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treason, tli<? offender fliall l>e indidcd and tried
n the county, town or diftridl wherein the of
fence lhall have been commited, as hath been
usual in each State before this law was enacted,
-phis was carried in the affirmative. The com
mittee this day finiflieil the difcuflion of this bill,
which was reported to the House.
Mr. Ames of the committee appointed to bring
j n a bill upon the fubjetfl of the permanent re
sidence pursuant to the resolution palled by the
House, brought in a report which was read the
fj r ft time. Adjourned.
TUESDAY, SEPT. I J.
The bill for eftablilhing the permanent resi
dence was read the second time, and refered to
a committee of the whole, to be taken up on
The enrolled bill for suspending a part of the
collection law, was brought in and signed by the
A petition from the inhabitants of the town of
Portfniouth, in Virginia, representing the hard
ships they fuffer from not having a naval office
eftabliftied in that place, and praying that an of
ficer may beeftablilhed there, was read, and laid
on the table.
The House then took up the amendments to the
Judicial bill, agreed to by the committee of the
Mr. Seney moved, as an amendment in the 3d
section, to insert Cheltertown, instead of Eallon,
in Maryland, as the place for holding the diftri<fi
courts : This, after some debate, was negatived.
Mr. Seney calling for the ayes and noes, there
were 23 noes—2o ayes.
A meflage was received from the Senate,by Mr.
Secretary Oti s, informing that they had pafled
a bill for the eftablilhment of the Poll Office, and
desired the concurrence of the House.
The House proceeded in considering the amend
ments to the Judiciary Bill, but adjourned with
out compleating the business.
CASH, or no Cash, that \*as the question,
Which found such plaguy tough digestion ;
'twas this that fav'd from reprobation,
That (talking horse discrimination;
A question too, where the minority,
Were heart and foul with the majority :
For had their*s prov'd the major vote,
It would have stuck so in their throat,
That, maugre all discrimination,
They'd mov'd a re-consideration.
NEW-YORK, SEPTEMBER 16.
It is a familiar rule in politics that a man, em
ployed in the affairs of government, ought to be
paid up to the trust reposed in him—for the less
temptation is there in this cafe to illicit gain out
of the employment itfelf, and left excuse for the
negligent or unikilful conducfl of it. But the
rule, tho alike applicable to all orders of public
offices, has been in the State governments, in a
great degree, over looked as to the legislative—
and while the executive or judicial laborer has
been thought worthy of his hire, the legislative
has been generally left to little more than the bare
honor of the service. I would presume to doubt
however, whether this retribution alone can be
fufficient, for tho perhaps there is no situation in
which the mind feels more felf complacency than
that of a man chosen to make laws for his coun
try, a diftinsftion, implying at once both talents
and integrity, yet this sensation is scarce more
than a transient inflation of vanity in the firft
moments of the choice—for when seriously enga
ged in the business, there is nothing so firm, or
abiding in that passion as to- bear any one up a
gainst the pains and uneasiness inseparable from
the situation—the fatigues of attention—the irk
fomnefs of deputation—the chagrin of disappoint
ed measures—are a sketch of the fufferings with
in doors ; —without, your judgments are constant
ly re-judged, and a<flions, meant to be founded
on principles of common good, brought to the
touch-stone of partial interest or local politics—
and accordingly it is commonly found that no
Ipecies of ambition whatever is, after a short tri
al, less gratified in the pofleflion.
Itlhould seem that the diftindtion of rewar I in
this cafe is without just ground—indeed, if any
difference should be made, it rather to be
in favor of the legislative, it being doubtless a
higher trust to make, than to execute laws—and
the defect of ability or honesty in the one, a more
sensible injury than in the other. Without ex
amining, however, into the motives of diftiniftion
in the State governments, a few observations will
stew that other maxims ought to prevail in that
of the United States.
Those who are to compose the legislature of
this government will be brought from every quar
ter of the Union : It will not be with them as in
me of the States, the business of a day to come
an d to go ; but often from circumstances of dis
tance, or hardship, the serious undertaking of a
yoyage—for let government be adminiftred where
u may, in a region offuchvart extent, many pil
grimages of near a thousand miles to its feat, rauft
annually be performed : It will not be to any of
these men, as in the States, the brief suspension
/ i- - • 7 -»
oi the cares of private concerns, or profeflional
duties, to be resumed without prejudice ; but fre.
quently such a continued negledt or dereli>fiion
of them as to induce great loss or inconvenience.
