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MR. ADAMS'S LETTERS.
Amsterdam, Oct. 26. 17S0.
S 1 R,
THE sixteenth enquiry is, " Who Icjes inofl by
11 desertion ? Do the English and German de
" farters Jer-js voluntarily and well in the American
'• army P Hov> dnthofe who do not enter into the ar
" my fubfft P"
Tl>efe queftionsl answer with great pleasure. —
There has been, frem the beginning of the war to
this day, scarcely an example of a native Ameri
can's defecting from the army to the Englifli. There
have been in the American army, some icattering
Scotch, Iriffi, and German soldiers ; fomeof these
have defected, but never in great numbers ; and
among the prisoners they have taken, itisafton
ifning how few they have been able to persuade,
by all their flatteries, threatenings, promifesand
even cruelties, toenlift into their service.
The number of deserters from them has been all
along considerable more. Congress have general
ly prohibited their officers from enlisting desert
ers ; for some particular services permillion has
been given, and they have served well.
Those who do not enlist in the army have no
difficulty to subsist. Those of them who have any
trades, as weavers, tailors, lmiths, ihoemakers,
tanners, curriers, carpenters, bricklayers; in
ffiort, any trade whatsoever, enter immediately
into better bulinefs than they ever had in Europe,
where they gain a better fubfHtcncc and more mo
ney ; because tradefmenof all denominations are
much wanted: Those who have no trade, if they
are capable of any kind of labor, are immediate
ly employed in agriculture, See. labor being much
wanted, and very dear.
I am not able to tell the precise numbers that
have deserted ; but if an hundred thousand were
to desert, they would find no difficulty in point of
fubliftence or employment, if they can and will
Amsterdam, October 26, 1780.
TH E seventeenth enquiry is, " Whether we
" have any information that we can rely on con
" coming population ? Has it increaftd or dimin
" ifhed Juice the war P"
In some former letters I have made some ob
servations upon the fubjeJt of theincreafe of man
kind in America.
111 the year 1774 there was much private con
versation among the members of Congress, con
cerning the numbers of fouls in every colony.
The delegates of each were consulted, and the
eftiniates made by them were taken down as fol
In New-Hainplhire 150,000
Rhode llland 59,678
, New-York 250,000
Pennsylvania and Delaware 350,000
Virginia ■ 640,000
North Carolina 300,000
This however was but aneftiruate, and some per
sons have thought there was too much speculation
in it.—lt will be observed, that Georgia was not
represented in the firft Congress, and therefore
is not included in the estimate.
In a pamphlet publiflied in England about ayear
ago, entitled a memorial to the Sovereigns
of Europe, 011 the present State of Affairs, be
tween the Old and New-World," written by
Mr. Pownal, a Member of Parliament, and for
merly Governor of Maflacliufetts, and Lieut. Go
vernor of New-Jersey—we are told that " The
Maflachufets had, in the year 1722, 94,000 inha
bitants ; in 1742, 164,000; in I 751, when there
-was a great depopulation, both by war and the
small pox, 164,484; in 1761,216,000; in 1765,
255,500; in 1 771, 292,000; in 1773, 300,000.
In Connecticut, 1 756, 129,994 ; in 1774, 157,356.
These numbers are not increased by strangers,
butdecreafed by wars and emigrations to the west
ward, and to other States; yet they have nearly
doubled in eighteen years.
In New-York, in 1756, 96,776 ; in T771, 168,007 ;
in 1774, 182,251.
In Virginia, in 1756, 173,316 ; in 1 764, 200,000;
in 1774, 300,000.
In Soutli-Carolina, in 1750, 64,000; in 1770,
In Rliode-Ifland, in 1738, 15,000; in 1748,
As there never was a militia in Pennsylvania,
before this war, with authentic lifts of the popu
lation, it has been variously estimated on specu
lation. There was a continual importation, for
many years, of Irifii and German emigrant#, yet
many of these fettled in other provinces ; but the
progress of population, in the ordinary course,
advanced, i:i a ratio between that of Virginia and
that of Maflachufetts; the city of Philadelphia ad
vanced more rapidly ; it had in I 749,2,076 houses ;
in 1 7J3, 2,300; in 1760,2,969; in 1769, 4,474;
from 174910 1753, from 16 to 18,000 inhabitants ;
from t760t0 J 769, from 31,318 to 3J,000.
There were in 1754, various calculations and
estimates made of the numbers on the continent.
