Gazette of the United-States. (New-York [N.Y.]) 1789-1793, October 24, 1789, Image 1

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    [No. LVI.]
THE TABLE T.—No. LVL
tt The more untaught and inconftderate men are, thi
wore entirely they are fivayedby the (tajjion that is uf<
fervioft-
THOSE who aflert, that human nature is.
the fame in all ages and situations, do
not speak with precision. The observation is,
partly true ; hut it is not wholly 10. Men ad:,
equally in all It ages of society, under the impulse
of such motives as have the ftrongell influence.—
Civilisation does not destroy the passions, nor pre
vent the mind from being warped by prejudices.
In different situations, however, different passions
take the lead ; and men of education and reflec
tionlearn to make one palfion fabfer'vient to ano
ther infucil a degree, that that, which from pre
sent circuihftances might befuppofed uppermost,
is not the predominating one. This is the effect
of aAing by system, and controuling the mental
operations by habits of order and felf-denial.—
Some men, though they are constantly exposed to
opposition, and meet with a thousand rubs and
difficulties, seldom exhibit any marks of rcleiit
ment or disquietude. The paflion of anger re
sides in such a breast, as much as it does in one,
that appears more turbulent and untraceable.—
But a sensible man knows that uidefs he governs
his fpltit,he will defeat his own views; and this
niakes him conquer his anger, by Subjecting it to
the stronger fwdy of avarice or ambition. Thus
itappeais that human nature may befo managed,
that it cannot, judging from appearances and ef
fects, becalled'precifely the fame in all situations.
Perfons,who have lived long under the reflraint
of food laws, and have been blelfedwith the re
fined regulation's of civilized life, are changed in
toadifferent kind of beings, from tliofevrho have
been educated under rude or careless jnmtutions.
The force of the passions is not only restrained,
but their bent and direction becomes very differ
ent. A well-bred man will not quarrel with his
family or neighbors. He overlooks those little
mistakes and incidents which throw a clown into
petulance and anger. The objects which employ
the mind of an ambitious citizen are calculated
to (often and humanize the temper, and silence
the impetuosity of palfion, which rages with such
violence in low fcertes of life.
No'conjecture can be formed how humane and
amiable men may be rendered by more perfeift
inltitmions'and laws. Were a person only ac
quainted with the conduct of people in obfeure
villages, he would not conceive it possible, how
great a difference of deportment prevailed in
cultivated fjciety. May we not extend the idea,
and anticipate improvements in the art of happy
living as far fu j»eri or to any that have yet been ex
perienced, as the belt lpecimens now known are
to the word? To live quietly and happily is a
science which can be learned by fludy and atten
tion. The bell natural disposition, and the grea
test sincerity of heart, which man ever poflefled,
will not feeure his friends againll hisunfocial pas
sions, unless by art and education he has been
taught to curbthem. I will close this speculation
by an extract from an author who underltood well
the contexture of the human mind. His remarks
are sprightly and sensible.
" Persons that are well-educated have learned
to study their ease and the comforts of life ; to
tye themselves up to certain rules and decorums
for their own advantage, and often f übmit to small
inconveniencies to avoid greater. Among the
lowest vulgar, and tliefe of the meanest educa
tion at all, you seldom fee a lasting harmony ;
you shall fee a man and his wife, that have a real
affection for one another, be full of love one hour
and disagree the next about a trifle ; and the lives
of many are made miferablo, from 110 other fault
in themselves than the want of manners and dil
cretion. Without design, they will loften talk
imprudently, till they raise one another's anger,
which neither of them being able to ftifle—fhe
scolds at him—he beats her—(he bursts into tears
—this moves him—he is lorry—both repent, and
are friends again—and with all the sincerity
imaginable resolve never to quarrel for the fu
ture, as long as they live : All this will pals be
tween them in less than half a day, and will per
haps be repeated once a month or oftener, as
provocations offer, or either of them is more or
less prone to anger. Affection never remained
long uninterrupted between two persons without
art ; and the befl friends, if they are always to
gether, will fall out, unless great discretion be
used on both fides."
A N E C £> 0 1' E.
