Gazette of the United-States. (New-York [N.Y.]) 1789-1793, November 25, 1789, Page 259, Image 3
was in tears tlie wliole time, aiut only talked a little to the Imperial Ambaflador. The <Vht was uncommonly gloomy, and the court broice up after a short time. In the evening the dittrkls of Paris, pafled a refolucion, that the regimen, of the King's body guard should be immediately broken, and never more revived—and that in future, his Majesty should be guarded by citizens instead of soldiers. During these proceedings at Paris, the Nation al Aflembly at Verfaiiles did not transact much business. On Wednesday evening, however, they came to two resolutions, and it was fuppoied that ■would be the laltday of their fitting there. The purport of these resolutions were, —That the National Aflembly should adjourn to Paris, and, That its meeting should ever be inseparable from the King's place of residence. One bad consequence produced by the differ ent revolutions that have taken place of late is, that a general mistrust pervades the whole capi tal. For the lad 24 hours theKinghas not eaten an ounce of food, and great apprehensions are enter tained that his health is in great danger, to fay 110 more. The ftlloTiiing is the Letter which caused thefirfl alarm in the National dumbly. " Gent I.imen, 11 LAWS newly constituted can only be properly fudged of, ■when taken :n their general mass ; —in such great and important obje&s, the whole is joined by one common link. " Nevertheless, I feel it extremely natural, that in a moment •when we invite the Nation to come to the succour of the State, ' bvafignal a£l of confidence and patriotism, we should afTuie it of its neceflity and propriety. Therefore, in the hope that the firfl articles of the Constitution which you have presented to me, united with the continuation of your labors, will fulfill the ex pectation of my people, and secure the happiness and prosperity of my kingdom, I acquiesce in these Articles according to your desire, but on this pofitivc condition, from which I never will de part, That the general result of your deliberations fliall leave the entire effeil of the Executive Power in the hands of the Monarch. " A general view of my observations shall be lard before ' vou ; by which you will be nwde acquainted, that, in the present order of things, lean neither with efficacy p rote £1 the recovery of legal impositions, the frcecirculation of money and provisions, nor the individual fafety of my citizens. I will nevertheless ful fil the eflential duties of Royalty; the welfare»of my fubjecis, the public tranquility, and the preservation of good order among foeiety, are dependant on it. It is my wish thefet'ore, that we make it a common cause to remove those oblUcles which may ob ftruft so deferable and lalutary an end* " It remains for me to acquaint you with franknefs, that if I give my acquiescence to the various articles of the Constitution which you have laid before me, it is not that they arc according to my ideas, a model of pcrfe&ion ; but that I consider it praile ■worthy in me not to delay paying attention to the present wifn es of the deputies of the nation, and the alarming circumliances which so strongly invite us to reflore the public tranquility and confidence among the people. t( I do now explain myfelf on your declaration of the rights of man and citizci s. It contains very excellent maxims pio pc r to guide your deliberations ; but principles which are liable to different applications, and even conllru£tions cannot be justly appreciated ; nor is it necellarv they thould be, until the no ment when their true sense is fixed by those laws to which they arc to serve as a basis. (Signed) L O U 1 S." THE OBSERVER. No. VI. [The OUfervations contained in the following come home to the feelings of every citizen of the United Siatts : Every patriotic Editor of a public Paper, will doubtlefsenrich his Mile, llany by their republication.] REMARKS ON TAXATION. THE greatelt effects are produced by the most liinple causes. A great mind may be diftin guifbed by the simplicity of its conceptions, and the art of managing momentous concerns, by thole plain means which others have overlooked. If we examine the hiltory of mankind we shall perceive that the moll: eminent characters in civil and reli gious policy, obtained their superiority of reputa tion by discerning the opportune moment to I weep away complicated fyftems,the work of thole who had been laboi ioully and minutely wife ; andfub ftituting in their place some plain scheme of truth and practice, which the people can understand