Gazette of the United-States. (New-York [N.Y.]) 1789-1793, September 16, 1789, Image 1

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    [No. XLV.]
<t ylnd each Jhort maid in [pits of nature
« jyj a y add a cubit t» her stature."
I HAVE often admired at the condescension
that women of mtrinfic elegance shew, in
fubmiting to an excess of faihions, which on
ly diminilh such charms as have a real exiltence
in nature. Simple neatness gives a beautiful
person far more pleasing attractions, than any
ornaments, which fancy or artifice can invent.
The most therefore that a fine woman ftiould aim
at is to avoid Angularity If in her dress, she
tfTuines any unusual glare, her appearance may
dazzle the eyes of beholders more, but it will
affeA their hearts left. The forms of etiquette
are designed to bring persons, who aflociate to
gether, °on some degree of equality, for the
time being. It hides the deformities of one, and
•veils the excellencies of another.
In a circle of ladies highly drefled, it is not
easy to form particular attachments. Those
causes that excite admiration feldoni engage
the tender sentimentS of the heart. For this
ttafon, a woman often has many admirers, who has
not a single lover. A towering fanciful head-dress
and other flaring deeoratiorts may be an advan
fc ett> a girl, whose size and figure are notnatu
fafay favorable ; but they have the reverse ef
fetft oti one who wears the graces of native ele
gance. In short, a Woman of inherent beauty
commits an imprudent acft, whenever she makes
Iter dress so conspicuous as to be looked at, more
than herfelf. It is rather a discredit to a charm
ing girl, that her most dangerous rival ihould
come from a milliner's shop.
The etiquette of courts, like that of dress, is
calculated to obfetire the real character. Those
*ho avertible at the levees of princes, all ap
pear tinder a mask. There are no circumftahccs
that indicate the peculiar qualities of men, on
ttiefe occafrons. If a blockhead commits no tnif
take, he pafles for a fafhionable man, and meets
With attention from pliilofophers. If the most
solid merit is unattended with a knowlege of
ctiijutnte, It will pass, in such a situation, as a
thing of no Value. Those rules, which knaves
have in all ages Invented for the fake of deceiv
ing and managing fools, ha*e obtained a cur
rency among the wisest and best of men. It is
Meeffsry that it should be so.
KftW-YORltj Sfcpt ember 16, >789.
Sekk on thfubieti of fixing the PERMANENT SEAT of GOF
ER \ r Kit. NT—"Continued.
Mr. $ ad! son : tf this delay should any alteration
in the sentiments of the gentlemen, it wjJJ at lead foften that hard
deeifion that feenrs to he so unfavorable so the friends of the Pa-
Wwmac. i hopfc wfe (Kail all cotftftrt- in the great principles on
whidb we ought to conduct jtid decidc this btiinrff*. I conceive
tkit an equal attention to the great -rights of every jwrt of the cottv
ffiunity is the principle on whioh we are to proceed. No govern
tawt, Sir, not even thCYfltm defyotfic, dan go beyond a cert a In point,
#ttbout ♦iotatvug that idea of eqwk fright, "which prtvaih in the
raind of every community, hi republican governments, justice,
aiidfaualuy form thebafisof tbe fyftera; and perhaps the Aruffture
ran reu on no other foundation that the wiidom of ma# can devise.
In a federal republic, give me lesve to fay, it is even more necef
that a fcaered regard should be partito tfrcjm. For
beyond tbe'fcnfe of the coronronity ast large, wtorch hfcs its proper
agency in Cuch a (Vfiera, no (ach government can a6t with fafety.