IT was a faying ofthe late King of Prussia,
that " Life was iuPa dream, and that the heft dream,
0 man could have, mo:/ld" be, that he was King of
Krance were he, however, alive now, lie
would hold a different language.
(Da~cttc
S A T. U R D A Y, October 24, 1739.
I E T T R. S
Written in Holland, in the Tear M,DCC,LXXX
By His Excellency
THE VICE-PRESIDENT of the Un it ed States..
LETTERIV..
Amsterdam, Oct. 6,1780.
SIR,
\ OUR fourth question is," Whether America,
" in and oj ttfclj, by means ofpurchajing or exchang
" ' ,n S p r »duttions offeveral Provinces, would be
" able to continue the war for fix, eight, or ten years,
" even if they were deprived of the trade with Europe ;
" or their allies, exhaujled by the war, and forced to
" make afcparate peace, were to leave them ?"
Tliis is an extreme cafe—And where is the ne
cessity of putting fucha f'uppofition ? Is there the
least appearance of France or Spain being ex
liaufted by the war ? Are not their resources much
greater than those of England, separated as Die is
from America ? Why should a suspicion be en
tertained that France or Spain will make a sepa
rate peace ? Are not these powers fufficiently in
terested in feparatiug America from s England ?
All the world knows, that their maritime power,
and the poflelHon of their colonies, depend upon
separating them. Such chimeras as these are art
fully propagated by the English, to terrify stock
jobbers ; but thinking men, and well informed
men, know that France and Spain have the moil
prelfing motives to persevere in the war. Besides,
infractions so infamous, of solemn treaties made
and avowed to all mankind, are not committed by
any nation. In short, no man, who knows any
thing of the real wealth and power of England 011
one hand,and of the power and resources ofF ranee,
Spain and America, 011 the other, can believe it
poflible, in the ordinary course of human events,
and without the interposition of miracles, that
France and Spain should be so exliaufted by the
war, as to be forced to make a separate peace.
Theother fuppofitionhere made is equally ex
treme. It is in the nature of things impolfible that
America should ever be deprived entirely of the
trade of Europe. In oppofuion to one extreme I
have a right to advance another And I fay, that
ifall the maritime powers of Europe were to unite
their navies, to block up the American ports, and
prevent the trade of Europe, they could not whol
ly prevent it. All the men of war in Europe would
not be fufficienttoblockup afea-colt of two thou
(and miles in extent, varied, as that of America
is, by such an innumerable multitude of ports,
bays, harbors, rivers, creeks, inlets, andiflands ;
with a coast so tempestuous, that there are many
occasions, in the course of the year, when merchant
vellels can push out and in, although men of war
cannot cruise. It should be remembered, that
this war was maintained by America for three
years, before France took any part in it: during
all that time the English had fifty men of war
upon that coast, which is a greater number than
they ever will have again : yet all their vigilance
was not fufficient to prevent American trade with
Europe. At the worst time we everfaw, onevef
fel in three went and came fafe. At present there
is not one in four taken. It should also be re
membered, that the French navy have never, until
tliis year, been many days together upon the A
nierican coast. So that we have in a sense main
tained the trade of the continent five years, against
all that the English navy could do, and it has been
growing every year.
Why then should we put cases, that we know
can never happen ? However, I can inform you,
that the cafe was often put before this war broke
out —and I have heard the common farmers in A
merica reasoning upon these cases seven years
I have heard them fay, If Great Britain
could build a wall of brass, a thousand feet high,
all along the sea-coast, at low-water mark, we
could live and be happy. America is most un
doubtedly capable of being the most independent
country upon earth. It produces every thing for
the necessity, comfort, and conveniency of life—
and many of the luxuries too. So that if there
were an eternal separation bet\yeen Europe and
America, the inhabitants of America would not
only live but multiply, and, for what I know, be
wil'er, better, and happier, than they will be, as
it is.
That it would be unpleasant and burthenfoine
to America to continue the war for eight or ten
years, is certain : But -will it not be unpleasant
and burthenfoine to Great Britain too ?—There
are three and four millions of people in
America. The kingdom of Sweden, that of Den
mark, and even the republic of the United Pro
vinces, have not each of them many more than
that number—yet these States can maintain large
standing armies even in time of peace, and main
tain the expences of courts and governments,
much more coltly than the governments of Ame-
[Publijhed on IV cdnefday and Saturday .J
rica. What then lliould liinder America from
maintaining an army fufficient to defend her al
ters, and her fire-lides ? The Americans are as
a<ftive,as industrious, and as capableas other men.
