Newspaper Page Text
Bellefonte, Pa., September 17, 1920.
LESSONS IN CITIZENSHIP.
The Courts of Our Land.
How many classes of Courts have
Answer: Under our government it
is nzcessary to have two separate
systems of Courts, Federal and State.
How are Judges chosen?
Answer: Federal Judges are ap-
pointed by the President and con-
firmed by the Senate.
How long do they serve?
Answer: For life unless removed
How are the State Court Judges
Answer: In more than three-
fourths of the States, including our
own, they are chosen by the voters.
In other States they are appointed by
the Governors or by the Legislatures.
For how long do the Judges in the
Supreme Court of Pennsylvania hold
Answer: They are elected upon a
non-partisan ticket for 21 years.
What is the highest Court in the
Answer: The Supreme Court of
the United States which sits in the
Capitol at Washington from October |
Of whom does the Court consist?
Answer: One Chief Justice and
What are the duties of this Court?
. Answer: It gives a final decision
in all cases appealed from the Federal
“Circuit Courts of Appeal,” and
from the Supreme State Courts on
questions of Constitutional Law.
What is the Circuit Court of Ap-
Answer: For trial of certain
classes of cases upon appeal, Congress.
has established nine judicial circuits
in the United States and in each of
those has provided a Court known as
the “Circuit Court of Appeals.”
Whe presides over these Courts?
Answer: These Courts are presid-
ed over by Judges appointed for life
by the President of the United States
with the consent of the Senate.
How many Circuit Judges are there ?
Answer: There are thirty-three.
In which Circuit is Pennsylvania?
Answer: In the third, and our
Circuit Court of Appeals is presided
over by four Judges.
How many Judges are necessary to
try a case in these Circuit Courts of
Answer: At least three Judges in
any of the Circuits.
Are all cases from the District
Courts appealed to the Circuit Court
Answer: No, there are five in-
stances when cases are appealed di-
rectly to the United States Supreme
Court, but in all other cases
the appeal from the District Court
is to the Circuit Court of Appeals.
What are those instances?
1. When the case involves a ques-
tion of Jurisdiction.
2. When the case involves the Con-
struction put upon some part of the
3. When the question has arisen
about the Constitutionality of some
law passed by Congress.
4. When the Construction of a
treaty is involved.
5. When Conviction for highe:
crimes is involved.
What are the United States District
Answer: The District Courts are
the lowest Federal Courts and they
have original jurisdiction in all cases,
civil and eriminal, that come under
the authority of the Federal govern:
ment and which are not under the
authority of the State or County
Courts in their District.
How many District Courts are
there in the United States?
Answer: About 100, and each is
presided over by one Judge, who ap-
points District Judges. These 100 are
appointed for life by the President
with the approval of the Senate.
How many District Courts
Answer: Pennsylvania has three,
the Eastern, the Western and the
Middle Districts. The Eastern and
Western Districts each have two
Judges while the Middle District has
What is the difference between
Civili and Criminal law ?
Answer: Civil law deals with
cases for the protection or enforce-
ment of personal or property rights
such as damage suits and injunctions,
while Criminal law is for the punish-
ment of offenses against law and
What is an injunction?
Answer: An injunction is a writ
issued by a Judge in any Court of
Equity forbidding or commanding
a person or corporation to do a cer-
Can you give an illustration?
Answer: Yes; if a railroad should
begin to lay tracks across any prop-
erty not belonging to it without first
securing the right of way, the owner
could have any Judge issue a Writ
of Injunction against the railroad,
forbidding it to lay the tracks and if
it disobeyed, it would be punished.
Just recently an Injunction has been
issued against certain labor leaders
forbidding them to induce or compel
the miners to strike.
What is the highest State Court in
Answer:: The. Supreme Court in
Pennsylvania, which sits at Philadel-
phia, Harrisburg and Pittsburgh. It
is composed of a Chief Justice and
six associates elected for a term of
What cases are tried by the State
Answer: Chiefly cases appealed
from the lower Courts. A case in-
volving the official action of a State
officer, is however, usually begun in
the Supreme Court.
Is a decision of the Supreme Court
of Pennsylvania final?
Answer: The decision of the Su-
preme Court of Pennsylvania is final
and binding upon the people of Penn-
sylvania unless the decision conflicts
with the Federal law or the Federal
Constitution, in which case the deci-
sion may be reversed by the Supreme; Answer: By restraining and pun-
Court of the United States.
