abscesses in the gums, save in cases
where they caused so much local dis-
comfort as to render the pulling of a
tooth necessary. It was certainly not
suspected that they had anything to
do with causing rheumatism or other
ailments of the body. But today when
any mysterious malady turns up the
up-to-date physician sends the patient
to the dentist to have his jaws X-
‘Abscesses of the gums are of rath-
er frequent occurrence, and, as a rule,
their presence does not excite the at-
tention of the sufferer. A person may
have half a dozen or more of them
without suspecting it. Thy are almost
certain to occur in neglected mouths,
but nobody is safe.
Sometimes they cause inflamma-
tions of the eyes; occasionally they
impair the hearing. There is no end
to the mischiefs they engender. One
easily understands why, in former
days, when there were no dentists and
people’s teeth received no proper at-
tention, rheumatism was an affliction
so much more prevalent than now-
adays. “The “aches and pains of old
age,” so bitterly complained of by our
forebears, , were attributable mainly
to abscesses in their gums.
Japanese Said to Have Evolved 32
Scheme That Is Ingénious and
Profitable as Well.
The time may probably come when
the land is overcrowded and people
begin to live on water. Then we shall
be building floating skyscrapers and
aquatic par! s At any rate, congenial
Japanese have already launched a
scheme which in the opinion of the
projectors hits many birds by one
stone. The scheme is the creation ot
what is called floating warehouses.
During the war Japan built many
good-sized wooden ships to eid in the
transportation of the allies’ goods.
After the war these ships were dais-
missed from the service, and. since
then lay idle in harbors unable to ob-
tain cargoes due to post-war slumps in
Taking advantage of this circum-
stance, a group of men organized a
concern called the Marine Warehouse
company, with a capital of 10,000,000
yen; bought the wooden ships and
started a floating warehouse business.
The company is now engaged in es-
tablishing eight floating warehouses of
1,000 tons each in the harbor of Kobe.
The ships are to be attended by three
launches of 1,000 tons capacity each.
The aquatic warehouses, being exempt-
ed from extortionate rent and taxes,
and largely free from the danger of
fire, in addition to many peculiar ad-
vantages consequential to their mova-
ble character shall be able, it is
- claimed, to carry on the business at a
much lower rate with greater facility.
providing a formidable enemy, in the
future, of their terrestrial cousins.—
Fast and West News,
The Navipendulum.
One of the problems which naval
architects have to confront is the roll-
ing of a ship on the waves, and the
“navipendulum” is an invention for
dealing with it experimentally.
The apparatus consists of two
parts: A plate to which a motion cor-
responding to that of a portion of the
surface of a wave is imparted, and a
pendulum of a peculiar shape which
rolls upon the moving plate in the man-
ner of a vessel supported by water.
The same pendulum can be made
to represent different vessels of given
size and shape by adding or renfoving
artificial resistance to the oscillatory
motion. :
This instrument has been employed
to study the rolling of the Italian bat-
tleships as well as those of other
Preachers’ Sons.
i know the age-old jibes concerning
preachers’ sons and deacons’ daugh-
specting them. (The writer is one of
them.) [It is true that much, and
much too much is expected of them.
but have no great concern re- |
Swiss Postmen Face Grave Dangers
in Execution of Their Duty
Among the Mountains.
There are several post offices In
Switzerland at a height of 7,000 or
more feet and a mail box on the very
summit of the Languard, from which
four collections are made daily, Is
nearly 10,000 feet above the sea level.
Near here some years ago three letter
carriers were crushed to death by an
avalanche. In an adjacent canton, in
the summer of 1863, a postman fell
into a crevasse while crossing a gla-
cier, his two full bags on his back.
All efforts to recover either the body
or the mails were fruitless. But 34
years afterward, in 1897, the glacier
cast forth its prey many miles lower
down the valley, and the long-lost let-
ters were delivered to as many of the
addresses as could be traced.
Not infrequently, too, these Alpine
postmen are attacked by the huge,
fierce eagles that soar hungrily above
the least frequented crags. Usually
“the men are able to beat off their
feathered assailants but not always.
In July one year a postman who car-
ried the mails on’ foot between the vil-
lages of Sospello and Puget Theniers
was fatally mauled by three such
birds, Of two men who attempted to
avenge his death one was killed out-
right and another injured so severely
that his life was for a long time In
Is Possessed of Degree of Intelligence
That Has Been Recognized by
Spiders are commonly spoken of as
insects, but they aren't. They belong
to a very different order of animals,
being “arachnids.”
They get this name, by the way,
from a mythological maiden named
Arachne, who was so proud of her
weaving that she challenged Minerva
to a trial of skill. The goddess ac-
cepted the. challenge, but finding her-
self in danger of defeat, lost her tem-
per, struck her presumptuous rival and
turned her into a spider.
