Gazette of the United-States. (New-York [N.Y.]) 1789-1793, November 25, 1789, Page 259, Image 3

Below is the OCR text representation for this newspapers page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

    was in tears tlie wliole time, aiut only talked a
little to the Imperial Ambaflador. The <Vht
was uncommonly gloomy, and the court broice up
after a short time.
In the evening the dittrkls of Paris, pafled a
refolucion, that the regimen, of the King's body
guard should be immediately broken, and never
more revived—and that in future, his Majesty
should be guarded by citizens instead of soldiers.
During these proceedings at Paris, the Nation
al Aflembly at Verfaiiles did not transact much
business. On Wednesday evening, however, they
came to two resolutions, and it was fuppoied that
■would be the laltday of their fitting there.
The purport of these resolutions were, —That
the National Aflembly should adjourn to Paris,
and, That its meeting should ever be inseparable
from the King's place of residence.
One bad consequence produced by the differ
ent revolutions that have taken place of late is,
that a general mistrust pervades the whole capi
For the lad 24 hours theKinghas not eaten an
ounce of food, and great apprehensions are enter
tained that his health is in great danger, to fay
110 more.
The ftlloTiiing is the Letter which caused thefirfl alarm
in the National dumbly.
" Gent I.imen,
11 LAWS newly constituted can only be properly fudged of,
■when taken :n their general mass ; —in such great and important
obje&s, the whole is joined by one common link.
" Nevertheless, I feel it extremely natural, that in a moment
•when we invite the Nation to come to the succour of the State,
' bvafignal a£l of confidence and patriotism, we should afTuie it
of its neceflity and propriety. Therefore, in the hope that the
firfl articles of the Constitution which you have presented to me,
united with the continuation of your labors, will fulfill the ex
pectation of my people, and secure the happiness and prosperity
of my kingdom, I acquiesce in these Articles according to your
desire, but on this pofitivc condition, from which I never will de
part, That the general result of your deliberations fliall leave the
entire effeil of the Executive Power in the hands of the Monarch.
" A general view of my observations shall be lard before
' vou ; by which you will be nwde acquainted, that, in the present
order of things, lean neither with efficacy p rote £1 the recovery
of legal impositions, the frcecirculation of money and provisions,
nor the individual fafety of my citizens. I will nevertheless ful
fil the eflential duties of Royalty; the welfare»of my fubjecis,
the public tranquility, and the preservation of good order among
foeiety, are dependant on it. It is my wish thefet'ore, that we
make it a common cause to remove those oblUcles which may ob
ftruft so deferable and lalutary an end*
" It remains for me to acquaint you with franknefs, that if I
give my acquiescence to the various articles of the Constitution
which you have laid before me, it is not that they arc according
to my ideas, a model of pcrfe&ion ; but that I consider it praile
■worthy in me not to delay paying attention to the present wifn
es of the deputies of the nation, and the alarming circumliances
which so strongly invite us to reflore the public tranquility and
confidence among the people.
t( I do now explain myfelf on your declaration of the rights
of man and citizci s. It contains very excellent maxims pio
pc r to guide your deliberations ; but principles which are liable
to different applications, and even conllru£tions cannot be justly
appreciated ; nor is it necellarv they thould be, until the no
ment when their true sense is fixed by those laws to which they
arc to serve as a basis. (Signed) L O U 1 S."
[The OUfervations contained in the following come home to the
feelings of every citizen of the United Siatts : Every patriotic
Editor of a public Paper, will doubtlefsenrich his Mile, llany by
their republication.]
