Gazette of the United-States. (New-York [N.Y.]) 1789-1793, November 14, 1789, Page 248, Image 4

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    MR. AD A MVS LETTERS.
LETTER X?
Amsterdam, Oct. 16, 1780.
SIR,
HE tenth head of inquiry is, " Ho~jj great
" is the force of America ? The number of men ?
" Thiir difciplinc, be. from the commencement of
" the troubles 1? Is there a good fuppty of war/ike
" flores ? Are these to be found partly or entirely in
" America? Or muji they be imported ?"
THE force of America consists of a regular ar
my, and of a militia: The regular army has
been various at different times. The firfl regu
lar army, which wus formed in April, 1 77J, was
enlilted for fix months only ; the next was en
lilted for one year ; the next for three years ;
the last period expired last February. At each of
these periods, between the expiration of a term
of enlistment, and the formation of a new army,
the Engliih have given themselves airs of triumph,
and have done l'ome brilliant exploits. In the
winter of 1775-6, indeed, they were in Boston;
and although our army, after the expiration of
the firft period of enlilhnent for fix months, was
reduced to a linall number, yet the Englilli were
not in a condition to attempt any thing. In the
winter of t 776-7, after the expiration of the se
cond term of enlistment, and before the new army
was brought together,, the inarched thro'
the Jellies. After the expiration of the laftterm
of enlistment, which was for three years, and
ended last January or February, the Engliih went
to their old exultations again, and undertook the
expedition to Charleftown. In thecourfe of the
last spring and fumnier, however, it seems the ar
my has been renewed ; and they are now enlilt
ed in general, during the war.
To Itate the num tiers of the regular army ac
cording to the establishment, that is, according to
the number of regiments at their full comple
ment, i suppose the continental army has iome
tiir.es amounted to fourfcore thousand men. But
the American regiments have not often been full,
any more than the Engliih. There arcinthewar
office at Philadelphia, regular monthly returns
of the army, from 1775 to this day, but lam not
able from memory, to give any accurate account
of them ; it is fulheient to fay, that the American
regular army has been generally superior to that
of the Engliih ; and it would not be good policy
to keep a larger army, unless we had a prospect
of putting an end to the Britilh power in America
by it. But this, without a naval superiority, is
■very difficult, if not impracticable : The Engliih
take pofleffion of a sea-port town, fortify it in the
strongest manner, and cover it with the guns of
their men of war, so that our army can not come
at it. If France or Spain fliould co-operate with
us so far as to fend fliips enough to maintain the
superiority at sea, it would not require many
years, perhaps not may months, to exterminate
the Engliih from the United States. But this po
licy those courts have not adopted, which is alit
tlefurprizing, because it is obvious, that by cap
tivating the Britilh fleet and army in America, the
inoftdecifivc- blow would be given to their power,
which canpoffibly be given in any quarter of the
globe.
What number of troops General Walhington
has at this time under his immediate command,
I am not able precisely to fay: I presume, how
ever, that he has not less than twenty thousand
men, befrdes the French troops under the Comte
de Rochambeau. Nor am J able to fay, how manj
General Gates has to the southward.
But belides the regular army, we are to consi
der the militia. Several of the colonies were form
ed into a militia, from the beginning of their set
tlement. After the commencement of this war,
all the others followed their example, and made
laws, by which all the inhabitants of America
are now enrolled in a militia, which may be com
puted at five hundred thousand men. But these
are Scattered over a territory of one hundred and
fifty miles in breadth, and at lealt fifteen hun
dred miles in length, lying all along upon the
fei.-coaft. This gives the Engliih the advantage,
by means of their superiority at sea, to remove
suddenly and eafilv from one part of the continent
to another, as from Boston to New-York, from
New-York to Rhode-Illand, from New-York to
Chefapeak or Delaware Bay, or to Savannah or
Cliarleftown, and the Americans the disadvan
tage, of not being able to march either the regu
lar army or the militia, to l'uch vast diltances,
without immense expence of money and time.