The federal interest involves local diftinfticms, which produce lo-
jtaloufies, and give at the fa'flre tifne a greater local capacity <0
'import and exert this fenife tHtrtl In a cohftaefacy of
Stotej,inwhhch the people operate in on* dire&io-ft as ekizem, tfnd
; i another aKiorrmngpokticalcoiMmrtiHes, the local govtrnmeats
will ever .poflefs a superior capacity to take advantage of those
Jxwtrrtffn which the protection of (Tieir rights depend. If these
rights be the basis of republics, and if thrre ere a double ne-
HTrty of attending totfoam in a frdrerai republic, it i« further to be
that-thefe isnoone of which the people can ju»d£e
eafcand certainty, and of which they will judge with
than of the cftablilhment of the permanent feat of
and Sir, I am peritraded that however often this
übjeft may be drfcufled m the rcpfeCeWatil'e body, or however
tkfe cottimuhfty *hny be drawn to it, tjfae obfcrva
<ions I have made will be more and more verified. We fee she
pftAioh of tTfi's feritiment fuljy exemplified in what has taken
place m the fevenrt State*. In every irrftontr where the Teat of go-
placed ii* a'fiecarWltfie trtifitioft, we have seen
P*°ple*trher'fucc*fjliulty ot wnfurarWttlly Jbuggh'ng to place
re 10 e - Jn.fame inihrxcGS they have not yet fuc
ked, -hut r believe fhey witlTucceed in all. Inmany they have
u gained their point. ,
One nf Virginta ftrtcc -the revo
wion, was the removal of the fetal df $ovenm<mrfcom an eccentric
o ntifijnoT>ne which conciponded more wkh the fcnft of t-heState,
• an ccvjal regard to the rights of the community. hi North-
J have Teen the fame •principle Operate :in South Caro
,, 4 c Jft Che Sfatfe-of PenYri*rlvo*n«, powerfol zrs the in-
in favtyrof vts we fe<m fetioifS-awd al
oit luiccefsful efforts c»lread.y to tranftale k to a tin ore proper
Tm!* -HeUware, where the government was as
, ® any other State, we have fecn
,/ ( ame operate. In the State of New-York wt! have seen
• With fotheftu^oßt*niis r ariCwgrffoiri oc«a-f>onal cir
of In.Mj>(lach«f i itts lhefai»e ctiotts have
WEDNESDAY, September 16, 1789;.
been made, and in all probability, when some temporary consi
derations cease, we iViail find'the feme prirtciplka6ttng there also.
Sir, it is not surprising,, when wc conlider the nature of!mankind,
that this mould be the cafe.
With refpeft, however, to the federal government, there is one
consideration, wttich flVews in a peculiar manner the neeeflity and
policy ofpaying a ftri£t attention to this principle. One of the
greatest objections which has baen made by the opponents of the
system, which has been admited by its friends, is the extent of
our limits. It has been aflerted by some, and almost feared by
others, that within so great a space no free government can exist.
I hope and trad, that the opinion is fallacious. But at the fame
time, Sir, acknowleging it to have a certain degree of force, it is
equally incumbent on those, who wilh well to the Union, that this
inconvenience (hould be diminiflied as much as poflible. The
way to diminiftr it, is to place the government in that spot which
will be lead removed from every part of the empire. Carry it to
an eccentric position, and it will be equivalent to an extention of
our limits. And if our limits arc altead-y extended so far as war
rants in any degree the apprehension above mentioned, we ought
to take care not to extend them farther.
But the truth is, that in every point of view in which we can
regard this fubjeft, we (hall find it a fubje£fc of importance. It is
important that every part of the community ftiould have the pow
er of fending, with equal facility, to the leat of government such
reprefenfativesto take charge of their interest as they are moll dit
pofed to confide in. If you place the government in an eccentric
fuuation, the attendance of the members, aid all who are to tTan
fa£t the public bufinefc, will not be equally convenient. The
members of the Union will not have an equal chance of being re
presented by men of the bed abilities. You do therefore violate
the principle of eqnaVtty, in a part which is peculiarly vulnerable.
