Newspaper Page Text
AN African Prince subdued in balr.le, capi
tulated for his bow and bauble bought
his life. A British merchant sent hiin to South-
Carolina, where he was used as a Have. A pla
cid countenance, and fubmiffivemanners, mark
ed his resignation ; and preserved him in all si
tuations, the pofieflion of his arms—the only com
panions he had left—the sole objetfls of his affec
tions. His ftatelinefs and strength recommended
him to Colonel Mott, a humane master, in whose
service he died, in ftedfaft faith of a certain re
surrection in his native slate.
The bow and quiver were preserved as relicts
of a faithful slave, in the Colonel's family, who
gratefully remember the services, the fortitude,
and the fidelity of the trufly, the gentle lambo.
In the campaign of 1781, the "widow of Co
lonel Mott, (who died a patriot) was banilhed
from her house, on the river Congaree, then for
tified by a Britilh garrif'on ; the garrison was
besieged by a small detachment from the Ameri
can army, whose approaches were soon within
bow-shot. The widow, who lived in a cottage in
light of the fort, was informed that the preserva
tion of her house was the only impediment to its
reduction—and she was informed of the expedi
ents proposed.—Here, said she, (presenting the
African bow and quiver) are the materials—lam
bo never used these arrows and I fear they arepoi
foned; use them not, tlierefone, even againll
your enemies—but take the bow, any arrow will
■waft a match. Spare not the house, so you ex
pel the foe. The blazing roof produced submis
sion—the Britons dropped their arms—the Ame
ricans entered the house, and both joined to ex
tinguish the flames.
Ihe misfortunes of a Prince, and the heroinn
of a lady, are not uncommon—the novelty is the
Bow—a Item of genuine bamboo—which, defi
ned for the defence of Liberty in Africa, served
the fame cause in America, was preserved by an
officer of the patriot army—presented to Mr.
PEALE, and is now deposited in his Museum.
LONDON, MAY 28.
BY EXPRESS FROM PARIS.
1 his expre f s contains an account of the de
bates of the meeting of the States-oeneral. The
relult is, that the clergy are iitgacious and mo
derate, that the commons are Itarcled at the view
of their own importance, and only want the ex
perience of a people already free, to give them
a dextrous command of their rights as I'ubjects.
All however, l'eem to agree in a pofuion, once
laid down by a celebrated writer of our own—
a position which cannot too often be repeated,
or wiitten in Ictte s too large or conspicuous,
" THAT THE PEOPLE SHOULD Bh FREE."
T he nobility evidently proceeded ftepby step,
with an ungracious distrust, in order to preserve
thole preferences which had been already given
in their favour. Mobs have been formed in some
places, and the townsmen have been wbliged to
protect their villages from si. e ; one of tlieir of
ficers I'peaks thus: " We arrived with a guard,
and were received by 80,000 people in confufion
of tears and applause, clapping their hands, and
crying, ' Godfave the king and Monlxeur Cara
ma.ll; jhis was indeed a triumphal entry ; never
was a people more affectionate and fubmiflive.
The General had left the army without, and
only entered the city with his two aid-du-camps.
We will venture to add to the above, with
that precaution which distinguishes our paper,
that the dauphin of France is not yet dead, how
ever strongly it may have been reported.
On the 13th inltant the Sultan, attended by
"11 the Grandees, went on liorfeback to the
mosque of Elub, where the ceremony of girding
on the Imperial Ciinitar was performed with
the usual pomp, amidst a great concourse of peo
ple. In the proceflion from the seraglio through
the city, a sum of money to the amount of fif
teen thousand pounds in small lilver pieces,
loaded on ten mules, was thrown amongst the
populace ; and what has not always been the
cafe on similar occasions, no one 101 l his life in
the scramble. His highness returned by water
flown the harbour, and was saluted by all the
skips as well Cliriftians as Turks. The firft en
tertainment given by the sultan was a tourna
ment, as more coi.fiftent in time of war than
music and daticing.
June 7. Seltm the third, the present Grand
•Seignior, has had an education very different
from that of his predeceflors, for which he was
indebted to his late uncle; he speaks French
and Italian decently, and has read the belt works
i:i both languages; but he is more particularly
acquainted with European tacftics, which he was
taught by a French officer of great ability. He
has often been heard to declare that it was the
duty of the Emperor of the Turks, to be at the
head of his army, and from thence it is conclud
ed, that he will not derogate from the Ottoman
June 8. An unexpected change in the min
istry has taken place ; Lord Sydney has retired
from the office of secretary of Hate for the home
department. He attended the council yesterday
at Kew palace, wlierfc herefigned. His lordship
is appointed one of the chief juitices, in Eyre,
the profits of which are reckoned at 3006 a year.