This puts it in the power of the Englilli to take
so many of our sea-port towns ; but not to make
any long and fuccefsi'ul marches into the interior
country, or make any permanent establishment
there.
As to discipline, in the beginning of the war
there was very little, either amongtlie militia or
the regular troops. The American officers have,
however, been industrious ; they have had the
advantage of reading all the books which have
any reputation, concerning military science ; they
have had the example of-their enemies, the Britifii
officers, before their eyes a long time, indeed
from the year 1768 ; and they have had the honor
of being joined by Britilh, German, French, Prof
fian,and Poiifli officers, of infantry and cavalry,
of artillery, and engineering; so that the art of
war is now as well understood in the American
army,and military discipline is now tarried to as
great perfection, as in any country whatever.
As to a supply of warlike (tores: sc vlie com
mencement of lioftilities, the Americans had nei
ther cannon, arms, or ammunition, but infuch
contemptible quantities asdiftrefledthem beyond
description ; and they have all alongbeen ftraiglit
ened, at times, byalcarcity of those articles, and
are to this day.
They have, however, at present, an ample field
artillery ; they have arms and powder ; and they
can never be again absolutely destitute, becaul'e
the manufactures of all forts of arms, of cannon
of all forts, of fait petre and powder, have been
introduced and eftabliihed. These manufactures,
although very good, are very dear, and it is very
difficult to make enough for so constant and lo
great a consumption. Quantities of these articles
are imported every year; and it is certain they
can be imported and paid for, by American pro
duce, cheaper than they can be made.
But the Ameri ans, to make their system per
fect, want five hundred thousand stands of arms,
that is, one at lealt for every militia man, with
powder, ball, and accoutrements in proportion.
This, however, is rather to be wiffied for than
expetfted. The French Fleet carried arms to A
merica : and if the communication between Ame
rica and France and Spain ffiould become more
frequent, by frigates and men of war, and espe
cially if this Republic ffiould be compelled into a
war with England, America will probably never
again fuffer much from the want of arms or am
munition.
The Engliffi began the war against the North
ern Colonies: Here they found the effects of anci
ent militia laws ; they found a numerous and har
dymilitia, who fought, and defeated them upon
many occasions. They then thought it neceflary to
abandon these and fall upon the middle Colonies,
whose militia had not been so long formed : How
ever, after several years experience, they found
they were not able to do any thing to thepurpofe
against them. They have lastly conceived the de
sign of attacking the Southern Colonies : Here the
white people, and consequently the militia, are nol
so numerous, and have not yet been ufeil to war :
here therefore, they have had foine apparent fuc
cefles; but they will find in the end their own
deftrucfiion in these very fuccefles. The climate
will devour their men ; their firft fuccefles will
embolden them to raffi enterprises ; the people
there will become inured to war, and will finally
totally cleftroy them : For as to the si lly gasconade
of bringing the Southern Colonies to submis
sion there is not even apoflibility of it. The peo
ple of those States are as firm in principle, and as
determined in their tempers, against the designs
of the Englilh, as (he Middle or Northern States.
1 have the hoHor to be, &c.
JOHN ADAMS.
MR. CALKOEN.
ANECDOTE.
CROMWELL sent his Excellency Lockh art
to France, with the title of Ambaflador,
where he was received with all the honors due
to his rank. One day the old Marffial Villeroy,
Governor to Louis XIV. asking this Engliffiman
why Cromwell, instead of taking the title of Pro
testor, had not got hiinfelf declared King. " Mon
sieur," replied Lockliart, " we know the extent
of the prerogatives of a, King, and limit them
accordingly; but we are ignorant of those of a
Protestor."—Lockhart was right; new titles are
neceflary to new power.
NEW-YORK, November 14, 1789.
TREASURY DEPARTMENT, Sett. 19, 1 789.