THE greatelt effects are produced by the most
liinple causes. A great mind may be diftin
guifbed by the simplicity of its conceptions, and
the art of managing momentous concerns, by thole
plain means which others have overlooked. If we
examine the hiltory of mankind we shall perceive
that the moll: eminent characters in civil and reli
gious policy, obtained their superiority of reputa
tion by discerning the opportune moment to I weep
away complicated fyftems,the work of thole who
had been laboi ioully and minutely wife ; andfub
ftituting in their place some plain scheme of truth
and practice, which the people can understand and
fee to be fortheir advantage. In every enlighten
ed country, aniajority of the people are willing to
do right, or what is the fame thing, that which is
for their own interest. Intricacy in the measures
of government, is a common courle of losing the
public confidence ; and this ought to be the cafe,
as it exposes the fubjecft to tyranny and fraud, with
out any means of detection. The manner of rai
ling, collecting and applying a national revenue,
has generally been esteemed ttie most difficult part
of government,and doubtless more uneasiness hath
arisen from this than every other source. This dif
ficulty hath generally been imputed to the avarice
of the human heart. It hath been laid that the
people will neceflarily be displeased, with every
regulation which requires any contribution of
their property to the public ; but I cannot yet be
lieve that so much both of the fool and knave is
eflential to human nature. Honesty is known to
be the best policy, and the ruling half of an in
formed people, letting aflde moral obligation, will
on this account prefer honesty. Let them be
convinced the State is honest in its government,
apd with the fame honesty and cheerfulnefs, they
will contribute their quota of tlve general ex
pence ; but the people can never have this evi
dence of national integrity with luch acontulion
of schemes as have filled the United States.
More than four fifths of the citizens through
the Union are willing to fatisly every demand
of The late revolution of government
is a proof that they have magnanimity faffici
ent for every event, But in this business a finan
cier who means to lead them, must have a simple
and plain system both of railing and applying.the
revenue. He must have a permanent system—one
that will not need new modelling every session of
the supreme Legi.-hture. It is allowed on all
hands that taxation hath caused uneasiness in most
of the States, buc it is not from any want ofhonef
ty in the people. Some reasons of this uneasiness
were mentioned iii my last number, and there are
others which deserve notice. When the-funis to
be paid in the progress of the war became consider
able, the State Legislatures through almost the
whole union, with the best intentions and a real
design to favor the people, set theinfelves to new
modelling those modes of taxation, to which they
had been refpeitively used—addition upon addi
tion was made to the tax laws—every year pro
duced something new,which, the next, was proba
bly repealed, for the fake ot'fome alteration sup
posed to be better. This fluctuating state of the tax
laws became a temptation for particular persons
to favor themselves ; and jealousy has been gra
dually introduced between respectable clalfes of
citizens, whose property is in difficult situations.
The people at large are unable to comprehend the
design of such frequent alterations—the whole ap
pears to them like confufion, and a game played
between the more knowing ones, to promote their
own purposes. A frequent violation of funds or
appropriations to particular uses, in the applicati
on of revenue hath been another ground of unea
siness. The State must be saved at all events, and
there may be exigencies of danger which will war
rant such violations ; but nothing of this kind can
amount to a jollification, in one quarter ofthein
ftances which have happened. A worthy citizen
always wishes for an opportunity to glory in the
good faith of his country—national justice is his
pride—the want of it wounds his feelings and finks
his ambition—he becomes! weary of paying, when
t he whole system is a chaos, and the application so
variable that none are fatisfied, and the public do
not obtain the reputation even of trj ing to bejnft.
Another source of uneasiness, and this 1 think with
great reason, is, that part of the public creditors
have been wholly negleifted, and among those who
have received some compensation it hath been on
various principles and in different proportions,
though all had a right to the fame justice. One
half of the citizens without receiving any interest
on their own securities, have been taxed to pay the
intereftdue to their neighbors,whofe notes might
run in another name, but had no preference in e
quity. They submitted to the neceility of the times
with a fortitude almost unparalleled, and it must
Aot be any longer expected from them. There is
but one remedy for this evil—let United States
afl'ume the whole public debt—it was incurred for
them and in equity they ought to fee it funded.
The principal ought not to be paid if there was
public ability, but the interest fhouldbe annual
ly fatisfied.
