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MR. ADAMSS LETTERS.
Amsterdam, Oct. 27, 1780.
S J R ,
QUESTION twcnty-feven.—How was the fitr.'a
•itirr. >of manujaCn/res, manual art, and trade
in general, at the beginning of this war P What
ihange have they fujfered ?"
Manufactures in general never flourifhed in
America. They were never attended to only by
women and children, who could not work in the
field, and by men at certain seasons of the year,
and at certain intervals of time when they could
not be employed in the cultivation of the lands ;
bccaufe that labor upon land, in that country, is
more profitable than in manufactures. Tliefe
they could importand purchase, with the produce
of their foil, cheaper than they could make them.
The cause of this, is the plenty of wild land :
A day s work, worth two (hillings, upon wild
land, not only produced two shillings in the crop,
but made the land worth two /hillings more :
\V hereas a day's work of the fame price, applied
to manufactures, produced only the two Shillings.
Since the war, however, freight and insurance
have been so high, that manufactures have been
more attended to. Manufactures of falt-petre,
fait, powder, cannon, arms, have been intro
duced ; cloathing, in wool and flax, has been
made ; and many other neceflary things: But
these, for the reason given before, will last no
longer than the war, or than the hazard of their
America is the country of raw materials, and
of commerce enough to carry them to a good
market ; but Europe is the country for manufac
tures and commerce. Thus Europe and Ameri
ca will be blelfings, to each other, if some male
volent policy does not fruflrate the purposes of
nature. I have the honor to be, &c.
FROM THE PENNSYLVANIA GAZETTE.
To our BRETHREN, the CITIZENS of NEW
EVERY friend of our national prosperity mull
feel himfelf interefled in your plan of main
taining your poor, by means of manufactures.
It is at once wife and humane. The object of
theprefent little address is, to recommend to you
to take great care in fixing the feats of your se
veral factories. Let th#m unite these three ob
jects—ift. A fund of fuel that will not fail, or
access to it.—2d. A fund of forage, that will be
equal to the supply of an encreafing and accu
mulated population.—3d. As interior a situation
as can be found, which pofl'eflcs the firft two re
quisites, that a market may be afforded for the
produce of those farms, that are at prefeut sub
ject to a heavy expence of carting.
Let your females be taught to weave. It k
more healthful than many of the sedentary em
ployments of their sex, such as knitting, needle
work, carding and spinning. Weaving a yard of
jean or plain cotton fluff is worth 7d. or Hd. specie,
»nd a Ready person may easily weave seven yards
in a day : 1 hat is, jfit or 4f. per day may be
earned by a female weaver. A young woman
that can read and write, and earn four shillings
specie a day, is well endowed. No prudent
young man need be afraid to marry her : This
we ought to attend to among ourselves : In the
mean time it is suggested, from our due regard
to you likewise.
Endeavor to have a command of vrater. Ma
chines that go by water may work wonders :
They have enabled the British nation to advance
their cotten manufactures two or three hundred
per cent, in a very few years.
Look immediately to youi- inland navigation
and main roads. Cheap carriage of rawmateri
als, fuel and provisions, are the greatefl of all
aids to manufactures.
You have wifely banished your paper tender.
Commerce, foreign and domestic, sickens at the
fight of it. Since the federal constitution ha 3 re
moved all danger of our having a paper tender,
our trade is advanced fifty per cent. How has
this happened ? Our monied people can trust their
cash abroad, and have brought their coin into
circulation. The fame thing will happen to yon
in a year or two. A million of specie dollars have
been introduced into bnfinefs in this State since
the peace, by persons who have come from abroad
to fettle among us. Would they have done this
if we had a paper lawful render ? No. Nor will
prudent foreigners ever introduce their money
into the manufactures, internal trade or foreign
commerce of a country, that has paper money,
unless it be to flcece the inhabitants by profits of
cent per cent.
Look well to your habits of living. Though
without foreign trade, do nor imported spirits coll
you more than all your taxes ? Is this neceflary ?
Could you not draw from your lands those excel
lent and wliolefome ale, beer
metheglin and cyder.
Brethren of Newjerfey, rouse yourselves.