A STATEMENT of the. ANTICIPATION o/MO
NIES on the Public Credit, by the late Commis
sioners of the Board of Treasury, on the nth of
September, I 789.
THE Register hav ing accurately stated the account of warrants,
drawn by the late Commifiioners of the Board of Treasury
on the Trcafurer of the United States, and having examined the
amount of monies attually received by the said Treasurer, certifies,
that the excess of warrants drawn beyond the said Treasurer's
a&ual receipts, amounts to the sum of one hundred eighty
nine thpufand, nitie hundred and fix dollars, thirty-four nine
tieths. Dollars, 189,906 38-iooths.
Of this sum thus anticipated on the public credit,
34,657 67 Warrants have been ifTued tothe Officers of the ci
. nd vil lift on account of their salaries for the year 1789:
2 5>575 34 Ditto in payment for cloathing and rations, and
is a part of the sum estimated by the Secretary
of the War Department, for pay, cloathing, ra
tions, and other expenses of the army eftablilh
mcnt, for the year 1789 :
129,673 27 Ditto, to Contra&ors for Provisions, Indian Trea
ties, and for other ferviccs of the United States.
189.906 38
With refpe£t to this last sum of 129,673 27
the Regiflcr observes, That there remained in the
hands of the Receivers of Taxes at the date of
their lad refpt&ive settlements at the treasury, cer
tain balances which the CommifTioners of the late
Board of Treasury have since drawn for, in favor
of the Treasurer, and vvould appear as having been
paid by them, had their Accounts been rendered
tothe 1 ith September, 1789.
It is prefumcd therefore, that the Anticipatioa
will be. IciTencd, the amount of thpfe balances
bcin S 30.260 10
Dollars, 09*113 17
Til- rf will tinn remain to be provided foi (Ufiilts tut
pations lor the Civil Lift ai d War Uepartmetit, aforc-mcr.it'V
cd) the fnm q! ninety-nine thouland, four hundred, anc
dollars, twenty.fix hundredths. It is presumed no'po'.hliie in"?
ry c.in arifeto the public by making this provision; bccaufcth'
Trealuiers-accounts, and the accounts of the Receivers ofT °
will undergo examination by the prrfent officers of the Treat,,?
when any furpl.tffage beyond such particular grant which Con'
greiima) be plcaftd to make, will be duly Oiewn
JOSEPH NOURSE, R cg , ft „
ESTIMATE of the AMOUNT o/PENSIONS for
the INVALIDS. 1
TAKEN from Returns, dated D O H,
March 7th, 1789, New-Hampshire, 3>'"o '
March 7th, 1789, Malfachufctts, 7,6991,
May 24th, 1789, Connecticut,
Jan. ill, 1789, New.York, 1
Feb. zd, 1789, New-Jersey, . g
July s th, 1786, Pennsylvania, 11,22030
For >787, Virginia, 9,27663
Conjeftuial. f Suppose Rhode-Iflar.d and)
Delaware nearly equal to£ 3,170
States from New-Hatqfhire. }
which there are <j Maryland equal to Connect. fay 7,000
no Returns. N.Carolina, S.Carolina and )
Georgia, nearly equal to N. > 27,200
York, N. Jerfeyand Connec. )
96,017 81
War-Office of the UniteiStates, Sept. iyth, 1789.
, (Signed) H. KNO X.
To the Honorable the Secretatv of the)
Treasury of//(eUnited States, j
Copy of the original on file,
ALEXANDER HAMILTON,
Secretary of the Triajury.
THE Secretary of the Treasury, in obedience to the
order of the Ho.ife, of the 23d of September, 1789, refpe£lful
ly submits the settlement therein required, together with one of
the whole Anticipation 011 the Taxes made by the late Superin
tendant of Finance, at the time of resigning his office ; 011 which,
a balance appears due 01 93,463 29-goths. dollars.