The fanguinemade the numbers one million and
a half; those who admitted lels (peculation into
the calculation, but adhered closer to fadts and
lilts, as they were made out, Itated them at one
million two hundred and fifty thousand.—Gover
nor Pownal thinks, that 2,141,307 would turn out
nearelt to the real amount in 1774. But what an
amazing progress, which in eighteen years has
added a million, to a million two hundred and
fifty thousand, although a war was maintained in
that country for seven years of the term ! In this
view one fees a community unfolding itfejf, be
yond any example in Europe.
Thus you have the estimates made by the gen
tlemen in Congress, in 1774, and that of Gover
nor Pownal for the fame epocha.—That made in
Congress is mod likely to be right: If in their es
timate some States wete rated too high, it has
been since made cei tain, that others were too low.
But admitting Mr. Pownal's estimate to be just,
the numbers have grown, since 1 774, fomuch, not
withftandingthewar, and the interruption of mi
grations from Europe, that they mult be well nigh
three millions.—lf the calculation made by the
members of Congress was right, the numbers now
mull be nearer four millions, than three millions
and an half.
I have observed to you in a former letter, that
the Maflachufetts Bay has been lately numbered,
and found to have increased in numbers as much
as ill former periods, very nearly.
I now add, that Delaware, which in 1774 was
estimated at 30,000, upon numbering the people
since, they appeared to be 40,000.
Pennsylvania is undoubtedly set too low in both
I have the honor to be, very refpe<ftfully, &c.
PROCEEDINGS OF CONCRESS.
ABSTRACT of JOURNAL of the first SESSION
of the SENATE oj the UNITED STATES.
Wednesday, May 13, 1789.
ORDERED, That Mr. Langdon, Mr. Strong
and Mr. Carroll, be a committee, to confer
with any committee that may be appjinted on
the part of the House of lleprefentatives, and
report what newspapers the members of the Se
nate and House of Representatives, fliall be fur
niflicd with, at the public expense.
A committee consisting of Mr. Johnson, Mr.
Read, Mr. Langdon, Mr. Morris, Mr. Dalton,
Mr. Elmer, Mr. Henry and Mr. Gunn, was ap
pointed to report a bill, defining the crimes and
offences that shall be cognizable under the autho
rity of the United States, and their puniftnnent.
Thursday, May 14.
The committee appointed the 9th inft. to de
termine " under what Title it will be proper
for the Senate to address the President" and to
confer with a committee of the House of Repre
sentatives, " upon the disagreeing votes of the
Senate and House," informed the Senate, that
they had conferred witha committee of the House
of Pieprefentatives, but could not agree upon a
The committee appointed the 9th inft. "to
consider and report under what Title it will be
proper for the Senate to address the President of
;he United States of America," Reported, That
in the opinion of the committee it will be proper
thus to address the President—His HIGHNESS
THE PRESIDENT of the UNITED STATES
of AMERICA, and PROTECTOR of their
Which report was postponed—and the follow
ing resolve was agreed to, to wit :—
From a decent respect for the opinion and
practice of civilized nations, whether under mo
narchical or republican forms of government,
whose custom is to annex Titles of respectability
to the Office of their Chief Magistrate ; and that,
011 intercourse with foreign nations, ad ue refpedt
for themajefty of the people of the United States
may not be hazarded by an appearance of An
gularity ; the Senate have been induced to be of
opinion, that it will be proper to annex a refpec
fable Title to the Office of President of the Uni
ted States : But the Senate desirous of prefervinp;
harmony with the House of Representatives
where the practice lately observed in presenting
an address to the President was without the addi
tion of Titles, think it proper for the present
to act in conformity with the practice of the
Therefore Rcfolved, that the present address
be—" To the President of the United States"—
without addition of Title.
■A motion was made to ftnke out the prt-.,it
as t ",u- as the words "but the Senate;" which"'."'-
ed in the negative—and on motion for 'the m'*
queftioii J it palled in the affirmative. ~" il
The committee appointed to confiderand renor
a mode of carrying into effect the provilionin-h
---fecond clause, of the third feet ion of the hut-.
tide of the Confiitution, reported
VV hereupon ReJ jloecl, that the iieuatprs be di
videdinto three clafles, the fir it to coniilt of M-"
Langdon, Mr. Juiinfon, Mr. Morris, Mr. Henrv
Mr. Jzard and Mr. Giinn— y '
The second of Mr. Wingate, Mr. Strong Mr
Patterfon, Mr. Baliett, Mr. Lee, Mr. Butler and
And the third of Mr. Dalton, Mr. Ellfworth
Mr. Elmer, Mv. Maclay, Mr. Read, Mr. Carroll
and Mr. Gray lon.