What salary does the Chief Jus-
tice of the Supreme Court of Penn-
sylvania receive? :
Answer: $13,500; and each of his
associate Judges receives $13,000.00
What is the hame of the State
Court below the Supreme Court?
Answer: The next highest Court
to the Supreme is the Superior Court.
How is the superior court formed?
Answer: The Superior Court is
composed of seven Judges elected for
a term of ten years, subject to re-
Where does the Superior Court of
Pennsylvania hold its sessions?
Answer: In Philadelphia, Pitts-
burgh, Scranton and Harrisburg.
What is the title of the chief judge
of the Superior Court?
Answer: He is known as the Presi-
dent Judge of the Superior Court, and
receives a salary of $12,500.00; while
his associates receive $12,000.00.
What is the business of the Supet-
Answer: It tries cases appealed
from the County Courts and its deci-
sion is final except in cases where the
Constitution of the State or Nation
tion in granting writs of Habeas Cor-
Are the decisions of Superior and
Supreme Courts preserved?
Answer: The decisions of these
Courts are kept as part of the Court
It has original jurisdic- |
Records and serve as guides in mak- |
ing later decisions.
What are the County Courts?
in every County, presided
ty for a term of ten years.
How many kinds of County Courts
They are Courts that sit |
over by |
Judges elected by voters of the Coun- |
There are County Courts
of Common Pleas for civil cases and !
Quarter Session and Courts of Oyer
and Terminer for criminal cases, also |
an Orphan’s Court
County. There are Municipal
Magistrate Courts while in smaller
cities, boroughs and townships there
and Alderman’s |
Has every County a Judge of its
No; a county must have
a population of 40,000 to entitle it to
its own Judge.
Are the smaller Counties taken |
care of ? !
Answer: They are grouped into!
Judicial Districts, but not more than i
four Courts may be so grouped.
Whateother Court officials are elect-
ed in a County?
What is the Sheriff ?
Answer: He is the executive agent
A Sheriff, District At- |
and Register |
of the Court and he serves the County |
for four years.
What is the District Attorney?
He is the County Prose-
cutor; his term is likewise four years. |
What is the Prothonotary?
Court and keeper of its records.
What are the duties of the Register
Answer: He keeps the records in
the Orphans’ Court. He also keeps a
He is the Clerk of the
record of all deeds recorded, and he is-
sues marriage licenses. 5
What are the Lower Courts in the
Answer: They are Courts without
record. In the townships they are
presided over by the Justice of the
Peace, in cities by the Alderman, in
Philadelphia by the Magistrates.
How many Aldermen to a city?
Answer: One for each ward. in
Philadelphia, one for each 30,000 in-
What are the powers of an Alder-
up to $300 in value. In case of crime,
he issues a warrant upon proper com-
plaint. Where the offense is serious
he binds the offender over to Court, |
releasing him on bail until the trial.
Can any other official hold Court?
Answer: The Mayor may hold
Police Court. The Coronor may
preside over an inquest.
Who represents the city in a civil
Answer: The City Solicitor, who
has been named by the City Council.
What are Magistrate Courts?
Answer: They are called Police
Courts, are the lowest in scale in
Philadelphia. But they are of great
What is the business of the Magis-
brought before thme, but they have
power to judge only minor offenses,
such as public intoxication, vagrancy,
disorderly conduct. In such cases,
they can convict and send the
offender to the reformatory, work-
house, or County jail, impose a fine,
or suspend sentence. If the com-
plaint is more serious, the Magistrate
has jurisdiction to commit the offend-
er to jail by Special Sessions. They
have jurisdiction over civil cases not
exceeding $100 in amount.
What is the Grand Judy?
Answer: The Grand Jury is a body
of men drawn at the beginning of
each term of court from qualified
voters of the County. It meets in
secret to consider all accusations, and
to decide whether the evidence, pre-
sented by the District Attorney, is
sufficient to bring the accused into
Court, in which case it finds an indict-
ment against him and the case goes
on trial in the County, State, or
United States District Court. There
are two Grand Juries, one for State
and one for Federal cases.
What is a petit Jury?
Answer: It is a trial jury. It is
a body of twelve men drawn by lot
from the qualified voters. It decides
upon the facts; the Judge decides the
law. It is protected against outside
influence from the beginning of a
trial until the verdict has been ren-
dered. This verdict must be the unan-
imous decision of the jury.
What is the Juvenile Court?