The spider is incomparably more
intelligent than any insect, and its
cleverness as a maker of nets obtain-
ed for it a well-warranied admiration.
It is the female that does this work,
the male being only a fraction of her
size and of no account except for con-
tinuing the species.
A spider has what may be called a
recognizable brain. But so, for the
matter of that, has a caterpillar,
though less well developed. The nerv-
ous system of the latter is a mere string
with knots of nerve stuff (ganglia) at
intervals along it.
a SL,
Humoresque. ;
They were three perfect boarding
house ladies.
“Yes,” said the lady who prided
herself on her authoritative state-
ments. “I think ‘The Humoresque’ is
“That's the new theater downtown
fsn’t it, dear?’ asked the lady who
prided herself on keeping up to date.
“No, my dear, that is the name of a
motion picture,” patiently explained
the first lady.
«lg it?’ asked the third lady, who
prided herself on her musical ability.
«T thought it was a musical composi-
tion, My brother is a musician,” she
continued. “He was the leader of a
band during the war. That's where
I learned what I know about music.
He played ‘The Humoresque’ beauti-
fully, so I am sure you are wrong
about its being a picture.”
Title Passed With Him.
The last holder of the judicial title
of baron in Great Britain passed with
the recent death in Dublin of Chris-
topher Palles, who was baron of the
exchequer in Ireland. The title of
baron was abolished when the court
of exchequer was merged with the
Queen’s bench, and Lord Chief Baron
| Palles was the last bearer of it.
They are constantly in the eye of the
! land in 1872, and tue same year was
members of the congregation, and little
allowance is made for their shortcom-
ings. Trivial offenses are magnified.
and they are rarely treated with real
justice. Yet in a long life I have
known -many preachers’ sons, and
there have heen very few “black
sheep” among them. In nme cases out
of ten they have proved to be high- !
minded. honorable ai. respected citi
zens. —Melville E. Stone in Collier's
Philippine Coal.
Signs of industrial expansion in the
Philippine islands are seen in the re-
cent formation of a company which
is developing the Cebu coal mines as
well as those in Mindanao. It is ex-
pected that within a comparatively
short time the output’ of these two
islands will be sufficient to supply
the needs of the whole archipelago as
regards good steam coal. The Min-
danao product, which comes from
what is known as the Silsbuguey coal
field, is asserted on the one hand to
be superior to any other Philippine
coal or any coal imported into the
islands, while on the other hand 1 is
said to be liable to deteriorate if not
used promptly.
spanish Licorice Industry.
The manufacture of licorice extrac
and paste is an important Spanish in
dustry. This is a comparatively new
industry, as formerly the root was
exported unmanufactured. Over 6,
oN 000 pounds of the root ere ex
ported in 1918 and more than 600,00
pounds of extract and paste
He was the solicitor general for Ire-
promoted attorney general. After hold-
ing the latter office for two years he
became lord chief baron and held that
position until 1916.
He was one of the ablest lawyers on
the Irish bench and one of the wittiest,
. but had a great regard for the dignity
of his court. He was eighty-nine years
old when he died.—Kansas City Star.
Famous Conservatory Gone.
The celebrated horticultural conserv-
atory on the ducal estates at Chats-
worth hall, near Manchester, England,
collapsed recently—as surely destroyed
by the World war as any French or
Belgium structure on the western
front, says Popular Mechanics Maga-
zine. The glass house was erected in
1836-40, and served as a model for the
great Crystal palace still to be seen
near London. It was itself of no mean
size, measuring, as it did, 277 feet long,
123 feet wide and 67 feet high. For-
ty thousand panes of glass formed the
arching walls and roof.
ee ———
Not Exactly Church Music.
Reverent Catholics of Dunkirk are
demanding an investigation why the
. Dunkirk cathedral chimes, instead of
playing the Angelus, are now calling
the faithful to worship by exhilarat-
ing jazz tunes, with fox trot music pre.
Fox trotting is not especialy ram-
pant in Dunkirk, but the cathedral bell
ringer must have had his vacation in
Paris, for, according to his astounded
listeners, he has been playing recent.
ly with a pure Montmartre toueh, not
uussing u single note.~London Mail.
—Chickens never wash as many
other birds do, but cleanse themselves
by wallowing in soil. Where board or
cement floors are used in the chicken
house, some means for dusting should
be provided during the winter months,
say poultry specialists of the United
States Department of Agriculture.
For a flock of fifty or sixty fowls a
dust box 3 by 5 feet or 4 by 4 feet will
generally be found large enough, and
should be placed where it can be
reached by sunlight during as much of
the day as possible.