LcJt iuduftry, economy, and the nfe of home
made articles become a fafliion. They will be
more honorable than purple and fine linen, and
willencreafe the power of your contry.
THECITIZENS OF PENNSYLVANIA.
Decetnber qth, 1789.
ON THE VANITY OF YOUTHFUL HOPES.
IN life's gay morn, what vivid hues
Adorn the animating views,
By flattering fancy drawn ?
No storms with gloomy afpeft rife,
To cloud the azure of the skies,
No mills obfeure the dawn.
With looks invariably gay,
Young Expectation points the way
To ever blifsful shades,
Where odours scent the breath of morn,
Where roses bloom without a thorn,
And music fills the glades.
Enraptur'd with the diflant view,
Youth thinks its fi&ious beauties true,
And springs the prizeto gain ;
His gralp the gay illusion flies :
Experience thus the cheat descries,
And proves his hopes are \ain.
The path of life tho' flowers adorn,
Yet often will the rugged thorn
Amidst the flowers arise ;
Expe& not then on earth to share
Enjoyment unallay'd by care,
But seek it in the skies.
A CELEBRATED councellor had been labor
ing in a lon£ winded fpeeeh to the jury.
Tlie verdkft being tound againft'hiin,zounds ! ex
claimed he, here have I been spending my breath
for an hour vainly endeavoring to convince twelve
blockheads of a point that is as clear as demon
stration, I believe my countrymen have been ino
culated for dulnefs.—That may be,faidthe other
councellor who had gained thecaufe,but you,un
like your countrymen,have it in the natural waj'.
PROCEEDINGS OF CONGRESS.
ABSTRACT of JOURNAL of the first SESSION
of the SENATE of the UNITED STATES.
THURSDAY, July 30.
PROCEEDED to a third reading of the bill, entitled, " An ast
for fettling the acconnts between the United States and indi
vidual States," and, Refolvcd that the Senate do concur therein
and the Secretary notified the House of Representatives accord!
FRIDAY, July 3*.
Proceeded to a third rcadiugof the bill,entitled, "An ast to ef.
tabliffi the Treasury Department."
On thequeftion, fliall the words, " And anafliftantto the Secre
tary of the Treasury," at the end of the firft paragraph, be stricken
out i Faffed in the negative.
On motion to strike out the words' " Secretary of the Treasury "
and insert, " Three Superintendents of the Treasury," it palled in
the negative : And 00 the qurftion upon the bill, Resolved, That
the Senate do concur therein with amendments.
The Secretary carricd the bill, entitled " An ast toeftablifh the
Treasury Department," tothe House of Representatives, concurred
in with Amendments.
Also the concurrence of the Senate in the resolve of the 31 ft July
and the appointment of Mr. Wingatea ftandingcommittee, jointly
with the committee of the House to examine and present the en
rolled bills that may pass the Senate and House of Representatives
from time to time.
MONDAY, Augnft 3.
The bill, entitled, « An aftfor the eftabliffiment and support of
light-houses, bcacons and buoys," concurred in with amendments
was carried to the House of Representatives by the Secretary. '
TUESDAY, August 4.
Proceeded to a third reading a bill, entitled, " An ast to estab
lish an Executive Dcpaitment, to be denominated the Depait
ment of War".
On motion toftrike out these words—in line 6th and 7th," And
Naval," " Ships," "Or naval affairs;" Palled in the negative
Oil motion to strike out the words—line 14th, " Aud who
whenever the said principal officer (hall be removed from office by
the Prefijentof the United States ;"
And the yeas and nays being required by one fifth of the Se
nators present, the determination was as follows :
YEAS. Mr. Butler, Mi. Few, Mr. Gunn, Mr. Grayfon, Mr
Johnson, Mr. Izard, Mr. Langdon, Mr. Lee, Mr. Wingate.' q
NAYS. Mr. Carroll, Mr. Dalton, Mr. Ellfworth, Mr Elmer
Mr. Henry, Mr. King, Mr. Morris, Mi. Read, Mr. Schuyler Mr'
Strong. io. / » ?
