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• ronftituents can bs realized by thofc from remote d.f.
!ii ' Short recesses are attended with great expence, and we
a fuitablt^account of our coriduft in adjourning for so
cannot g ,vc leaving [bmuch business unfinifhed : Gentlemen
ft» rt ' "fl-' private concerns—T believe 110 member has made
Illk ■ nroßortionable facrifice than I have ; but the public good
'Bre?8 re ? f .fly regarded; Our own affairs ought not to influence
I'k'ne some plan of accommodation will take place.
" S: Ames introduced the foregoing resolution in the following
Mr. AM p re sident of the Senate and Speaker of the
Xl If Reorefentatives, do adjourn the refpettive Houses of Con
fon the 2"d September next, to meet on the firlt Monday
°M CC that the time was too short ; it will
ii it of the members who come fiom a distance, consulting
?•'!!!,ftituents, and so far the advantage of an adjournment
ftl ft - Let us view the matter in another poult of light.
* , 1,1, Vone forth refpefting the compensations—this will
those alarms, for a very great expence, it will be laid, is
Skftly incurred : If we fit two months longer, we shall so fa.
1., the public business, as to fupercede the neceflity of meet
n mher ■ I think the adjournment ought to be to the fitfl
jjg in lJece • ConUitution will warrant this : Mil-
Monday in , a ' ccomm odation of all, ought to be made :
ttlte time proposed the cold season will be advanced-ice and
f .;ii nrrvfnt gentlemen at the eastward and northward from
Jin* to business—hence that season will be a
, ,Jj th „, r convenience ; but let us look to the members from
SthwaVd-it ought ,0 beconfidered that their relaxed confti
-i. he neatly exposed by the feverc cold of this northern
Ce Wide. will then be.theirbufy season so, planting, &c.
Soineco'iicellions ought to be made : The southern members would
toner forfeit their feats in this house.than be obliged to come hci,
nthe winter ■ This will operate to deprive the remote parts ol
the Union of their representation : I move therefore that the tinv
i ntended to the firft of March.
Mr Giury wasoppofed to so fhoit an adjournment : He da
ted the expence that would attend it, and made it 20000 dollars,
, [am that would pay Congress for fifty days attendance : This he
obfetved rendered it demonstrable that it is mod prudent so,
Consrefs to cont.nue the session, and fimfh the business. If it is
Afclut-lv necelfary for any particular gentleman to go .home, leave
juv be granted I trust, said he, that there is no one that think:
linfelf offo much consequence, that the government cannot pro.
«d without him, or that Congress thinks so, ifthey should wher
[,-ha member departs, the public business must Hand it.ll :
knee has been had to out-door conversation. and we are caution
rilo beware of exciting public clamor ; but, Sir, I trull that idea;
of this kind are not to influence in the deliberations of this ilfem
bk or deter us from deciding what we think is just and best
Mr Kckson said, that he was furpnfed to hear a gantlemi
autionine the houf- againll being influenced by popular clamor,
ad the opinion of people without doors, elpecially as that gentle.
m has within a fortnight pad, raised more bugbears from thai
tarce than all the house besides.
Mr. Gekry made some reply to Mr. Jackson, .vhich wai
Ml heard diltinftly. , , ,
Mr. Boudinot said, that he supposed that the time betwe. r
tiiund the adjournment will be fufficient to complete the organi
sm of the judiciary and executive departments. The adjourn-
will in the commoncouife of events, aliow the members from
Georgia three or four weeks at home : A Oiort recess is abfolutelv
atttlaty : A long one will be highly injurious.
Mr. ViniNO recapitulated a number of articles, now pending
before Congress, upon which it is presumed, said he, that it is nol
ncctffary to°confult our condiments : We already know their sen
timents: Th's business mull absolutely be attended to, and com
plated previous to a recess : I am oppof.d to the motion for ad
wming till March ; but on a conciliatory plan will move lor the
firft of January. i
Mr. Tucker said, I conccive that the business is taken up
wioiie; the resolution proposed is entirely improper : It puts it
in the power of theSp Aer, in cafe the senate concur, to adjourr
the House on that day, let circumstances be what they may : Thu
isunorecedeut d, and cannot be agreed to.