Mr. Grenville, the speaker of the house of
commons, appointed to lord Sydney's place,
yesterday a(fted in that capacity. Mr. Henry
Addington, member for the Devizes is chosen
Mr. Richard Fold, of Birmingham, has very
lately presented to the Society of Arts, an ellay,
in which he points out a method, demonstrated
by a variety of fuccefsful experiments, that
horses may be inocidated for the strangles, with
the fame certainty of success that the human
fpeeies are for the small-pox
We are sorry to inform our readers, that last
night the beautifid edifice of the opera house
was burnt to the ground. We happened to bep re
sent when the fire burst out, and mult declare that
we never law any thing comparable to the rap
idity with which it spread itfelf. It broke forth
from the three domes of the roof, at one and
the fame instant, and in less than three minutes
the whole building was an entire Hame ; there
were neither water nor firemen to interrupt its
progress, and in a quarter of an hour the whole
was totally demolilhed.
The flames fpiead to the adjoining houses,
seven of which were deflroyed, and the fire
reached to the entrance into Pall-mall, but did
not go up the Haymarket.
Extract of a letter from Conflantinoplc, dated A
" All the proportions for peace, renewed
under the preient reign by the two courts of
Bourbon, have been rejected, the Sultan having
declared that he has taken an oath to re-conquer
the Crimea, so that without the preliminary res
titution of that peninsula all proposals are vain."
PARIS, JUNE 4.
IHs royal hignefs the dauphin died between
twelve and one o'clock this morning, in the
eighth year ol his age, to the great grief of
their moll Chi iftian majesties and the royal fami-
The dauphin was in his eighth year; for
four of which he has been alnioft constantly af
flicted with diseases which baffled the art of the
fi-ft physicians, and have now terminated in his
difiolution. His royal highnefs's remains will
be interred in the burying place of the Kings
of France, in the (huvch of Notre Dame in Pa
ris. All the public places ofamufement are shut
up, and will remain so till after his burial. The
Due de Normandie, the now only son of his
Most Christian Majelty, is a fine child about five
years old, and bids fair to become in due time
the king of France.
The present heir apparent of the crown of
"ranee, and Maria Therefe Charlotte, born
December 19, 1778, are the only remaining chil
dren of their Moll Christian Majesties.
SKETCH OF PROCEEDINGS OF CONGRESS.
In the HOUSE of Rt PRESE N TAT IVES of the UNITED
FRIDAY, AUCUST 14, 1789.
Sk tch of the Debate on Amendments to the Conjlitution.
In Co mm 1 tt ee of the whole.—The ni ft article of the report be
ing read, Mr. Gerry rose and ohjefted to the sentence, " Go
vernment being intended for the benefit oj the people. 1 *
' I "'HIS, said he, holds up an idea, that all government is intend
-4 ed for the benefit ot the people : This is not true—for if we
examine, we (hall find that not one government in fifty, is confti
tutcd upon this principle. Most of the governments, ancient or
modern, owed iheir existence to either fraud, force or accident,
and are designed for the purposes of opprcflion and persona! am
bition. I wish to have nothing go out from this body as a maxim,
which is not true in fact. He moved to amend the'claufe by in
serting the words "ot right." This motion was negatived.
Mr. Tucker observed, that the preamble is no part of the Con
stitution : The object is to amend the Constitution ; The pream
ble is no more a part of it, than the letter of the President which is
annexed to the Inftrumem—and I cannot fee that the committee
has any ihing to do with it.
Mr. Sumpter moved that the consideration of the preamble
mould bepoftponed till the whole amendments are gone through
and then we lhall know what introduction may be proper. °
Mr. Smith, (S. C.) observed, that the amendments propofedto
the preamble, had been recommended by three Siates, which ren
• ders it proper.
Mr. Page said, that in his opinion the original preamble will
not be altered for the better, by this amendment, and therefore I
'hope it will remain as it is.