If we c/ynTide* the ex pence} that is an inconvenience not without
its weight.
in the lad com penfat ions that have been voted, the eccentricity
of our pofilion has had a difa&reeable influence. The more re
mote the government is, the greater will be the neeeflity of making
liberal coxrtpenfations, and holding out powerful inducements in
order to obtain Cervice&bk men to reprefenf you ; and you can
make no diftinftion ; you mufi give to those who have the least
inconvenience, the fame as those who have the mod. The feat of
government isof great importance, if you ccmfider the diffuflon oi
wealth ♦hich proceeds from this source. T presume that the ex
penditures that will take place where the government will be
established, kv those who are immediately concerned in its admi
niftr&tion, and by others who may resort to it, will not be less than
half a million of dollars a yeaT. It is rb be regretted that those
who may be most convenient to the centre, (hould enjoy those
blcflings in a higher degree than otheis. But it is an evil which is
imposed on us by nee- (Iky ; we diminish it as we place the source
From which those emanations are to proceed, as near the center,
as poftibte.
It we confidtr, Sir, the eflVfti of legislative powerS on tlie agv
enegate community, we mud feel equal inducements to look for
the centre, in order to find the proper feat of government. Those
who are most convenient to the feat ©f legislation, will always
possess advantages over others. An early knowlege of the law,
an influence incna&ing them, and a thousand other eirtumftanceSj
will give a tupexiority to those who are thus fltuated. If it were
pofliMe to proraulge our laws by some indantaneous operation, it
would be of little consequence iq that point of view where the go
vernment wat. But if on the contrary, tittle is neteflTary for this
purpose, we ought as far as possible, to give every part of the com
munity an opportunity of obtaining a traowlcge of the fubje£>.
If we conliaer the influence of the government in its executive
department, thfcre is no less reaTon to conclude that it ought to be
plated in the center of the Union. It ought to be in a situation to
command information, relative part of the Union, in everv
conjuncture, to seize every circumdance which can be improvea,
-id which ought to be attended to. Ode of the most important
confederations which is pretented by this part of the fuhjett, is the
niteflky of having the executive eye placed in a situation where it
can fee the dangers which may threaten, and the executive arm
placcd also from whence it may be extended, most effe£taally, to
the protection of every part. Perhaps it is peculiarly neeeflary,
that in looking for the centre, we (hould keep our eye as much as
poflib>e to our western borders. For a long time, dangers will
be molt apt to spring from that quartet.
In to the Judiciary, if it is not equally tiefceffary, it is yet
highly important, that the government (hould be equally aceeifible
to every part of those who are to be governed. Why should the
citiaeto* of one quarter of the Union be fubjett to greater difficul
ties tlan others ? Why ftiotrld they be obliged to travel a greater
distance thain others-»-to carry their witnefles, and be fubjeft to all
the im onveniencies attending the administration of justice at a re
rrrote distance 7 tn (hort, whether we consider the fubjeft with re
gard to the executive, the legiflative f and judicial departments, we
ferthe founded reasons tor fixing on that place, whtch may be the
most permanent center of territory and population in refpeft to
the Western Territory* For it would be an affront to the tinder
fraftding of our feltow-ciligens on tlje Western Waters, to efcpefi
th&t they will be united with their Atlantic brethren, on any
other principle than that of equality and justice.
I venture to fay that it is necessary in order prrferve the
tlniou, that we (hould «Ual out the bloffings of government with
an impartial hand, and that in placing the government from which
these Meflmgs are to flow,, we Ihoula retire from the Atlantic, as
far as is convenient, and approach that point *rhich will most ac
cotfunodate the western country; and in doing this we (hall still
stop (hort of that geographical centre, whose circle would embrace
out ultramontane citizens thetnfelves. In my opinion, the favor
requested by Atc western inhabitants is as reasonable as poflible,
wtwn Phey declere that they wrH be fathffied, if we go so far only
as tojlpave open a proper and eatfy communication with the Atlan
tic ; tho they still be fuhje&ed to great inconveniencies.