So the question was loft, and the words proposed to be ftfuck
out, were retained ; and upon the question on the bill,
Resolved, That the Senate do concur therein with amendments :
Which bill, with the amendments was carried to the Houle of
Proceeded to the third reading of a bill, eutitled, " An ast to
provide for the government of the territory north-weft of the Ri
On motion to insert these words after the word " President '
.n the last line of thclccond feftion, « By and with the confenl of
And the yeas and nays being required by one fifth of the Sena
tor* present, the determination was as follows ;
YEAS. Mr. Butler, Mr. Few, Mr. Gunn, Mr. Grayfon Mr
Johnson, Mr. liard, Mr. I.angdon, Mr. Wingate. 8.
NAYS. Mr. Carroll, Mr. Dalton, Mr. Ellfworth, Mr Etm-r
Mr. Henry, Mr. Kinj, Mr. Morris, Mr. Read, Mr. Schuyler Mr'
So it paired.in the negative And on the queftioi. ypoa. the
bill, as it wa*, r
Refolvcd, toconcui therein with amendments :
Which bill, with the amendments, waicamed to the House of
A melfage from the House of Mr Becklev ■
Who brougtot up a bill, entitled, " An ast .'or making compel
tioft to tlie Prcftduit sad Vice Prefidentof die I' j
and dcfired the concurrence of the Senate therein ..J S^tes,'
Informed the Senate that the House had ~-rrrH l
ments on the bill, entitled, "An aftfor the Jablifc®. am?nd
port of light-houses, beacons, and buoys" en t andiup.
Brought up the acceptance, by the House of Renrrl, ,
a report of a joint committee upon the mode ot nrrf of
drelfes, the enrollment of bills, &c P re icntingad-
Together with the appoinincnt of Mr. Wadfwr>«h ». „
and Mr. Hartley, a committee, to join with a Com'nJk 7°"'
Senate, to be appointed for the purpose "To c-vnfj f ttc
port, when it will be conventent i° hnd
of the present session of Congref, (hould take nlacr 'T"™®
iider and report such business, now before CoLr r' andtoc °a.
be fimfhed before the adjournment, and such afmi' I
ently poilponed to the next sessions; and also CO nrl "T'"
port such matters now before Congress but w! IK ' aiu ' r c-'
ceffary (hould be considered and determined by Con-res £?'"
an adjournment. 1 un orcis, before
WIDNESDAY, August 5.
Proceeded to a firft reading of a bill, entitled, « Anaftfn, J
lowing a compcnfalion to the President and Vice Prl
United States," and afligned to-morrow for a second rel)
Appointed Mr. Strong, Mr. Ellfworth, and Mr Carroll g '
mittee, jointly with the committee of the House of bJj! C ° m "
to that purpose appointed, to consider what bulinefs *T'T''
to be afcled upon prior to an adjonrnmcnt, and to tcuor " '
time at which an adjournment shall take place,
position from the House of Reprefentat.ves of the 4 thofO"*
Mr. Butler, in behalf of the committee to whom it wasre f„, a
to arrange and br.ng forward a system to regulate trade an/
course between the United States, and the territory of other n„
ers in North-America and the Weft-Indies"— •
Reported, That it will be expedient to pass a law for;m„„r
increased duty of tonnage, for a limited time, on all foreLS
and other veflels that (hall load in the United States with then
duce of the fame, to any port or place in America whereto the ves
sels of the United States are not permitted to carry their own nr.
duce; but such a law being of the nature of a revenue law
committee conceive, that the originating a bill for that purpose „
by the Constitution, exdufively placed in the House of Kenrrfm'
Your Committee beg leave further to report, as their opinion
that it will be expedient to direffc a bill to be brought in forim'
pofingfimilar reft raints upon the trade of the European fcttlementi
in America with the United States, that arc imposed on the trade
of the United States with thofc fettlemcnts.
Resolved, That the firft clause of this report be accepted, i,J
that the remainder of the report be recommitted, and that' it W
an mftrufiion to the Committee, in cafe it (hall be their oiinioti
that a legislative provision ought to be made on the fubjeft of the
commitment, to report a billforthat purpose—And that Mr. EH.
worth, Mr. King, and Mr. Read be added to the committee.
Adjourned, (To tc continued.)
EXTRACTS FROM THE JOURNALSF THE OHIO COMPANY.