Mr. [ackson called for the previous qutftion on Mr. Antes'
motion—and on the question, Shall the main question now be put ?
it passed fn the afßrinative. .
The main question then being put, it also pa(l:d in the athima
tive, by a majority.
The amendment of the Senate to the Treasury Bill, was taken
into consideration : And Mr. Madison of the committee ol
conference made a verbal report,as mentioned in Saturday s Ikitch.
Mr. Vininc moved, that the house ftiould now adhere to their
ii&greemcnt to the amendmant of the senate.
Mr.SHtRMAN, Mr. Page,and Mr. Gerry made a few ob
fcrvations against the motion, which however was carried in the
The house then went into a committee of the whole on the ju
diciary Bill—Mr. Boudinot in the chair.
Mr. Blk son moved, that the word "Federal" in the pream
blelhould be struck out, which was voted in the affirmative
Mr. Li vermo re moved that the word " lour' betore judges
be struck out and three inserted.
Mr. Sedgwick, was in favour of the word four, the points to
l»e discussed and fettled by the judges are of the firft magnitude.
It is a most desirable object, said he, to have it determined by
die most rcfpe&able authority, ahat is law.
Mr. Jackson said that the number should be either increaie
0T diminished ; forwhenthey are equally divided, no decihon can
fchad: He was therefore in favour of striking out the words
Mr. Sedgwick adverted to the courts in Great Britain, where
there were four judges, and where no difficulties had been expe
Mr. Jackson said that we were not bound to follow the cu -
l°m of the British courts, where it was liable to exception. 1 c
question on striking out the words was loft.
Mr. Livermore moved another amendment which was not le
Mr. Burke moved that " chief justice" should be *
is a concomitant of royalty, said he. It was oblerved by Mr.
that thisis a provilion of the constitution; Mr. Burke
Withdrew his, motion upon this information.
Mi. Tucker moved to strike out the whole claufc, t.ividing
l he United States into diftrifts for the purpose ot instituting inferi
or federal courts. He said that the state courts aie fully compe
tent to purposes for which these courts are to be created ; and that
lh ey will be a burthenfome and useless expence : Seconded by
Mr. Livermore said he was not in favour of striking out t ie
*We clause ; he wiftied to have the United States divided into
diftrifis, but he concurred in the other idea of the gentleman , e
"■tied tor all the diftrifts, except Kentucky, to be ellaolilned tor
™ fake ofeftablithing a court of Admiralty in each ; authorized
"ot only to take cognizance of all marine concerns, but alio o
'Mr. Tucker said he did not move to strike out the dillrifts
'» prevent the eftablilhmcnt of admiralty courts ; he was in favour
J l ' filch courts; but he presumed the Hates compose fuincient dil
t'tts. The motion was negatived. .
"wasthen moved, by Mr. Livermore to strike out the
*wdi" one to be called Kentucky diftrift." He observed that
Js tne matters would be chiefly of a marine nature that would come
wider the Cognizance of these courts, Kentucky would, f™J"," s
™«'on, have nothing to do with such matters ; and to cftablilh
lc courts there will be a needless expence. This wasnegative .
Livermore moved that the Vrhole paragraph rc JP cttl "B
"blifhing diftrift courts should be struck oiU. This eftablilh
"Ediftrift courts, said he. to hold four feflions annually, will
lc o d lo the necefiV.y of establishing a new system of jutifprudence
for the United Slates ; it will be eftablifhin:* two diftin£t fyfiems
of judicial proceedings; one mull. finally destroy the other. It
is a prevailing opinion that law and courts are an abridgement of
liberty; this is a sentiment with a great many, and it will not be
wife to excite an increase of such ideas. Ido conceive these
courts are unnecessary; we have courts already fully fufficient for
all the purposes for which these courts are to be eftablifhtd ; and
appeals maybe made to the supreme federal court. We (hall
prcjudicc the people against the governm nt; we have imposed
duties of impost, and are raising revenue upon them : now if in
addition to this we create useless court*, with a new set of judges,
ftieriffs or marlhalls, clerks, constables, See. will it not be con
sidered as laying a heavy and unneflary additional burthen ? We
must also erect a new set of goals; for we cannot put the criminals
aud p:ifoners to be tried by these courts, into the county goals.
