Gazette of the United-States. (New-York [N.Y.]) 1789-1793, August 26, 1789, Image 1

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" Good citizens fcldom have bad magiflrates."
IN an eletftive government, men in office fur
nilha just portrait of the people, whole affairs
t hey manage. A virtuous, enlightened nation
has no substantial evils to fear from the bad ma
„a<rement of its rulers. The representatives
mult bear the image of their constituents. Among
a free people, it is not owing to the administra
tion of bad men, that the State is not happy an l
jkmrifhing. Those who attribute public niifcar
riages to the misconduct of a few individuals stop
jho t of the mark.
When the people reproach their rulers it may
with propriety be retorted upon them, and said,
they are with greater propriety reproaching
themselves. Because there are few inltances
where the people do not elect into office those
ffl en, whose opinions and manners are most like
]«• to coinci le with their own. It is not pretend
ed that all men in public employment make the
public good the main object of their views. The
introdn&ion of characters into public of
fice, who are deficient both in knovvlege and ho
nesty, raay easily happen, while those who elect
them are destitute of either of those qualities.
Ignorant rulers will not be countenanced by a
sensible people ; vicious rulers can only come
from a vicious people. When by deception an
improper person finds his way into authority, a
change in the election will remove him before he
can do much mifchief.
The public opinion is the great hinge upon
Thich public affairs mult turn. Too much pains
cannot therefore be taken to instruct the inafs of
the people in those sentiments and virtues which
will lay the foundation of a just way of thinking
»nd feeling. The government of a country may
do much towards correcting theerrors of the pub
lic mind, by a fyftein of laws that militate as lit
tie as polfible with natural justice and equity.
Such laws by their operation will gradually lead
people to an hone ft, induftiious way of living.
When this is produced, the popular sentiment
will re-act upon the government and reform its
There is in every community a set of men, who
make it their business to keep the people uneasy
with their rulers. By exciting an indefinite kind
of clamor, they prevent those calm and patient
investigations which might reach the true source
of disorders. Many motives prompt men to fcru
tinizs and censure the conduct of public officers.
Perhaps this propensity produces,upon the whole,
more good than evil. But it would be equally
beneficial, and better accord with truth, if the
people would divide the blame with their rulers.
Myneighbor Turbidus charges all the calam
ities, which he ever feels or fees, on the particular
misconduct of persons in authority. He is an in
dolent, imprudent man, and therefore must be
foppofedpoor and involved in debt, but he attri
butes his bad circumstances solely to the govern
ment. How can one, fays he, have money to pay
debts, when taxes run so high, and public officers
have fiich enormous salaries ? He loses more by
idleness and neglect in one week, than the go
vernment exacts of him in taxes for a whole year.
Is it not to be wondered at, that this fame Mr.
T'jubidus makes many good fort of people, very
unhappy and diffatisfiea with public affairs ? So
kzy and worthless a fellow, one would imagine,
could no: nave any influence in society. He is
(•efpifed in every thing he fays or undertakes,
except when he is arraigning the measures of tae
government ; and on this occasion hefeems to ac
quire so me degree of conlequence. We Ihould
therefore reft rain onr pronenefs to listen to cla
mor, or we may be so accultomed to alarm, as to
oe off our guard when real danger approaches.
7o FAR M E R S.
' Philadelphia County Society, for the
ajAgriculture and Domestic Ma
gentl E men, ,
~H is with pleafurel communicate an experi
"J nt .l l ate ly made, to discover the bell method
? - ra '" n E young hogs : Having frequently been
ormti} that pigs would hrive best to be turn
* mto a good clovcr field with the sow, but which
never verified by my own observation, I was
L nf '" ccd make the following accurate experi
ment. 6 1
tw °y ears ol'l> of the Englifli and Guinea
' ee "> had fevenpigs ;at a month old, in a state
Jj °? er t0 wake good roasters, I selected three of
ten 6 an^l>Ut t^lem the sow into a field of
v er aci . e f> Veir y luxuriant with red and white clo
ftort* OKI c timothy and blue grass ;in
1 tuey could not be in better paftnre, to this
W E D N K S D A Y, August 26, 17^9.