Mr. Sherman said he was fatisfied with the original elaufe : If
t e Constitution was a grant from another power it would be pro
per ; but as the right is a natural and unalienable right, and inhe
rent in the people, it is quite unneceflary to give anv reasons for
toi ming the Constitution It is the ast of their own sovereign will
I he words "We the People" contain in themselves the prin
ciple fully, and the alteration propoftd will injure the preamble
Mr. Madison observed, that the proposed amendment is a
truth, and I conceive there is a propriety in inserting it ; besides
jieveral of the States have thought proper to mention the preamble
in their ratifications, which renders it proper to be attended to.
I can lee no difficulty in alTociatiiig the amendment with the pre!
amble, without injuring the beauty or fenfeof the paragraph ■ Th<
principle it is acknowledged on all hands is felf evident and can
derwe no force from thisexpreffion, still for thereafon before fuo.
geited it may be prudent to mfert it. °
The (jueftion 011 this amendment was carried in the affirmative
. Second amendment: From art. ~ fee. 11, par. 3. ftnke out ali
between the word '• direst" and " until such." and infte.d there
of, insert after thejirfl enumeration there Jhall be one reprefcntatiic
jor every thirty thoufa.nL until the number jhall amount to one hundred ■
aftei a Inch, theproportionJhall be ri Jo regukudby Congrejs. tUtthe num
ber of rebrefentativesJha/l never be less than on-huni, j
one hundred and,jeoentyJive ; but each flute Jh.u!
reprefentatnc." J ' Uv "" lcujl„ c
Mr. Vininc : The duty which I owe to my conftit.,
anxiety on the fubjeft of amendments, and the iuftice
and policy of the measure, lead me to propofc 3!ter'th >r,pr ' ety '
" one hundred and tevemy-five," to insert these wo 'l V ' Wdl '
vhere He,:, -ber ,J inhabitants of an, fiarticul,, State, J"
they Jhall be entitled to tat representatives 1 h ls w JS „ „V* ooo .
out a division. ° ca w ith-
Mr. Ames moved, that the word "thirty" fhonM v. n
out, and[ forty inserted—so that the ratio of representation t"u
be one lor forty thouUnd. lam induccd, iaid he to n l
motion, because I think the prcfent tiumber fufficiemlv \ c
the purpose of Icgiflation—that number which u found 0r
to the object is to be prefered : The people it ispreiumeH a . • ate
sally fatisfied with the pref. Nt number, which falls Ihort
would, on this proposition, actually constitute the house un
exact apportionment upon the present fuppofcd number ofinhT
tants : Experience has taught, that all the information neceiT ar
both of a general and local nature, may be found in a body
more numerous than the present legiffeture : The ex pence oh, T
merous reprefentat.on would soon become diffatistadorvtoth'
people, and be considered as intolerable burden • The rati c
one to every 30000 will swell the reprefentat.on to an enorm?
mass, whole support will be mfufferable, and whose deWberati
will be impracticable : The present population will onthcS
census produce upwards of 100—the augmentation will be ve *
rapid : It theretore appears proper to fix the proportion imm7
d.ately, to prevent these evils. By enlarging the representation'
we left en the chance of feeing the mod competent charaae
and of concentering the wisdom and abilities of the United Stat"'
which alone can support the importance and dignity of that branch
in which the people are more peculiarly mterefted : The refp on
libilitv of any assembly, is in proportion-to the number: In larel
representations the weight, the consequence, and refponfibilityof
individuals is diminished. Numerous representations en -ender
parties, arc fubjett to peculiar fermentations, delay the public bu
siness, and byencreafing the expence, lead the people to consider
government rather a cUi fe than a bit fling. Tho parties may pro
mote the public good, they often give rife to v ry alarming evils.
Whether it is poflible so to constitute a popular assembly as toba
nifh or restrain to any considerable degree, a spirit of taftion, ij
an important enquiry. This however is certain, that in propor
ti°n as the assembly is encreafed, the opportunity for intrigue and
cabal, to influence weak and unsuspicious characters, and to attach
them to the views of ambitious men, is encreafed. It mayalfobe
observed, that refponlibility is in some proportion to the numbers
reprinted. A representative of a large body of people will feel
in .« higher degree the weight of the charge he undertakes, and
will thereby be more interested to support a virtuous fame, and
redouble his exertions for the public good.