This debt has constantly been considered on the part of the
United States, as an actual specie claim ; and nothing but the low
(late of theTreafury, has hitherto prevented the Claimants under
it from receiving the fame payment, as appears to have been
made to other creditors of the fame class. 11 may be further pro
per to observe, that the chief part of the balance above Hated, wn
intended to have been paid trom the specie quota, due from the
State of New-York, but that the said State have discharged the
whole sum in specie, due on former requisitions ; and the moniei
arising therefrom, having been applied to the more prefling,ge
neral exigencies of the union, the claimants have now no otter
profpeft of relief, but what mav be derived from "the National
Treasury. ALEXANDER HAMILTON,
Secretary of the Tree/try.
September 25th, 1789.
STATE of the ANTICIPATION of the TAXES
' by the Superintendaht of Finance.
ON T William Whipple, receiver for the State of Dol. ffitk.
New-Hampshire—
For an order in favor of Major-General Sullivan^
dated the 24th January, 1784. 1,300
Ditto Brigadier-General Mojes Hazen, dated the
Janiiary, 1784, 2,88772
Ditto Capt. Olivie, dated 6th March, 17841 406 26
Ditto Capt. Philip Leibert, ditto, 105 17
Ditto Lieut. Germame Dienne, ditto, 85
Ditto Capt. Anthony Selin, Bth ditto, 219 5
On James Lovell, Receiver for the State of Mas
sachusetts—
For an Order in favor of John Langdon, Conti
nental Agent at Portsmouth, dated the 4th of Au
juft, 1784, 5,000
Ditto Timothy Pickering, Quartcrmafter-General,
iated the 30th September, 1784, s> oco
On George Olney, Receiver for the Stateof Rhode
[fland—
For an Order in favor of Timothy Pickering,
Quartermaster-General, dated the 30th of Septem
ber, 1784, 3> 000
On Hezekiah Merrill, Receiver for the State of
Connecticut—
For an Order in favor of Timothy
termafter-Gencral, dated the 30th of September, 1784, 3,000
On Thomas Tilfotfon, Receiver for New-York —
For an Order in favor of Timothy Pickering,
Quartcrmafter-General, dated the 30th of Sep
ember, 1784, 5 0 ' 000
Ditto of Abraham Skinner, late Commifldry-Ge
icral of Prifoners,dated the 30th of September,l7B4, to
On William C. Houjlon, Receiver for the State of
\ T cw-Jerfey—
For an Order in favor of Timothy Pickering,
Quartermaster-General, dated the 30th of Septem
ber, 1784, <s>°° 0
On William Geddes, Receiver for the State of De
laware—
For an Order in favor of Timothy Pickering,
Quartermaster-General, dated the 30th of Septem
ber, 1784, 5' 000
On Benjamin Harwood, Receiver for the State of
Maryland—
For .an Order in favor of Timothy Pickering,
Quartermaster-General, dated the 30th of Septem
ber, 1784, 9> c0 ° -
On George Webb, Receiver for the State of Vir
ginia—
For an Order in favor of Timothy Pickering,
Quartermaster-General, dated the 30th of Septem
ber, 1784, 2 5'°
Tota1 ' ~ '&
Dedu£l so much thereof paia, 00,43^^
Leaves unpaid, 9
Treasury of the United States.
Beyer's Office 24th Seftcnier, NQURS^j^
ANECDOTE. h the
THE Abbs de Boisrobert being one morning ft
Cardinal Richlieu, said fevtral disagreeable
certain magistrate ot the firft order, and attributed to to him,
ridicule : a little valet de chambre took it in his hea o
" Monsieur l'Abbe, take care what you fay; attached
that I will inform M**** of it, to whom 1 am grea.
because he is my relation."—" Friend," rcphe te m j,im
M**** whatever you please ; on my part Iww in
you pretend to be his relation
Published by JOHN FENNO, No. 9, Mai®^
Lans, iicirthcOfwcgo-Marhn, New-YohS' 13