they had the advantage of/hade, a fine spring of
water to drink or wallow in at pleasure, and the
common wash of the kitchen ; their weight when
turned out was it, 12 and ijlb.the remaining four
were put into a stable by themselves, they had
plenty of clean straw and as much ikimmed milk
as they could drink, the weight of three of them
was 9, 10 & 1 gib. therefultof the experiment was,
that 111 three weeks time from their being put up,
those with the low with all the advantages above
mentioned, and the milk of the seven, weighed
16, 17 and x 9] Ij. the three in the stable, 2J, 22,
and 191b. which together make 14 pounds weight
in favor of the latter, to which we ihouldalfo add
the four pounds against them when firft put up,
which added make ißlbs. superior to the former.
Our farmers, in general, are too negligent of
t heir young stock of every kind, it is cultomary
tor them to fuffer the mother and young to fhift
themselves ; all animals grow in the inverse
ratio to their age, and therefore the younger they
are, the more neceflary to give them plenty of
food,if you de fire them to acquire the full growth
of which their nature is capable. An animal Hunt
ed when young neverthrives afterwards equal to
those which have had justice done them. lam
fatisfied from a little experience, that a ftridler
attention to the railing of our cattle and stock of
all kinds would give us a breed on our farms equal
to any in the world, and would at the fame time
add greatly to our own wealth and that of our
country. I am Gentlemen,
Your friend,
Stenton, June 2J, 1789.
To the Public in general, and the Manufactur
ers of Pot and Pearl-Ash in particular.
THE price of pot and pearl-ash for several
years part has heen much reduced, and does not
afford the manufaifluiers a due comoenfation foi
their trouble, besides their being de rived of one
half the nrcfit that might be made o . those alhes
that are exported, called the second and third qua
lities. It is attended with adifadvantageous con
sequence to export any of them, or tolet the Eng
li(h import any except of the firft quality, as they
have got into a method of refining salts and bad
pot-ash in England of late, which has reduced the
price of our firft kind of alhes at least five pounds
fterliiig pr. ton, besides the duty they demand of
us. It is well known to be the greatest branch
of manufacture that we have in the five northern
States, and as the duty and freight are the fame
on the second and third as on the firft quality,
and we have works prepared for the purpofe,and
are ready to pay the calh for the second and third
qualities, it behoves us in season to prevent fo
reigners from receiving three quarters of the pro
fits of our mod material cash article.
Newport y Ai/gufl 12, 1789.
IT being now a wet season for hay, I request
the following method may be recommended to
farmers in general, in order to make their hay
serviceable to their cattle, horses, &c. No per
son, whose hay has been out along time, and re
ceived much damage thereby,fhould put ittogeth
er before made dry, and the water quite out of it,
and when putting together, take, to every three
hundred weight of hay, one pound and a quartei
of fait, and throw it into the rick, or hay-mow,
as often as you well can, so that all the hay may
receive the virtue from it. In the winter, the
grazier will fee the good effedts, by the cattle, &c.
likingthe hay, and even giving it the preference
to other. Wishing well to the public, is my
motive. N. W.
Wednesbav, august 19, 1789.
[Debate on the Amendment of the Senate to the Bill
for providing for the expences of Negociations and
Treaties with the Indians, ire.]
MR. BALDWIN observed, That the matter is
left undetermined, whether the treaty with
theWabafh nation is to be included in the provision
as reduced by the Senate or not: If it is, acccord
ing to the account given by the Governor of the
Western Territory of the actual expences attend
ing treaties at which he has been present—it will
fall very much short of what will be absolutely
requiiite, to ensure the objedt, which the House
appear to have in contemplation. He moved to
amend the amendment, by adding these words,
" for holding treaties with the Indians south of
the Ohio."
\_PubliJhed at Wedncfday and Saturday .~\
Mr. Sherman laid, than from information he
had received, there was a large fiun, forty thon
fand dollars, granted by the late Congress for the
business of holding treaties, which has not been
accounted for, and great part of which is now on
hand : He supposed that the Senate had this in
view when they made the amendment.