and fee to be fortheir advantage. In every enlighten ed country, aniajority of the people are willing to do right, or what is the fame thing, that which is for their own interest. Intricacy in the measures of government, is a common courle of losing the public confidence ; and this ought to be the cafe, as it exposes the fubjecft to tyranny and fraud, with out any means of detection. The manner of rai ling, collecting and applying a national revenue, has generally been esteemed ttie most difficult part of government,and doubtless more uneasiness hath arisen from this than every other source. This dif ficulty hath generally been imputed to the avarice of the human heart. It hath been laid that the people will neceflarily be displeased, with every regulation which requires any contribution of their property to the public ; but I cannot yet be lieve that so much both of the fool and knave is eflential to human nature. Honesty is known to be the best policy, and the ruling half of an in formed people, letting aflde moral obligation, will on this account prefer honesty. Let them be convinced the State is honest in its government, apd with the fame honesty and cheerfulnefs, they will contribute their quota of tlve general ex pence ; but the people can never have this evi dence of national integrity with luch acontulion of schemes as have filled the United States. More than four fifths of the citizens through the Union are willing to fatisly every demand of The late revolution of government is a proof that they have magnanimity faffici ent for every event, But in this business a finan cier who means to lead them, must have a simple and plain system both of railing and applying.the revenue. He must have a permanent system—one that will not need new modelling every session of the supreme Legi.-hture. It is allowed on all hands that taxation hath caused uneasiness in most of the States, buc it is not from any want ofhonef ty in the people. Some reasons of this uneasiness were mentioned iii my last number, and there are others which deserve notice. When the-funis to be paid in the progress of the war became consider able, the State Legislatures through almost the whole union, with the best intentions and a real design to favor the people, set theinfelves to new modelling those modes of taxation, to which they had been refpeitively used—addition upon addi tion was made to the tax laws—every year pro duced something new,which, the next, was proba bly repealed, for the fake ot'fome alteration sup posed to be better. This fluctuating state of the tax laws became a temptation for particular persons to favor themselves ; and jealousy has been gra dually introduced between respectable clalfes of citizens, whose property is in difficult situations. The people at large are unable to comprehend the design of such frequent alterations—the whole ap pears to them like confufion, and a game played between the more knowing ones, to promote their own purposes. A frequent violation of funds or appropriations to particular uses, in the applicati on of revenue hath been another ground of unea siness. The State must be saved at all events, and there may be exigencies of danger which will war rant such violations ; but nothing of this kind can amount to a jollification, in one quarter ofthein ftances which have happened. A worthy citizen always wishes for an opportunity to glory in the good faith of his country—national justice is his pride—the want of it wounds his feelings and finks his ambition—he becomes! weary of paying, when t he whole system is a chaos, and the application so variable that none are fatisfied, and the public do not obtain the reputation even of trj ing to bejnft. Another source of uneasiness, and this 1 think with great reason, is, that part of the public creditors have been wholly negleifted, and among those who have received some compensation it hath been on various principles and in different proportions, though all had a right to the fame justice. One half of the citizens without receiving any interest on their own securities, have been taxed to pay the intereftdue to their neighbors,whofe notes might run in another name, but had no preference in e quity. They submitted to the neceility of the times with a fortitude almost unparalleled, and it must Aot be any longer expected from them. There is but one remedy for this evil—let United States afl'ume the whole public debt—it was incurred for them and in equity they ought to fee it funded. The principal ought not to be paid if there was public ability, but the interest fhouldbe annual