Fine, light, dry dust is the best kind
with which to fill the box, but sandy
loam is good. Road dust is recom-
mended by many, but it is apt to be
filthy. Coal or wood ashes may be
mixed with the soil if desired.
—Hops did not go down and out
with the extinction of the brewing in-
dustry in this country, although the
popular expectation was that they
would. To a considerable extent
hops are now used in making ce
beverages of the “soft drink” order,
but the bulk of the crop is exported,
say crop specialists of the United
States Department of Agriculture.
The United Kingdom received more
than one-half of the exports of the
calendar year 1919, and large quanti-
ties were ' sent: to ‘Canada, Japan,
France, and in less degree to many
other countries.
The hops consumed by brewers and
exported, less the imports, for the fis-
cal years ending with June 30, aver-
aged in round numbers 46,800,000
pounds in the five years 1901-1905;
50,300,000 pounds in 1906-1910; 52,-
200,000 pounds in 1911-1915. These
figures are equivalent to the produc-
tion of hops, except as affected by one-
fifth of the difference between stocks
ig beginning and end of the per-
—The old way of finishing a hog
was haphazard, to say the least.
There was no system about it. Today
a better method is employed. The
start is made with the young pig; it
is kept growing from the time it takes
food, so that it may be in the proper
shape to be finished quickly.
It is possible to finish hogs to weigh
over 200 pounds at less than a year
old, but 200 pounds at a year is a bet-
ter average, as at that weight they
‘are more in demand.
In order that hogs may be kept
growing so that they will finish off
right, it is important that they should
have a good pasture during as much
of the time as it is possible. To sup-
plement this they should have a vari-
ety of feeds. Where hogs are fed on
a variety of the common feeds grown
on most farms, and where they are al-
so kept on pasture in season, there
need be no worry about figuring out
a balanced ration for them. The ani-
mals will find a way to balance the ra-
tion by eating most heartily of such
feeds as they need most.
But when it comes to fattening
time a little more attention to the feed
should be given. There is no better
fattening food than corn, but corn
should never be given alone, as it is
too heating. Besides it is too expen-
! sive when fed alone, as the hogs do
not get the full benefit of it when not
fed with other feeds to supplement it.
In fattening, good, hard feed is
what is desired, rather than bulk, but
some bulkiness is required - even for
the short time the hogs are on fatten-
ing rations.
—1In killing, most farmers first stun
the hog with a axe, and then imme-
diately stick with a knife. The knife
is inserted just in front of the breast-
bone, and ranged toward the heart,
but slightly toward the right side.
The object is to sever the large artery
carrying impure blood to the lungs.
Severing the big vein that carries pure
blood back to the heart te be pumped
.to the body will drain the hog all
right, but will not serve the purpose
as well as cutting the vein. Turn the
hog with the head down so as to drain
Hogs are generally scalded in bar-
rels. Have the water boiling hot and
it will be about right when poured in-
to the barrel. ‘ Eight or ten gallons of
water will scald an ordinary hog.
Place the carcass in tail first, as the
water might be too hot, which would
set the hair on the head. Give the hog
a little dip and remove him, turning
him over to try the hair. If it comes
out easily, give him a dip on the re-
verse side and remove and try that
side. Give a slight extra dip on each
side and then take out and reverse,
dipping the head in the same manner.
It is well to turn the hog from side to
side gently the while so that no part
will lie on the bottom of the barrel
very long, or it will not be scalded
After the hog is taken out, place
the water back in the pot to heat for
the next hog, if more than one is be-
ing butcehred, or clean water may be
used if desired. Should any part not
be scalded right, pile up a lot of hair
on it to hold the heat, and pour boil-
ing water over it slowly until the hair
slips easily. Scrape the head first, as
it 2 most difficult when the hair gets
When scraped make an incision in
the back of the hind legs, exposing
the tendons, and the gambrel stick
may be inserted under these and the
hog hung up. When hung, wash down
with clean hot water and scrape with
a sharp knife. Then wash with a
In cleaning, make an incision
around the vent and other parts and
hold or tie these up until the carcass
can be cut down far enough so that
the offal may be dropped into a tub.
In the case of large hogs, or hegs of
| the lard type, there is often enough
| fat on the entrails to justify its re-
moval, but it should be rendered sep-
arately, as it has a strong odor and
taste, and should not be mixed with
the leaf lard. ;
Liver, lights and heart are removed
together, and the gullet is taken out
also. A cut is made across the threat
to further:drain the hog and to help
in washing down the carcass, besides
being essential in proper cutting up
of the hog. The kidneys may be re-
moved later.
The first thing to do when the hog
is taken down is to cut off the head.
Then the lower jaw is removed from
the upper.