That three papers of an equal iize, numbered
1,2, and 3, he by the Secretary rolled up and put
into a box, and drawn by Mr. Langdon; Mr
Wingate and Mr. Dalton, in behalf of the re!
fpeOtive clafles in which each of them are|placed •
and that the clafles lhall vacate their feats in the
Senate according to the order of numbers drawn
for tliem, begining with number one—
And that when Senators fli-j.ll take their fents
from States that have not yet appointed Senators
they lhall be placed by lot iuthe foregoing dalles'
but in fucli manner as lhall keep the clafles us
nearly equal as may be in numbers.
The committee appointed to confer with a com
mittee of the Houf<? of Representatives, in pre
paring proper rules to be eitablifhed for the en
rollment, &c. of the acts of Congress—Reported,
which report was ordered to lie for consideration!
Ordered, That the committee appointed to draft
an answer to the President's Speech wait 011 him,
and requeit him to appoint the time when it will
be agreeable to receive the address of the Senate
at his own house. Adjourned.
Friday, May 15.
The Committee appointed to draft an answer
tp the President's Speech further reported
W hereupon it was Agreed, That the Senate
should wait upon the President at his own house
on Monday next, at a quarter after eleven o'clock,
and that the Vice President then, prefentthe ad
dress of the Senate, as agreed to on the 7th in
The Senate proceeded to determine the Clafles
agreeably to the resolve of yesterday, 011 the
mode of carrying into effeift theprovifion in the
second clause, of the third lection, of the firft
article of the Conltitution, and the numbers be
ing drawn, the clafles were determined as fol
Lot No. 1, drawn by Mr. Dalton—containing
Mr. Dalton, Mr. Ellfworth, Mr. Elmer, Mr. Mac
lay, Mr. Read, Mr. Carroll, and Mr. Grayfon—
Wliofe feats ftiall accordingly, be vacated in the
Senate at the expiration of the second year.
Lot No. 2, drawn by Mr. Wingate—containing
Mr. Wingate, Mr. Strong, Mr. Patterfon, Mr.
Baffett, Mr. Lee, Mr. Butler, and Mr. Few—
whose feats shall accordingly be vacated in the Se
nate at the expiration of the fourth year.
Lot No. 3, drawn by Mr. Langdon—containing
Mr. Langdon, Mr. Johnson, Mr. Morris, Mr.
Henry, Mr. Izard, and Mr. Gunn—whofe feats
shall accordingly be vacated in th£ Senate, at the
expiration of the sixth year. Adjourned.
Saturday, May 16.
A meflage from the House of Representatives
by Mr. Beckley, their Clerk, who informed tie
Senate that " the House had concurred in theap
pointment of a committee, consisting of Mr.Syl
vester, Mr. Wynkoop and Mr. Smith (of South-
Carolina) to confer with a committee appointed on
the partjof the Senate, the 13th instant, and to re
port what newlpapers the members of Congress
ihall be furnifhed with at the public expence;
and that it was an inftruiftion to the said commit
tee on the pare of the House, to receive prop"-
sals for printing the a<fts and other proceed)"!?
of Congress." Adjouned.
Monday, May 18.
Agreeably to the order of the 15th instant the
Senate waited on the President of the Unite®
States, at his own ho.use, when the Vice-President
in their name, delived to the President the ad
dress agreed to 011 the 7th instant: To which the
President of the United States waspleafedtorepl)-
(Set our paper of May 20.)
Ordered, That Mr. Lee be a committee on the
part of the Senate, to join any committee ap
pointed for that purpose on the part of the Ho" *
of Representatives, to lay before the President
of the United States for his approbation, a >
entitled, " AnAcft to regulate the time and man
ner of adininiftering certain oaths," after it fha
be enrolled, examined by the faidcoinmitte, an
signed by the Speaker of the House of Represen
tatives, and by the Vice-Prefident.
&T MR. ADAMS's LETTERS which have appeared inM
zettc, arc part of a f cries, 26 in number, wrote by his £< Uc ' f J'., f .
Holland.—the wholf arepublifhcd m a pamphlet of 64 P a 6 e *\
, to he fold by Messrs. Berry & Rogers, Hanover-Square,
Hodge, Queen-Street, and by the Editor hereof.
Pnblifhed by JOHN FEJSfNO, No. 9. MaiD *'V
Lane, ucartlizUfuie£o-Mark:t, New-Yok[3 '•