Mr. Fitzsimons Replied to Mr. Sherman, and
observed, that there is some miflake refpedting
the gentleman's information on the fubjetlt before
the house : In order therefore that they might
atfl underftandingly, and obtain an accurate state
of he moved that the amendment might
lye on the table till to morrow*
Mr. Sedgwick said, when this business was
before under consideration, I was furpiizcd to
find the majority of the house in favor of the sum
then moved for, as The President in his mefliige
appeared to have in contemplation a treaty with
he Creek nation only—and why we should ex
ceed the sum neceflary for that purpose, without
my previous estimate, is to me perfeiflly incom
prehensible : To vote a sum of money in this stage
of the government, double to what is neceflary for
the immediate objed:, and when the circumstan
ces of our Treasury are such, that wecannot make
any provision for the public Creditors, is a very
extraordinary app op; iaiion It very rarely hap
pens that a gove nment excee U in economy—
the sum in the amendment will, be amply fuffi
cient—and if we were to vote the lai gilt sum, we
have reason to fuppol'e that the business would be
protracfied till the w hole is expended.—l hope the
house will concur with the Senate.
Mr. Sumpter was in favor of a concurrence,as
he thought that 20000 dollars would be fully com
petent to the objetfl.
Mr. Madison replied to Mr. Sedgwick: He
controverted his sentiment with refpe<ft to eco
nomy, as applied to States —he doubted the as
sertion that government may not exceed in the
practice of it—and he was not fare that in the
present instance it would not eventually appear,
that unneceflary additional expence was incurred
by too great caution not to exceed in the grant :
Hefeconded Mr. Fitzfimons' motion to defer the
iecifion till to-morrow.
Mr. Boudinot was opposed tothe motion—lt
is a principle with me (said he) from which I do
not mean to deviate, that in all our appropria
tions we ought to have special regard to the state
of the treasury.—What estimate have we to shew
that so large a sum as 40,000 dollars is neceflary
"or this business ? I presume none.—The number
of Indians to be provided for,is much beyond the
number requisite to give the treaties all poflible
validity : 1*( she former difcuflion of this l'ubject,
the gentleman from South-Carolina (Mr. Sump
:er) fully convinced me that so large a number
is quite unneceflary—We ought to consider upon
his occalion, that such large grants will influence
in future appropriations.—lf the sum mentioned
in the amendment should be found infufficient,
the President will give us notice accordingly,
and the deficiency may befupplied—but if we ap
propriate a sum that is mc ethan fufficient in the
present ftaie of our treasury, we fliall find that
we fubje<ft oui selves to very great inconveniences,
.ind cannot juftify such a step. lam of opinion
that 20,000 dolla: s will be found fully fufficient
with what is now on hand : I hope therefore,
hat we fliall not agree to the motion for poftpone
inent —the time fixed for holding the treaty is the
fifteenth of September, that is fact approaching :
What would be the consequence should the war
iors return home after appearing on the ground,
ind not find the commiflioners there to meet
hem ?—To lose a single day, may be attended
.vith fatal efFe<fls.
Mr. Lauraivce was in favour of the motion
for postponement: Hewifhed, he said, that ac
curate information mav be obtained, refpedting
Teveral circumstances which had been mentioned :
Time must be allowed for this ; and by to-mor
row the house may be in pofleflion of such fads
as will enable them to acft more underftandingly
in the business. I trust Sir, said he, that lam as
averse as any member in this house, to taking
money profufely, or unneceflarily out of the
public purse; but this is an important fubjeifl:
The house appear to be fully sensible of this, and
therefore making such provisions as may be com
mensurate to the object in the firft instance, is
the most likely way toenfure that objed:, and
will turn out to be the most saving method in
the end.
The motion for postponement being put, was
Mr. Baldwin's motion to insert the words
south of the Ohio was then taken up.
Mr. Scott : It may perhaps be wondered at,
Mr. Chairman, that as I live upon the frontiers,
and may be supposed to know fomcthing of the