Answer: It is a Court dealing with
the delinquents who are under 21
years of age.
Who is the chief assistant of the
Judge of this Court?
Answer: The probation officer,
who looks after these delinquents fol-
lowing up the Judge’s orders,
Of what importance is this Court?
They hear all complaints
In minor matters, he has |
He may pass upon suits |
The effect is an equivalent of the |
' ishing the delinquent, it aims to save | up-and-down motion which is now re- |
him for society. Its social and moral | garded as the proper way to agitate !
import is therefore beyond estimate. | a tooth brush.
Are Judges appointed by the Gov- ,
Answer: No; they are elected ex- |
Judge while in office. The Governor
elected upon a non-partisan ballot. |
Rotary Tooth Brush Perfected. |
A new kind of toothbrush has been |
patented by George B. Ehrig, of!
Washington, D. C. It revolves. :
That is to say, it’s bristles are
mounted on a cylinder, and the user
causes the latter to rotate by pushing
back and forth a little rod that runs
through the handle.
| ——0One of Upham’s emissaries ap-
cept in the case of the death of a | Pears to have got the wrong man and
Cox has “done” Harding both “quick-
The State Judges are | ly and systematically.” :
Money back without question
if alve fails in the
treatment of ITCH, ECZEMA,
RINGWORM, TETTER or
other itching skin diseases.
Try a 75 cent box at our risk,
| 65-26 C.M. PARRISH, Druggist, Bellefonte
ber opt dr
pal aig aa
A I set
to sell at half a
Swift & Company has no control
over the quantity of live stock shipped
tomarket. Live-stock producers ship
their animals to the big stock-yards
markets, wherethey are sold through
commission men who represent the
The result is that the live-stock
supply fluctuates from week to week.
We have to buy the animals, how-
ever many or few there are; and they
have to be handled without delay.
We cannot hold dressed beef, lamb,
mutton, veal, fresh pork, or any other
fresh perishable meats, but have to
sell them at the prevailing market
prices within a few days.
If we try
cent under the
supply lasted, and that supply would
be used up very quickly. On the
other hand, if we try to sell for half
a cent higher than the market prices,
the retailers, who shop around, would
buy from our competitors and we
would have our fresh meat left on
We have to sell our
products every day at prevailing
market prices whatever those prices
Y naturally buy from us as long as our
Half a cent up or down in the
wholesale price means the difference
between profit and loss to us.
Swift & Company, U. S. A.
TI TY TT I ro
Live stock keeps coming to market
and we have to keep buying it and
putting it through our plants whether
conditions are good or poor.
~ When you need a new suit or over-
coat, come in and let us show you ours.
We will not palm off on you clothes that
do not fit, just to make a sale; we can’t
sell you clothing poorly made out of
poor cloth, because WE DON'T HAVE
that kind of stuff in our store.
We make money on what we sell—
what’s the use LYING about it?—but we
don’t make too much, we know we can
make more by making a little each
time, and EVERY TIME YOU BUY
Wear our good, “Nifty’’ clothes.
; A. FAUBLE
Bellefonte Trust Company
Why You Should Make a Will
To protect your loved ones.
To safeguard your estate.
By making a- Will you can appoint the Bellefonte Trust
| @ Company as your Executor or Trustee.
You can thus assure to your heirs the business manage-
ment and financial responsibility which this institution affords.
Your wishes can be observed in the distribution of your
property, for if you do not leave a Will the law may divide up
vour possessions in a way that you might not desire.
How Have You Made Your Will?
Do not write your own Will. ‘‘Home-made’” Wills are
dangerous and often cause law-suits, because, when drawing a
Will the law must be known, both as to wording and terms.
Consult a lawyer today about the making of your Will and have
him name the Bellefcnte Trust Company to act as your Execu-
tor and Trustee.
C. T. Gerberich, N. E. Robb,
J. L. Spangler,
President Vice President Treasurer
selected with care
for the occasion for
which it is intended
is a joy both to the donor and receiver.
This store can surely help you.
F. P. Blair & Son,
WOOL PSAP PPA
Satisfying Performance Economy of Operation
Power Durability True Value
BIG SIX.....ocveveessrsssscocsance $2250.00
SPECIAL SIX.....coco00000000 eees 1785.00
LIGHT SIX.....ccceeseeseesscssss 1435.00
Cord Tires on all Models—Prices f. o. b. Factory—Subject to Change
North Water St. os BELLEFONTE