This debt will he an advantage to the nation,
and to individuals, to government, commerce, a
griculture and manufactures. I can forefee it will
be enquired how shall this be done, will not so vast
an amount fink the people ? By many tliefe en
quiries are honestly made, and by some merely to
terrify. Methodize and Amplify your whole trea
sury department, and the burden on the peofle
will not be on«* half of what they have annually
borne for fifteen years. The United States have
now an import, the savings of this, beyond the
support of civil government will amount to a
large sum—but other ways and means will doubt
lels be requiiite. In a number of the States there
is now an excise, which ought to be baniilied from
all, or extended through the whole—and perhaps
the latter will be found wecefiary. An excise is
a tax attended with some difficulty in collettion,
and if not thoroughly gathered proves a dis
couragement to the lionelt, who wish to observe
all the regulations of government : but notwitli
standing this difficulty, there are some reasons
both of policy and equity, which I shall mention
in some future number, that may render this
mode of revenue expedient. The tax paid by the
country planters and farmers, ought to be of one
kind, and on the most simple principles, such that
every man may know by his own calculation,
what will be demanded from him. Among the
various expedients of taxation, devised by human
ingenuity, a land tax of a certain sum pr. acre on
improved lands, is the most limple and perma
nent. It admits no altercation concerning the
sum to be paid—being placed on stable and im
moveable property, the difhonett cannot by any
fraud escape payment —it favors the poor who
liSve little pi operty, while a poll tax crushes them
—It conies 011 such as have solid wealth—The
quantity of improved land bears a nearer propor
tion to the comparative wealth of individuals in
the State, than any other articles which can be re
duced to taxation. Another thing which favors
this mode of taxation in the United States is, that
it may be carried into effect with ease, and in an
intelligible manner, through every part of the
empire. There will be no need of intermedling
with the different policies of revenue inthefever
al States,which cannot be reduced into a harino-
iiious system. Avery finali land tax i*i addnioii
to the orlier branches ol*revenue, would be fuftt'
cient, and could in be introduced, by the plain
liefs and limplicity of its operation, would givd
general content.
AJR. FI'.KNO, ——————
If you think the follow ng rejlrtivrs are adiftedto the enfurnr 4 : c
jrjiivuiy Ut ihem appear in tie Cizet •oj the U.vted Stats. ' ('.
'* TXTIItN wc Curve) the itupend us expanie, Co (' iinp'uoul-
VV ly furnilbed with a profufion of planets, and luinina
ries revolving in appointed courses, ana diverfifying the fcufn::; ;
•we fee a work that is altogether woiihy of a God. Again when
we descend to the earth, and look abroad ilpon the it.finite pro
ductions of nature, upon provili ns Co amply aniweiing to the
wants of every living being, and on objects, and oiga'ns it? finely
fitted to each other—we trace a com.plu a ted ir.iw.e ot'wifdbm,boun
ty and benevolence."—Thus the natural world furnifhes t l i • nioft
glorious iubjefcts to excite our wonder, adoration, piaiie and
When wc contemplate the diCpofltions of Divine Providence,
as diCplaved 111 the various events that diverfifv the Ccene of hu
man exigence—tberiCe and Fa 11 ofempires, states, and kiiigdoms-r
---the uniform of virtue and public honor to the fu mm it
of earthly felicity and glory—aud 011 the revi rCe, the certain
termination of vice, and contempt for ihe Cacred principles of
public justice, in general and irretrievable ruin and misery—how
great are our obligations oC gratitude and thanksgiving to God
of Providence who furnifhcs us with such powerful incrtemeirs
" to do jujlly, to love mercy, and walk hiMbly, as the surest means of
lengthning out the public tranquility.
But the moral world furnifhcs the refining mind with the
most copious fubjefts of delightful fcontemplation ! How are the
glooms of superstition difftpated before the refplendeut rays of
enlightened reaCon and divine revelation ! Cool rafted with the
ages of pagan da*knefs, the prcfent period of illumination, places
the human mind in a fituatidn that affords a pioTpcll of the most
fublimr attainments : And as knowledge pours its treasures into
the Coul, the social attedtiont find a rich Coil in which to luxuriate.