ly fatisfied. This debt will he an advantage to the nation, and to individuals, to government, commerce, a griculture and manufactures. I can forefee it will be enquired how shall this be done, will not so vast an amount fink the people ? By many tliefe en quiries are honestly made, and by some merely to terrify. Methodize and Amplify your whole trea sury department, and the burden on the peofle will not be on«* half of what they have annually borne for fifteen years. The United States have now an import, the savings of this, beyond the support of civil government will amount to a large sum—but other ways and means will doubt lels be requiiite. In a number of the States there is now an excise, which ought to be baniilied from all, or extended through the whole—and perhaps the latter will be found wecefiary. An excise is a tax attended with some difficulty in collettion, and if not thoroughly gathered proves a dis couragement to the lionelt, who wish to observe all the regulations of government : but notwitli standing this difficulty, there are some reasons both of policy and equity, which I shall mention in some future number, that may render this mode of revenue expedient. The tax paid by the country planters and farmers, ought to be of one kind, and on the most simple principles, such that every man may know by his own calculation, what will be demanded from him. Among the various expedients of taxation, devised by human ingenuity, a land tax of a certain sum pr. acre on improved lands, is the most limple and perma nent. It admits no altercation concerning the sum to be paid—being placed on stable and im moveable property, the difhonett cannot by any fraud escape payment —it favors the poor who liSve little pi operty, while a poll tax crushes them —It conies 011 such as have solid wealth—The quantity of improved land bears a nearer propor tion to the comparative wealth of individuals in the State, than any other articles which can be re duced to taxation. Another thing which favors this mode of taxation in the United States is, that it may be carried into effect with ease, and in an intelligible manner, through every part of the empire. There will be no need of intermedling with the different policies of revenue inthefever al States,which cannot be reduced into a harino- iiious system. Avery finali land tax i*i addnioii to the orlier branches ol*revenue, would be fuftt' cient, and could in be introduced, by the plain liefs and limplicity of its operation, would givd general content. AJR. FI'.KNO, —————— If you think the follow ng rejlrtivrs are adiftedto the enfurnr 4 Jv.lt : c jrjiivuiy Ut ihem appear in tie Cizet •oj the U.vted Stats. ' ('. REFLECTIONS FOR THANKSGIVING DAY. '* TXTIItN wc Curve) the itupend us expanie, Co (' iinp'uoul- VV ly furnilbed with a profufion of planets, and luinina ries revolving in appointed courses, ana diverfifying the fcufn::; ; •we fee a work that is altogether woiihy of a God. Again when we descend to the earth, and look abroad ilpon the it.finite pro ductions of nature, upon provili ns Co amply aniweiing to the wants of every living being, and on objects, and oiga'ns it? finely fitted to each other—we trace a com.plu a ted ir.iw.e ot'wifdbm,boun ty and benevolence."—Thus the natural world furnifhes t l i • nioft glorious iubjefcts to excite our wonder, adoration, piaiie and thanksgiving. When wc contemplate the diCpofltions of Divine Providence, as diCplaved 111 the various events that diverfifv the Ccene of hu man exigence—tberiCe and Fa 11 ofempires, states, and kiiigdoms-r ---the uniform of virtue and public honor to the fu mm it of earthly felicity and glory—aud 011 the revi rCe, the certain termination of vice, and contempt for ihe Cacred principles of public justice, in general and irretrievable ruin and misery—how great are our obligations oC gratitude and thanksgiving to God of Providence who furnifhcs us with such powerful incrtemeirs " to do jujlly, to love mercy, and walk hiMbly, as the surest means of lengthning out the public tranquility. But the moral world furnifhcs the refining mind with the most copious fubjefts of delightful fcontemplation ! How are the glooms of superstition difftpated before the refplendeut rays of enlightened reaCon and divine revelation ! Cool rafted with the ages of pagan da*knefs, the prcfent period of illumination, places the human mind in a fituatidn that affords a pioTpcll of the most fublimr attainments : And as knowledge pours its treasures into the Coul, the social attedtiont find a rich Coil in which to luxuriate. Humanity #nd charity* acquire a