WHEREAS, in the opinion of the Agents, it is very much
for the interest of the proprietors at large, chat all the
lands of the purchase should be divided and allotted as immedi
ately as may be—And in order to accommodate them generally,
by the option of clafling as they may think proper, and drawing
their rights or (hares (where they may poflfefs more than oncf
either together in contiguity, or by detaching and annexing them
to diftinft claffesor divisions (at their own election) to give them
the greater chance for variety in foil and fituation—lt is imani
moufly refolved,That as foonas the exploring committee (hallhave
appropriated the lands for donation fettlements,in quantity fuffici
ent for all the proprietors,Winthrop Sargent,JosephGiil
man, and Return J. Meigs, Esquires, who are hereby appoint
ed a committee for that purpofe,fhall immediately makeout,upon
a large fcale,a complete map or plan of the whole purchase from the
bed information,which they may be then able to obtain,exprefliog
all the lands of the eight acre, three acre, city lots and common*,
one hundred and fucty acre, and donation lots, the referred lot*
of Congress, school lots, and lots appropriated for religrous pur
poses—also, the two townihipsgiven by Congrcfs for an univerfi
ty,and the towns or fituationsfor towns to be rcferved by the com
pany for a future allotment.—That, all the residuary lands lhatl
be, by them, the laid committee of three, divided and numberei
upon paper, into forty equal grand divisions of twenty-five (hires
each, as like in quality as may be: Tnat each grand diviiion be
divided into five sub-divisions of five (hares each, and eachfiib
divifion into fe&ions of single (hares :—That as soon as the map
or plan is completed, the agents will form or class their fubferib
ers (who (hall not previously class themselves) by fettions or single
(hares, into fub-divilions of five, and grand divisions of twentr
five, and immediately proceed to drawing by lot for said lands,;
by grand divisions, sub-divisions and fe&ions : That in
draughts of sub-divisions (into fe£tions) which may be madeupoi
proprietors,holding (our,three, or two and (hares,it (hallbe
the ufagc for the greatest proprietor, or holder of the greatest
number of (hares, to take his lands in contiguity, by lot, either if*
the southern or northern part of the sub-division, where they (hi)'
be numbered from north to south, and in the wefternor eastern
(by lot also) where they may be numbered from weft toeaft ;
where sub-divisions mav be made up of two proprietors of two
(hares each, and one of one (hare, the two greatest proprie
tors ihall receive their fc&ions, by lot, either in the southern or
western part of the sub-division. Resolved, That the before na
med committee, be dire&ed to prepare the names and numbers,
and make all the neccffary- arrangements for the intended draught.
That previous to the drawing for this ultimate grand divmono
lands, there (hall be returns of the proprietors, as they may f
cla (Ted by the agents (or otherwise) lodged in the Secretary's omc e »
and it is recommended in all cases toconfult the inclinations
interests of the proprietors in the order of clafling. , .
Resolved, That the agents will give public notice of the timfiW
place of drawing, and that there be two perfonsno ways intere -
ed in the draughts, who (hall be sworn to the faithfully drawing
out the names and numbers from the boxes, and who alone a
be employed in this business for the draught of grand divnon »
sub-divisions, and feftions.
Resolved, That the Secretary cause the foregoing refolutfon 5
be publilhcd in the nerwfpapers of New-York, and the e
Eogland States ; to the end that the proprietors at
the option of clafling themselves as they may think proper. •
they are hereby requested so to do, and to express them c
upon thisfubjefl, either to their refpeftive agents, or by w
tion in writing addrcfled to, and to be lodged with the Secre»
at his office in the city of Marietta,previous to the ,
March, 1790 —Upon which day it is expe&ed the
take placc W I N T H K O P S A R G £ NT,
Sea clary to thi Ohw Oitnf")-
Marietta, §d November, 1789.
MR. ADAMS's LETTERS winch havi app'*"* l f*
Zfto, are part of a fir its, 26 in number, wrote Aii xa is
Holland—the whole are published in a pamphlet of 64 p a S e « 0 jj Cr t
to be fold by Mgjfrs. Berry & Rogers, Hanover-Square,
Hod,ge, Queen-Street, Editor hereof
Publiflied by JOHN FENNO, No. 9,
Lan r. j neartheOfwego-Market, N£w-York.—-[3 ''