The juries, judges, &c. &c. will be a great and useless expence ;
and these courts will have a tendency to create universal uneasi
ness among the people.
Committe rose and reported progress.
Mr. Stone aflccd leave of absence from Ift Sept. Granted.
Mr. Sylvester asked leave of absence for three weeks.
TUESDAY, AUGUST 25.
The bill for establishing the salaries of the officers in the execu
tive departments was read a second time, and referred to a com
mi tee of the whole, to be taken upon Friday next.
The report of the committee on the ele&ions of New-Jersey is
made the order of the day for Monday next.
In committee of the whole, Mr. Boudinot in the chair.
The bill to provide for the fafe keeping of the a£ts, records
and great seal of the United States, &c. was taken into confedera
tion. This bill states that the department of u foreign affairs"
shall be denominated the Department oe State, to which
a variety of duties of a domestic nature are tobe annexed, and the
principal officer therein to be denominated the Secretary of
State. Considerable progress was made in the difcuflion : seve
ral clauses were altered, and others struck out; but the time not
admitting of its completion, the committee rose, and the chair
man reported progress.
A mefTage was received from the senate by Mr. Secretary
Otis, informing the honourable house, that they concurred in
the resolution for fixing the time of adjournment. Also that the
senate had receded from that part of their amendment to the trea
furv bills to which the house had disagreed. Adjourned.
LATEST EUROPEAN INTELLIGENCE.
LONDON, MAY 5, 1789.
In a Foreign Journal just published, it appears, the number of
ships arrived in the road of Wampo, near China, laftyear, amount
to iixty-five, viz. Fifty-one Engiifh, five D itch, three French,
two Swedish, two Americans, one Pruflian* and one Italian.—
Twelve European ships arrived at Macao, viz. Five Engiifh, four
Portuguese, two French, and one Austrian.
In 1 756, the trade of China employed only 15 ships in all, viz.
Six Dutch, five Engiifh, one French, one Dane, one Swede, and
one Pi uflian. The Chinese profit by this cncreafevery well; but
the Europeans will probably be ruined by it —as they are obliged
to buy wilh ready specie.
Tea, which then fold for talcs the pecul, now fells for 36
talcs ; and the Engiifh have contributed to lay this burthen upon
the other Europeans ; for not being provided with money fuffici
ent to cariy their trade on, they have bought on credit, and giv
en bills to the Chinese on the Eafl-India Company.—The Chi
nese, eager for money, charge the bills at 15 and 16 per cent,
loss to make upfor which they raise the price of all their merchan
dize proportionably, and thus recover what they appear to
June 10. On the 12th of May, Marshal Laudohn appeared
at the head of the Imperial army, in Croatia.
Next he sent a letter to the Turkish Pachas and Command
ants, proposing a milder treatment of prisoners on both fides, and
efpccially that the Auilrian prisoners should not be mutilated, as
he must make use of reprisals.—But the Turks will not pay any re
gard to his proposals.
A letter from Ancona mentions, that the Ruffian fleet has de
stroyed the firft division of the Turkish fleet, near the port of
Dispatches are received from Sir Robert Ainflie, his Majesty's
AmbafTador at Conftantinople,which confirm the accounts that the
Sublime Porte, under the new Sultan, is preparing to prosecute
the war Ruflia and her ally with the utmost vigor ; but
that they are endeavoring to cultivate the best understanding with
all the other christian powers.
June 15. The Duke of Normandy, has been declared Dau
phin by the King of France.