prtdontinant influence, while the malevolent paflions are extinguifbed in the human brealt. May we not antici pate the time, when from entertaining just, aud liberal ideas of the Deity* mankind fball learn to think more favorably of each other ; and the common defcendents of the ori ginal parent —recognizing the principles of conCanguiuity and mutual dependence, fball be knit together aa members of one great family—fay, can gratitude exceed, or praiCc and thanksgiv ing be too ardent for Cnch favors ? In the United States of Ame rica the human mind will have fair play ; Pricfl craft, King craft, and State craft, with every Cpecies of imposition on the under standing, are ridiculed and dcCpiCed. While reaCon and true re ligion point out our duty and happinefc, in the plain language of common Cense. Our religious and civil inftifutions arethe result of enquiry and experience; and unshackled with the rusty fetters of antique preju dice, wereferveto ourfelvesthe liberty oi amending them when ever convenience dictates. In contemplating this our fituatiou every real friend to human happiness and the United States, will feel his bofain expand with gratitude to that Being to whose providence we are specially indebted for every private, social, and public bleflmg—How suitable, how wife, how indifpenfible theu the duty of Thanksci v i ng. Fully imprcired with a sense of our obligations to the Sovereign Arbiter of the Fate of nations, our Civil Fathers have called the people of this confederated Republic, to unite with. One heart, and one voice, in Thanksgiving and Piaifc, to " that great and glo rious Being, who is the benrjicent Author of all the good that was, that is, or that will be : for his kind care and protection of this people previ oious to their becoming a nation \ for the Jigna! and manifold mercies and the favorable interpofi t ions oj his providence in the course and con c I upon oj the late war ; for the great degree of union, tranquility and plenty which we have face enjoyed ; for the peaceable and rational tnan ner in which we have been enabled to ejlablijh conjlitutions oj government for our ffety and hup pi Heft; and particularly the national ons now lately instituted; for the civil and religious liber ty with which we are bleljed, and the means we have of acquiring ufefut know lege ; and for all the great and various favors which he hath beat pleased to confer itpon us"—A duty so rational, and Co conc>acivc to public felicity, that a wife Hcdthen hath said, " The only founda tion for national prosperity are, Piety towards the Gods, and Justice and Char, it yto Man ki nd." CI VIS. NEW-YORK, NOVEMBER 25. We are informed that liis Excellency Thomas Jefferfon, Efq; and family, embarked at Cowes 011 board the brig Clermont, belonging to Meflrs. Ilitfon and Bayard, of this city, and failed for Norfolk in company with the Montgomery, Capt. Bunyan. There will be Collections raised for theP.elief of the Poor in the three firft Presbyterian Chnrches in this city, on the enfaing Thanksgiving Morn ing—a proper mode of tellifying our gratitude to God for the signal mercies we are that day t» commemorate. \Vhen Boreas whistles from the Nortfi, And fends liis icy morsels forth, Turn not the wretched irom your door, Hut iced, andcloath, and warm tiie poor. For they to life's belt purptjfe live, Who know how blefTVd 'tis to give; " Thus happicll he whofeblifstul light," Purfui sby Ch a* ity's fair light, A glorious hope beyond the (ty, IVhere tfjrs arc tuip dJrcm evert eye. The Creditors ot the State Governments appear to be placed in a very ineligible situation incon sequence of the appropriation of the Impost to the purpoles of the Union—for it is very evident that if the Excifeand Impost united, v»ere 'not more than adequate to difchargingtlie interest of State securities—the funds now left to the individual governments,muft fall greatly fhortofthat objetft. The debts of the refpecftive States ought there fore to be placed upon a continental establish ment—and as there does not appear to be any o ther feazible plan of doing justice to this class of creditors, as meritorious as any in the li nked States, it must be pleasing to every honest citizen to findthattlic sentiment is ve ry general in various parts of the Union. ihould the creditors of tliefeparate States, be left to the mercy of local systems, and financier ing committees of State Legislatures, with only the excif'e to depend upon, u is pretty evident, that while Continental Securities are rapidly ap preciating, those of the Stares will as rapidly verge towards annihilation.