From the Atlantic to the Miilifippi according to thebedeftimate,
Ihfe 'distance is not less than seven hundred and fifty miles. If we
go to Chat pint of the Patowmac which is piOpofed, it will carry
the -government mirles weft—we still have 500 from the Mif
(ifrppi. lam fme that if justice requires that we should take any
one position in preference to another, we have every inducement
of interest as well as generosity to fix 011 the Patowmac. It is im
portable to reflett a moment on the separation of that branch of the
Unkm, wkhont feerng the mifchiefs which that event must create.
The area of the United States, when divided into equal parts, will
-perhaps leave one half on die weft fide of the Allegany mountains.
From the fertility of foil, and the finenefs of clirnate, and every
thing that can favor a growing population, we may suppose that
the frt-tlemcnt will go on with every degree of rapidity which our
imagination, can conceive. If the ratio of calculation is consider
ed, that we double in twenty five years, we (hall contemplate in
thatfirneanadonilhing inafs of people on the western waters. —
Whether this great mass fhalHorm a part of the united members,
or whether itfhall' be fcperated into an alien* a jealous, and a hostile
people,,mn(t depend on the meafuies that are shortly to be taken.
Sir, the difference between confidcruvg them in the light of fellow
iti2ens, bound to us by a common interest, obeying common
laws, and pursuing common good, and considering them in the
\_PitbliJhed en Wednesday and Saturday .]
light I have mentioned, presents one of the greatest ideas that can
fill an American mind. Instead of peace and friendfhip, we shall
have rivallhip and enmity: Instead of being a great peopie, invul
nerable on all (ides, and without the necemty of those eftablilh
ments which other nations require, we ftiall have to support e*-
pensive and dangerous eftablilhments neceflary for defence. We
lhall be obliged to lay burthens on thte people to support them,
and which, sooner or later will be fatal to the liberties of Ameri
ca. It is incumbeilt on if we wish to ast the part of enlighten
ed legislator A. oc magnanimous citizens, t6 confidei* well when We
are about to Cake a step, that the step be directed by the motives I
have deferibed. We must confided just, what is equal*
what is fa,tisfa&ory.
It may be a{ked why it was neceflary to bring into view these
principles, since they would not be denied. Sir, I apprehend
that in general we shall not disagree as to the principle. But at
the fame time principles are so connetted with fa&s, that it is ne
cefTary we (hould collect all the light, and examine all the circum
stances which may lead us to a juftdecifion. On a candid view of
the two rivers, I flatter myfelf that the feat which will most cor
respond with the public uttered, will be found on the banks of
the Patowmac.
It is proper that we have Tome regard to extent of territory.
If that is to have weight, give me leave to fay that there isno com
parison between the two rivers. I defy any gentlemen to cast
his eye in the most cursory manner over the most perfect map,
and fay the Patowmac is not much nearer this center than any
part of the Sufquehanna. Sir, if we measure from the bank? of
the Patowmac to the most eastern part of the United States', it is
less distant than from the most southern. If we meafurethis great
area diagonally, the Patowmac will still be nearer. If you draw
a line perpendicular to the line of the Atlantic c'oaft, you will ftnd
that it will run more equally through the Patowmac, than any other
part of the Union ; or if there be arty difference between orte fide
and the others there will be a greater space on the south-west
than on the north-east. All the maps of the United States shew
the truth of this. From the Ahmtic coast to that line which sepa
rates the BritisH poffefFions from the United States, the average
distance is not more than 150 miles. If you take the average
breadth of the other branch of the United States, it will
to be fxx, seven, and eight hundred miles. From thiiview of the
fubieft, which it is not ealy to describe by words, I am sure that
if the Patowmac is not the geographical center, it is because the
Sufquehanna is le£s so.