It may in truth be (aid that men maybe found,
who have no persona] affairs to fuffer by dedicat
ing themselves to the public ; but he who is with
out trusts or duties of his own is seldom fit for the
trusts or duties of his country. Such for inltance
might be many a bankrupt adventurer, in law,
physic, divinity, or merchandize, who having
neither fortune nor dependence at home, any
trifle abroad would be clear gain to. The veflel
of the republic might be conducted cheaply by
such a crew, but would it be polfible for her to
escape fnipwreck ?
_ The rich—they surely might make an absolute
gift of their services—but it is not always by the
exercise of generous qualities that they become
so : The rich besides are with more difficulty
drawn from the fatisfacftions of home, and if wife,
not easily induced to quit the preheminence in
society confered by wealth, for the equality of deli
berative aflemblies, and where men are accustom
ed to be valued by other standards : The rich too
are often unpopular, and seen with an eye jea
lous of aristocratic opulence : It is not for the in
digent, or the wealthy then that provision should
be made, but for those who are poflefled of some
thing, and yet not fomuch as to (land juftified in
making unrequited facrifices of their time 01
Leaving them both—where are all the patriots
of the late time, who gave themselves to the pub
lic cause without reward ? Their enthusiasm is
gone, and will not appear again, but with a re
newed occalion—the danger of our country. In
days of ease and security, men are willing to put
a value upon their exertions, andexped: compen
sations for services of every kind.
The principle being agreed to with refped: tt
the Federal Legislature, it isneverthelefs a mattei
of opinion what the compensations should be :—
We have seen the opinion of Congress in the com
pensations established, which may appear reason
able from these confederations : The legislative
business of the Union may require a felfion alto
gether unremited, or one of a few months in the
year : If the former, is it to be expe<fted that a
member, if he has a family, will not bring it with
him to the feat of the government, where he is
so much to reside ? ana who in this cafe should
bear the extraordinary charge ? will the whole
allowance as fetled by Congress more than give
a moderate support to a family ? Will any thing
over run to balance the disadvantages of distant
affairs abandoned to themselves, or left to agen
cy : If the latter, the family may remain at home—
but what will be the favingsat the end of the term
in that cafe—will they be as much, after assisting
in important national councils, as what any com
mon quibbler in the law gleans quarterly from
plaintiff and defendant, at county sessions or as
Should the legislative term be of such short du
ration, as those most competent to judge think the
most probable—then, upon a comparative view,
combined of the circumltances of pay and time,
will the present government, so likely to be pro
ductive of the perfed: fruits of peace, liberty,
and happiness, be administered at a cheaper rate
than the old one, which answering the sudden
purpose ofits institution, ever aftqr, though per
petually fitting, hatched nothing but abortions.
Discontents have already been excited on this
fubjed : They have proceeded from mistake,
from faction, or from meanness : It is only the
well meaning who will hear reason when it is ex
posed to him : As to the incendiary he wishes not
to be convinced in any thing against his desperate
purpofes,and the niggard, grudging the expence
of good government, will freely let his country
take her chance of ruin or salvation, provided he
is fuffered to keep his penny in his pocket.
The time fixed on forthe adjournment of Con
gress draws near—and we doubt not that the re
cess will be attended with the most salutary ef
feds. Six months close application to public bu
siness requires a season of relaxation : The people
in remote parts of the Union, mull wish to fee,
and converse with their delegates : The members
will have a more competent opportunity to form
a judgment ps the laws they have enacted—their
tendency and operation—where they may be a
mended so as more fully to adapt them to the
circumltances of their conftitucnts—and, when
again aflembled, the knowlcgethey will have ac
quired in the recess, will be found of the most
beneficial and important nature.
The late appointments in the Treasury Depart
ment appear to have been predicated on differ
ent principles from those in the revenue.
The reasons for this deviation are doubtless
founded in propriety, as the nominations have
been fandioned by the Senate —and we have no
reason to suppose that any motives which would
be inconsistent with the public interest, could bias
their independency : The future arrangements in
tlieTreafury Department will in all probability
be so different from what that department has
been under, that it is supposed the objed is to fe
leiftthofe abilities which will give the m oft prompt
and adequate operation to the New System : The
result will determine how far a just judgment
been formed—certain it is, that the public anti
cipations are great, from the appointment of the
gentleman at the head of the department.
The conciliatory temper difcoveredby the Fe
deral Legislature in their attention to the embar
rafled situation of the trade of Rhode-Island and
North-Carolina, and granting those States that
relief which their memorials stated to be neces
sary to their interest and accommodation, muit
make the most favorable impreffionson theminuj
of the citizens of those States—they mull be struck
with the enlarged, liberal, and generous policy,
which governs the Congress of the United States.
Paragraph tranflatedfrom the Courier D£ boston.
The King of Prussia lately ordered that there
be publiflied a gazette every three months, to be
distributed gratis among the peasants ofSilefia.