.The Court of Denmprk has received the answer of the Empress
of Ruflia, in refpeft to the mediation of our Court, and that of
Pruffi.T, to prevent the Danes from acting hoftilely towards Swe
den. The answer is said to be, " that her Majesty considers Den
mark to be bound by every principle of honor, to support its trea
ty with Ruflia, that she has full right to rely on its being fulfilled
with alacrity, and that Denmark should furnifh the assistance a
greed upon between the two powers, particularly the succoUrs by
sea, as no just reason had,or could be aflignad for a breach of faith
and promise." , _ ,
June 18. Tuesday the Marquis de la Luzerne, ambaiiador
from the court of Francc, delivered to the duke of Leeds copies
of letters written by his molt Christian majesty to the Britiih
court, on the death of the Dauphin. The mourning in France
is to last only ten weeks; consequently it will be but of lhort du
CHALESTON, AUGUST 10.
Late accounts from Cuba inform, that the port of Havanna is o
pen for the importation of slaves in the vessels ot all nations, and
that the ports of Principe and St. Jago were also to be open for
the fame purpose in a few days, under certain reftriftions, the
purport of which were daily expetted to be announced by a pro
clamation at the Havanna. This step is taken to encourage two
merchants of Liverpool, who have promised to give Spain a mo
nopoly of the slave trade, if Great-Britain throws it up.
To our knowledge of Amcnca, a large and valuable add,t,on
may soon be expected, for several of the inhabitants of Canada
had the spirit, about two years since, to fend at their dwn expence,
different persons to traverse that vast continent, from the welt
ward to the opposite shore.
PHILADELPHIA, AUGUST 20.
Extract of a letter from a member of CongreJ.i to his friend tn this city,
dated Au\? a/? 17'. .
44 In accepting feats here, it was a reasonable expectation that
so much free- will would have been left as that without being ques
tioned, reviled Ad threatened, we might in a dollar matter at
lead have determined on our own judgment. Any proof to
Miliary will serve to cor, eft our notions as to the refpeft and honor
supposed to be annxed to them. I believe sincerely that Congress
have been directed by other motives than a care of their own in
terest or difi egard of the public money in the late determination
refpe&ing salaries and wages. r . •• . make a
« Hiffh emoluments do not in themselves, it is true make
government icfpeftable ; but their tendency is certainly to bring
f A m mf-n into it The competition for places is always in
an mverfe ratT<T of lu benefits, contrary to the hypothesis of feme
potoSans. Be the worth of an office £\iooo a yea, the cand.da.es
will be few and refpe&able—let the fame at £. 100 the applicants
will be as ten to one ; and perhaps as mean as numerous. It is* a
consciousness of pretensions, not com nr n to many, t!;at gencralJy
incites to high claims. This principle. I suppose, was kept in
view, but after all what has been don under it ? I believe no cal
culation will juftify an opin<on that any man s fortune wjil Be
made—let us try —after the firftytnr it will be impofTi ie to em
ploy more than 60 or 70 days in the public business the amount
ior a representative then will be
70 days at 6 dollars 420
The average milage 140
out of which he may with economy Tave £. 110 tc> comp'-nfoie,
if a profcflional man, the loss of patients or clients rifqu<_d by the
chasm in his business—or if a merchant the greater risque of loss
in crazing his brain with politic*—or if a man merely of fortune,
to make up those deficiencies which always tollow even transient
negle£ts of his affairs. When prudence and not cnthufiafrrl shall
govern, as it generally will do—to stay at home or leave it,
will be a question of less difficult debate, than it has been during
the prefenL year. As to the Speaker it is supposed he is to keep a
publick table. The clerk mull have indufiry, profemon.nl skill
and ability, and must give the whole year to his business, in and
out of session—He ought to be as refpe&able as any piachfing at
torney whatever, and with such qualities to goto market, he might
perhaps make a better bargain with the world at large. The
door-keeper is, out of his thfee dollars, to pay a herd of fatelhtes
with brooms, brushes and wheelbarrows, and so on.
" I believe my friend the objea is not obtained even by this
extravagant vote and that after a mort time Congress may be hUed
by single men andunfuccefsful profefTors in every branch of business
—those to whom as I said before a trifle abroad will be better than
nothing at hom , and to whom indeed any spot is equally a home.