1 acknowlege that sortie regard is 60 be paid to the center of
population. But where(hall we find this center ? 1 know of n6
rule by which we may be governed, except by confldering the
proportion among the Representatives of the different States. 1
believe, if we take that criterioa, the prcfent center of population
will be found somewhere in Penafylvania, and not far from the
Sufquehanua. I acknowlege that the prefeitt center of population
is nearer the Sufquehanna than the Patowmac. But are we cheof
ing a feat of government for the present moment ? Are we to
confine our attention to the present state of population ? I prcfume
not* we must look forward to those probable changes that are fooh
to take place. I appeal to the judgement of ev«ry gentleman, if wo
have not reafonto fuppofethat those future changesin the population
of this country will bepirticularty favorable tofhat part which lies
south of the Patowmac. On what do the measure and extent of
population depend ? They depend on climate, on the foil and
the vacancy. We find that population like money seeks those
places where it can ast with most freedom, and has alwavs a ten
dency to equalize itfelf; We fee the people moving from the
more ciouded to the iefs crouded parts. We fee emigration
place from the parts that are filled. "The swarms do not conje
from the southern, but from the northern and eastern hive. This
will continue to operate till every part of America receives its due
share of population. If there beany event oh which we may cal
culate with tolerable certainty, I take it thac the center of popu
lation will continually advance in a south-western dire&ion. It
must then travel from the Sufquehanna, if it is now found there.
It may go beyond the Patowmac. But the time will be long firft;
and if it (hould, the Patowmac is the great highway of commun
ication between the Atlantic and the Wefterti Country,
which wiU justly prevent any attempts to remove the feat further
south. I have laid, Sir, that the communication to the Western
Territory is more commodious through the Patowmac than the
Sufquehanna: I wish all the fa£lt conne6ted with this fubje£fc
could have been more fully afceitained, and more fully stated. But
if we coafider the faSs which have been offered by gentlemen who
spoke, we must conclude that the communication through tlje
Patowmac would be much more facile and effectual than any
Mr. Madison thenftated the different stages ofdiftanceonthe
two rivers, from which he concluded that the probable distance from
the place of fixing the government on the Patowmacto Fort Pitt, Ijy
land, was 170 or l sco miles* and from that part of the Sufquehanna
which was contemplated, 250, if the courle of the PatoWmac was
followed, not more than 250, but oa the course of the Sufque
hanna, about goo.
Whether, therefore, said he* we measure the distance by land
or water, it is in favor of the Patowmac; and if We confidtr the
progress in optning this great channel, I am confident the cort
fideration would be equally favoTable* It has been determined
by accurate refcarch, that the waters running into the Ohio, may
be found not more than two or three miles diflant from those jof
the Patowmac. This is a fad of peculiar important
It has been said that if Congress (hould make choice of the Pa
towmac, greater discontents would arise, than if they prefered
the Sufquehanna, I know not the data froni which this opinion
is drawn. Who will have the best right to complain ? Will it
be those who may be gratified if the government (hould be fixed
on the Sufquehanna ? I believe not. "the truth k, that if the
place (hort of the present geographical center is (hortofthe center
of population, as it may exist in a reasonable time, we have rea
son to believe that the southern inhabitants will conceivethem
felves most aggrieved. 1 think I may with truth declare, if the
feat of government (hould be fixed on the Sufquehanna, every part
south of that river, and every part of the United States south of
the Ohio, will conceive that the great principles of equal justice,
have been disregarded. If we are to consider the fubjeft in that
point of View, I am sure it is most expedient that we should give
the preference to Patowmac. This is not all—lf you eftablilh it
on the Patowmac, those who think themselves not equally dealt
by, will find the cause of their discontent continually subsiding;
because the center of population will be continually approaching to
the geographical center. If on the other hand, you fix the feat in a
place which is perpetually eccentric with refpettto territory, the
centerof population will forever recede.
The gentleman from Massachusetts, yesterday raised great ob»
je&ions against the Patowmac, because it was, he fuppoied, fuffck
je£t to periodical maladies from which the other river is free. I
am not authorised from personal experience, or very particular
information to draw a comparison between them : there are
some general fatts that may serve to shew that if there is any dif
ference, it is more likely to be in favor of the Patowmac than the
Sufquehanna. The position contemplated on the banks of the
former is considerably farther from tide water than the place pro