His Majesty has farther enjoined that the school
mafterof every diftri<ft shall read and explain the
contents of this paper, to those of his neighbors
who are not able to read. This gazette is to give
an account of the progress of agriculture, in all
his dominions ; of the prefcriptiins for curing
divers maladies incident to mankind, to cattle,
sheep, dogs, &c. and other matters which may
tend to promote the public good. Glorious,
ENLIGHTENED POLICY !
Accounts from Madeira state that the Algerines
are at their old Game, having captured several
We hear that a duel was fought at Boston by two Officers of
the Frcnch fleet, on the 9th instant—in which one of them was
slightly wounded—thecaufeis not mentioned.
ADDITIONAL APPOINTMENTS SINCE OUR LAST.
The President otthe United States has been
pleased to nominate, and by and with the advice
andconfentof the Senate to appoint
Gen. Henry Knox, Secretary at War —
Oliver Woicott, jun. Esq. Auditor of the
JosephNo Urs E, Esq. Register of the Treasury.
Mr. Peter Kemp, Surveyor of Rappahannock
diftridt, Virginia, vice Staig Davis, religned—
Mr. Charles Chilton, Surveyor of Town
Creek, Patuxent diftriA, Maryland, vice Robert
The Hon. Secretary of the Treasury has ap
pointed William Duer, Esq. Assistant-Secretary.
ICT* Te/ferday arrived the Britijh Packet Hal
ifax, Boulderson Commander, in 63 days
from Falmouth, and 10 from Halifax. —She will fail
again on Thursday, the instant.—The Mail
■will he closed at the Poft-Office, at nine o'clock the
New-York, Sept. 16, 1789.
[c~~T " Extract of a letter," the contents of which comprize this en
quiry, " why the pay of the Speaker should be double to that of a
common member,*' is omitted Jot leant ojroom.
AS the recess of Congress is approaching, and cmfequenth
we fha/l not have it in our pouter to entertain the readers of this paper
with a detail of legislative proceedings, it ma\ not be improper to intimate
that the Gazette of the United States will be continued as nearly as
pojjible upon its original plan, and the residue of those alls, which from
their length have not yet appeared, will t>e pubhfhed: The governmental
tranfadions of the Supreme Executive, will receive an early and regular
insertion, which from their interejling nature, will form a valuable fub
flitutefor the temporary suspension oj congrejjionalproceedings.
Monday Sloop Friendlbip, Burnham, Savanna, 12 days.
Brig Minerva, Kerr, Bremen, 63 days.
Brig Rachel, Hill, London, 50 days.
Schooner Pollv. Todd, St. Thomas's. 22 davs.
INTELLIGENCE BY YESTERDAY'S MAIL.
CONSTANTINOPLE, APRIL 22.
THE new system of our government begins to develope. His
Highness on account of the fticcefs of the grand Admiral in the
last war in Egypt, and his great reputation, has removed him from
the station of Admiral, and ordered him to put himfelf at the head
of a formidable army, and march immediatly to retake Oczakow.
Though this tranfa&ion may appear to some as a fort of disgrace,
we are far from thinking so ; and we are allured that last night
the Grand Signoir, to excite the ambition of the Captain Pacha,
and to inflame his love for glory, bestowed on him before hand
the pompoustitleof Conqueror of the grand Fortrcfs ; in consequence
of which the ex-grand admiral will ftiortly go to Befiarabia, and
put himfelf at the head of 100,000 men, with which army he will
besiege Oczakow. These dispositions, it is easy to forefee, excite
great jealousy between the Grand Vizier and the Captain Pacha,
which will not any aflift the enter prize against Oczakow, the
iuccefs of which the new Sultan has so much at heart, that he has
given the moll pressing orders to the vice-admiral to fail with the
31 and fleet to the Black Sea, to favor that important expedition.
However those motions announce nothing but disorder and con
fufion—the recruits are not chosen ones, the provision and am
munitions are fuflficient for the numher of troops which will be
employed, and the magazines are placed in such a manner, that it
will be difficult for the army before Oczakow to procure provi
sions, owing to the facility with which the light troops of the
Ruffians may intercept the convoys. This expedition at pre fen c
attratts all the attention of the court and of the capital.
PHILADELPHIA, SEPT. 12.
INSURRECTION IN FRANCE.
By the ship Young Eagle, Capt. Kerr, arrived
in this port the lalt evening in 5$ days from Sr.
Sebastian in Spain, we learn, that the great patriot
ancl friend to America, Lewis the 16th, had joined
with the Commons of France against the Nobles
—that a battle ensued in which 7000 were killed
on the spot—and that the Baftile was totally de