The people aTe not anxious to have a representation for every
30000 : This was not the objt& originall) in view by those who
proposed this amendmeut ; their intention was to fix a limitation,
so that the representation fliould not be diminished by Corigrefs
in any future time, below the point of fecuritv—their object was
certainly not augmentation, for in proportion as the people mul
tiply, the representation will encrcafe, and their influence will be
diminished ; this will lessen the controul of the people over them;
increasing the number therefore beyond certain limits will expose
the government to fa&ions, will lessen the agency of the under
standing, and augment that of the passions. I mproper charafttrs
will more easily get elected. The number of suitable persons is
not great in any country, of those, many will be indisposed to
serve. The United States has as great a proportion of competent
abilities perhaps as any country whatever. If however the repre
sentative body is unduly enlarged, the probability of inferior can
didates being ele&ed will rife. It has been asserted that so large
a territory as the United States contain cannot remain united un
der on« government, even if the administration was cntrufcd to
men of consummate abilities, and incorruptible virtue; but this
idea will receive additional force, if the chance of different charac
ters being callcd to the administration is encreafed.
Mi. Ames added many other observations, and concluded by
faying, tlfat from the foregoing rcflcftions upon the fubjeft, he
was led to make the motion, conceiving it to be consonant to the
ideas of the people, and that it would conduce to the dignity and
security of the government, and the prefcrvation of the rights,
and privileges of the people.
Mr. Madison said, he thought differently from the gentleman
last speaking : The design of the amendments is to conciliate the
minds of the people to the government—prudence requires that
the opinion of those States who have proposed this important a
mendmcnt should be attended to. It is a fatt that some States
have proposed an encreafe of the numb r—feveral have mentioned
200 —this renders it probable that they would not be fatisfied with
a less number. Ido not think it necessary at this time to go into
an accurate investigation of the advantages or disadvantages of a
numerous representation; beyond a certain rule, the number might
be inconvenient ; that point is a matter of uncertainty. It is true
that numerous bodies are liable to some abufes,but large assemblies
are not so fubjett to corruption as smaller ones : If we fix the ra
t>o at one for forty thousand, it will not prevent the abuses the
gentleman apprehends, for before the second census (hall be taken,
it is probable that the population will be so encreafed, as to make
the representative body very large ; these is therefore, withrefpeft
to futurity, but little choice between one ratio, or the other. I
think it will be best toretain the 30000, as attended with the lead
difficulty—it is the proportion contemplated by the States, and I
hope therefore that this part of the report will beadopted.
Mr. Sedgwick stated some particulars refpe&ing inftruftions
from the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and said he hoped the
article in the report of the committee would be adopted.
Mr. Gerry also replied to Mr. Ames : He controverted his
calculations, and enforced theneceflity of an ample and adequate
representation. He observed, that;the gentleman had said, " cn "
creasing the number lessens the importance of the members;" but
Sir, said Mr. Gerry, are we, in order to preserve our own dignity
and importance, to facrificethe liberties of the people? He avert
ed that small assemblies are more liable tofermentation than large
large representative assemblies will commonly be composed of a
conhdeiable proportion of the yeomanry of the country, who are
found to be more difpaflionate than persons ele£ted from elevated
walks of life.
Mr. Livermore was opposed to the motion for 40000.
Mr. Ames rose to juftify the motives which induced him to make
the motion : He made a copious reply, and among other observa
tions said, that he had no idea of attempting any alterations of the
Constitution which would injure or weaken the system : The a
mendments it is to be cxpe&cd will improve and make it better,
this he conceived would be the cafe by the alteration he propoled-
Mr. Jackson said, that what he had expe&ed, had taken place.
It is now proposed, by way of amendment to the Constitution, to
reftrift the number of the representative body to one for every
40000 inhabitants. In support of the argument, the gentleman
fays, that in a small assembly the abilities of the best men may e
brought as it were to a focus : If this argument has any weight in
it, why not trust one person ? One representative to 30000 has been
complained of—one to 40000 would certainly be lels competent to
doing justice to his constituents. The motion for linking ou
30000, in order to insert 40000, was negatived. ,
Mr. Sedgwick moved, that the words " onchundred an
fevc nty-five" should be struck out, and two hundred infers •
Mr. Sherman objected to this motion : He said that was
the constitution now to be formed, he fliould be for one re P
Tentative to every 40000 inhabitants, inftcad of 3 0C0C '^ a £ c
upon that principle I was going to move, said lie, that 1 7>
struck out, in order to insert a less number.