Now that Congress have entered on the fubjeft cf amendments
to the eonftitution, fays correspondent, and as the avowed pur
poses of am ndirig it are Hill further to secure the rights of the
people, and to r move the fears of thole who are diflatisn-d with
it in its prefect form, one important amendment which has not
yet been suggested might be made—lnftead of leaving it in ..he
power of Congress to fix their own wages, let the constitution do
it for them. Let them be allowed a reafoanble compcnfation for
their services ; but fuffer them not to riot on the ruins of their
country, or to draw from the treasury enormous sums, such as are
inconsistent with republican economy —inconsistent with republi
can liberty—and such as arc glaringly inconsistent with the honor
and juflice of the United States, while,the services of her citizens,
in the late war, are fuffered to go unrewarded, while her foreigfi
and domcflic creditors are not even paid the interest of that money
which they generously lent her in the hour of distress. If none
of these reasons are fufficient to come in competition with the
Epicurean entertainments of gentlemen in Congress let them
that povefty which pervades every part of their country.
NEW YORK, AUGUST 26.
It is a inoft excellent observation of an Hon.
Gentleman, that certain abuses are more likely to
take place under the State governments, than
under the general government. —This remark is
founded 011 fadts and an intimate acquaintance
with human nature—lt is to be regretted there
fore, that there are not more redactions imposed
upon the individual governments by the consti
tution to secure the equal rights of the people.
Is it not astonishing that the only idea of abuse
of power which some persons feemto apprehend,
is from the general government ? And therefore,
to use the expreflion of another Hon. Gentleman,
" the Talons of the Eagle must be pared,' when
in retracing a few pages of very modem history,
we find that individual States have been guilty of
flretches of power and arts of oppi eflion, which
lhould the general government be so abandoned
and infatuated as to commit, would immediately
produce another revolution.
A correspondent who heard he debates of the national repre
fentativesjvefterday,on the fuhjefl of the final authentication of bills,
perceived that adivcrfity of opinions prevailed on that point. It
ft undoubtedly of importance that this should be performed wit h
solemnity, and attended with certainty. To combine both thefs
obiefts, what better expedient can be luggeßed, than for the Presi
dent to attend about the close of each feflion, in the presence of
both houfes,and recognize his (ignature and approbation ? Tor this
purpose the heads of theafls could be recited by the secretary or
clerk, and the President couldin thisfolemn manner, acknowledge
his allent. This would give a dignity to the laws, and contribute
to impreTs the public mind with veneration and refpeft for legi
slative proceedings. , c
The prosperity of a government depends very much on the fi
delity and exertions of executive officers. It has been found nc
ceflary in all governments to make such liberal provision as to ex
cite a degree of competition. This brings forward the ablest can
didates, and begets a watchfulriefs over the conduct of the officers
in the various departments.
We are informed that a meeting was lately
held in Philadelphia, of the principal schoolmas
ters and inftruiftors of youth; to deliberate ana
fix upon some uniform method of teaching our
vernacular language —a sub-committee was ap
pointed to determine upon some grammar extant,
or to prepare and report a system for general use :
This committee we are further informed, report
ed in favor of adopting Mr. Webster's.
The collector of Bolton diftrirt has ordered,
that none but American paper be ufedin the Cus
tom-House of that place.
N. B. Mr. Madj»on'« observations in committee of the whole, un
der the 16th. amendment, were made after the motion to insert the word
" expressly" as moved by Mr. Gtrr vin the house. The insertion of
that word was the quejlion agitated in the Convention of Virginia, to
which Mr. Madison referred : See No. 38.
#3" The F.ffavson coins, weights, and measures for the United States
which have appeared in this paper, were taken from the Pennsyl
vania Mercury, publi/hed by Mr. D. Humphreys.
Saturday Schooner Adonis, Durham, St. Vincents.
Sloop Polly, Bartlet, Wilmington,
Sunday Brig Betsy, Colley, Boston.
Monday Brig Betty, Mitchell, Halifax.
Sloop Commerce, Muslin, Quebec.
Schooner Catherine, Willfon,
Sloop Experiment, Whitney, St. Martin s.
Tucfdav, Snow St. Nicholas, Melida, Bilboa.
Brig Recovery, Macey, Dunkirk.
Schooner Eagle, Jackways, Shelburne.