America could undoubtedly maintain a regular
army ot twenty thousand men for ever. And a
regular army of twenty thousand men would be
futiicient to keep all the land forces, that Great-
Britain can fend there, confined to the sea-port
towns, under cover of the guns of their men o±"
war. Whenever the Britifli army (hall attempt
to penetrate far into the conntry, the regular A
merican army will be joined by such reinforce
ments from the militia, as will ruin the British
force. By desertions, by fatigue, by ficknefs,and
by the sword, in occalional Ikirmifhes, their num
bers will be wafted, and the tniferable remains of
them Burgoyned.
I hare the honor to be, &c.
JOHN ADAMS.
MR. CALKOEN.
FURTHER EUROPEAN INTELLIGENCE.
Received by the Sandwich Packet.
L O N P O N, August 27.
M. CALONNE, M. NECKAR.
MNECKAR's publication,on the objedt of the
. firlt controverly between him and Monf.
CALONNE, was read with avidity and approba
tion all over Europe.
Mr. Calonnepr'omifed a confutation—but instead
of producing it he came forward with apologetic
reasons lorpoitponing it till the meeting of the
States General—from these reasons we have tran
slated a few extracts, which will ferveto illustrate
the cliara<fler of M. Calonne.
He begins thus :
" The reply, (of M. Neckar) folong expell
ed, so eagerly wilhed for, at length appears. It
appears in the minute when the author is called,
upon to save the State."
Here M. Calonne breathes the spirit of a pro
phet : M. Neckar has saved the State.
" From the dreadful crisis in which this reply
appears, it acquires the force of sacred rights ill
directing the interell of the public."
The politics of M. Neckar defervetliis charac
ter, they have infuled the genuine spirit of civil
liberty among the people, and the sacred rights
of man are now eftablifliing, and taking root in
the foil of France.
This reply:
" It appears at a moment when the eye of
the nation is fixed upon the author—when patri
utic vows are offered up to heaven, imploring
fucctfs to his measures, and the means conspire
to ensure it."
Never.did the eye of a Nation take a more pro
per or wife direction. The objeift was pointed
out by the finger of Providence, and the prayers
aifered up to heaven were heard and granted.
" This reply appears at atimewhenthofe fen
tiinents, which I lhall retain to my latest breath,
prevents me from aCting in any manner prejudi
cial to the neceflarv confidence which ought to be
placed in the antlior."
M. Calonne, when he wrote this, well knew
that M. Neckar pofleded the full confidence of the
people ; and his fentiinents, when they became
known, so far from prejudicing the cause, spur
red 011 the people to a consummation of their
freedom.
" Such eflential confidence did exist, but was
defeated by unlkilfulnefs, which the public inuft
condemn, and ofcourfe, the author will take ad
vantage of every afliftance that a Ikilful hand can
draw from the experience of blunders."
The advantage drawn by M. Neckar from
the blunders of the French Adminiltration, have
wiped away the oppreflions that aggrieved the
people. When dilniifled, the people recalled him
—when recalled, he accomplished their liberty !
The strongest proof of eflential and reciprocal
confidence.
" To what evils mud France feel herfelf expo
sed, Should I attempt to fruftrate that, which in
consequence of her present circuniftance, is her
only means of support. Should I attempt to de
preciate a meafureto which the nation looks with
ardent hope."
This is vanity iffiiing from weakness, M. Ca
lonne here appears totally ignorant of the great
and extensive plan which M. Neckar had in view
for the emancipation of the French nation. A
plan which the narrow views and mechanical cal
culations of M. Calonne can never frultrate—the
erecting a Temple to Liberty on the ruins of a
despotic government.
" My honor will not relinquish those truths I
have supported, when a future day lhall diflipate
those clouds which threaten to overShadow it. The
reproaches of the public are terrific, but an ap.
prelienfion of their effed: Shall not induce me te