Humanity #nd charity* acquire a prtdontinant influence, while the
malevolent paflions are extinguifbed in the human brealt. May
we not antici pate the time, when from entertaining just, aud
liberal ideas of the Deity* mankind fball learn to think more
favorably of each other ; and the common defcendents of the ori
ginal parent —recognizing the principles of conCanguiuity and
mutual dependence, fball be knit together aa members of one
great family—fay, can gratitude exceed, or praiCc and thanksgiv
ing be too ardent for Cnch favors ? In the United States of Ame
rica the human mind will have fair play ; Pricfl craft, King craft,
and State craft, with every Cpecies of imposition on the under
standing, are ridiculed and dcCpiCed. While reaCon and true re
ligion point out our duty and happinefc, in the plain language of
common Cense.
Our religious and civil inftifutions arethe result of enquiry and
experience; and unshackled with the rusty fetters of antique preju
dice, wereferveto ourfelvesthe liberty oi amending them when
ever convenience dictates. In contemplating this our fituatiou
every real friend to human happiness and the United States, will
feel his bofain expand with gratitude to that Being to whose
providence we are specially indebted for every private, social, and
public bleflmg—How suitable, how wife, how indifpenfible theu
the duty of Thanksci v i ng.
Fully imprcired with a sense of our obligations to the Sovereign
Arbiter of the Fate of nations, our Civil Fathers have called
the people of this confederated Republic, to unite with. One heart,
and one voice, in Thanksgiving and Piaifc, to " that great and glo
rious Being, who is the benrjicent Author of all the good that was, that
is, or that will be : for his kind care and protection of this people previ
oious to their becoming a nation \ for the Jigna! and manifold mercies
and the favorable interpofi t ions oj his providence in the course and con
c I upon oj the late war ; for the great degree of union, tranquility and
plenty which we have face enjoyed ; for the peaceable and rational tnan
ner in which we have been enabled to ejlablijh conjlitutions oj government
for our ffety and hup pi Heft; and particularly the national
ons now lately instituted; for the civil and religious liber
ty with which we are bleljed, and the means we have of acquiring ufefut
know lege ; and for all the great and various favors which he hath beat
pleased to confer itpon us"—A duty so rational, and Co conc>acivc to
public felicity, that a wife Hcdthen hath said, " The only founda
tion for national prosperity are, Piety towards the Gods,
and Justice and Char, it yto Man ki nd." CI VIS.
We are informed that liis Excellency Thomas
Jefferfon, Efq; and family, embarked at Cowes
011 board the brig Clermont, belonging to Meflrs.
Ilitfon and Bayard, of this city, and failed for
Norfolk in company with the Montgomery, Capt.
There will be Collections raised for theP.elief
of the Poor in the three firft Presbyterian Chnrches
in this city, on the enfaing Thanksgiving Morn
ing—a proper mode of tellifying our gratitude
to God for the signal mercies we are that day t»
\Vhen Boreas whistles from the Nortfi,
And fends liis icy morsels forth,
Turn not the wretched irom your door,
Hut iced, andcloath, and warm tiie poor.
For they to life's belt purptjfe live,
Who know how blefTVd 'tis to give;
" Thus happicll he whofeblifstul light,"
Purfui sby Ch a* ity's fair light,
A glorious hope beyond the (ty,
IVhere tfjrs arc tuip dJrcm evert eye.
The Creditors ot the State Governments appear
to be placed in a very ineligible situation incon
sequence of the appropriation of the Impost to the
purpoles of the Union—for it is very evident that
if the Excifeand Impost united, v»ere 'not more
than adequate to difchargingtlie interest of State
securities—the funds now left to the individual
governments,muft fall greatly fhortofthat objetft.
The debts of the refpecftive States ought there
fore to be placed upon a continental establish
ment—and as there does not appear to be any o
ther feazible plan of doing justice to this class
of creditors, as meritorious as any in the li
nked States, it must be pleasing to every honest
citizen to findthattlic sentiment is ve
ry general in various parts of the Union.
ihould the creditors of tliefeparate States, be
left to the mercy of local systems, and financier
ing committees of State Legislatures, with only
the excif'e to depend upon, u is pretty evident,
that while Continental Securities are rapidly ap
preciating, those of the Stares will as rapidly
verge towards annihilation.