Gazette of the United-States. (New-York [N.Y.]) 1789-1793, August 19, 1789, Image 1
[No. XXXVII.] THE TABLE T.—No. XXXVII. (cONTI NU ATION.) « Innumerable causes confptre to divide and agitate the public mind\" IF some intelligent being, unacquainted with human affairs, and yet capable of forming definite from language, were to hear the conversation of a promiscuous croud of people, he would have no conception that they were in habitants of the fame world, or that they had any similarity of principles or feelings. While one ffl au would represent to him, a very virtuous and flourifliing Itate of society, another would exhibit on ]y the dark shades of the picture, and lead him I 0 imaoine that he had entered upon a scene of difcorcf, misery and vice. After some experience however he would find ou t, that these contradidory mortf.ls, who talked fodifferently, approached nearer to each other in v j e ws and sentiments, than appearances indica ted. A great part of the clamours of one set of men anil the applauses of another, are mere fay iinrsof course, that are uttered without any deter minate meaning. The good humored and fortu nate among mankind represent the community better than it is ; and the morose and ill-fated run into the contrary extieme. One praises the world and the other condemns it, pretty much according to the fare they have met with, in their through it. If we could analyze the mo tives'from which they ad:, and try their condud by any intrinsic standard, we ihould not find their real intentions so unlike as their words. He who reprobates the government is not perhaps itsene. niv, and he who flatters it, is not always its friend. The OLher evening, I was in company, where the conversation turned upon politics. It hap pened as is usual in such companies, that two or three men did molt of the speaking. The two wliodiftinguifliedthemfelveson the occasion were P ACiDDsandlGNATius. There seemed to be a difference of opinion refpeding the public mea fttres of the day. Ignatius lpoke like a man of much bitterness of spirit, and nothing escaped the darts of his spleen and severity. The new con flicution, he said, was only a scheme of the great and artful to ensnare, the common people, and gradually take away their liberties. As soon as the planners of it had provided well for them selves and friends, we should hear no more about tlie public welfare. The onlyftruggle then will be, who ihall get the mod, and perform the leall. Piacidds had quite another way of thinking. He appearedfatisfied that the si amersof the COll - had the liberties and happiness of the community at heart. Great and final] are all em barked in the fame bottom, and must Hand or fall together. The principles on which the govern ment is eftablilhe 1 a e not unfavorable to the rights of man, and we shall continue to be blefled with able and virtuous rulers. He disapproved of the ill-nature discovered by his neighbour, aud said it orginated only in jealousy. But 1G N tius was the molt plausible, and his remarks gained mod attention. I have observed him fe deral times in the streets, and he generally has a crowd of people about him, whom he will poifou with his envy and discontent, unless they are taught to be on their guard against his insinuations and complaints. It would be a good rule for every individual, when he hears private or public men slandered or condemned, to enquire into the charader of the perlons who thus find fault. I took this method, and am now proof againlt the secret whispers, or openclamours of Ignatius. He is nota man of nuch property, and therefore has little to fear from public commotion. He does not pollefs con siderable knowled e, and therefore can be no ac 'urate judge of political propriety. lie has no friends in important offices, and therefore is not without some envy and prejudice. lam told that Ignatius will not utter palpable fallhoods, and 'tat in his private concerns, he oblerves foine ho nesty and fairnefs. But he is constantly out of temper with public affairs, and endeavors to make his neighbours as reltlefs and petulentas himfelf. ''ewifhes to save some appearance of charader, aill i this makes him the more dangerous. In (hort is the perpetual marplot of men, who are try ing tolead a quiet, contented life. The tranquility of the public is liableto a thou wdcauses of interruption. It mult be supposed j.* the vulefs of the people participate of the ,' me frailties and imperfedions, as the people ,lci,l felves pofleis. Ignatius* avails himfelf of little miltakes and inadvertencies, and repre ' 11 s them in glaring colors, while he artfully all meritorious adioiis. Jealousy is so j jilt able a spring of the foul, that such men, keep , e public mind in fluduation and alarm. Ihe ■"'ends of good order and virtue fliould watch and c °anterad all their attempts. WEDNESDAY, August 19, 1739 If people would use the fame common sense in judging of public measures, as they do in their common concerns, these clamorous men would have no influence. One inuft conclude that the virtuous feelings are mild and conciliating, and that bustle, and a captious disposition are no pledges of patriotism. Our government has commenced in prosperity, and there are no special circumstances which at present threaten to disturb it. But as our citizens are composed of the fame ingredients as other people, it is well to anticipate the sources of dif quietude and complaint, from which no portion of the human race can be long exempted. EXTRACT OF A LETTER. WEIGHTS. THE grain is the basis of the weights used in Europe ; and a pound weight is generally there used. Divisions of pounds and ounces into fourths, &c. are inconvenient fractions that accident seems to have produced, and habits hftve continued a mong the old nations ; but which America is in the fined situation to avoid, and to give a pre ference to the more fnnple and harmonious divi sions in tens. The French have their pound of 16 ounces, or 2 marcs ; the marc being equal to 8 ounces ; the ounce 8 grois ; the gross 3 penny weights ; the penny weight S4 grains : with thafe are weighed gold, and other fine articles. Another pound weight they have for less valuable commodities : it is divided into half pounds ; the half pound into quarters ; the quarter into eights ; theeighihs into 2 ounces ; and the ounce into half ounces. The Engilh have their grains, fcrupfes, drams, ounces, pounds, quarters, quintals, and tuns. Their pounds is divided into 4ths, 3ds See. as are their ounces. Tables of their weights follow : " A table of the pound troy and its parts ; by " which gold, silver, jewels amber, bread, corn, " liquors, &c. are weighed ; and by which the " proportion of gravity in philosophical experi " ments is usually tried ; as of water to quick " silver, gold to silver," &c. accerding to Eng lish writers : yet, that avoirdupois (their laige weight) is sometimes used in these cases, the ta bles of fpccific gravity in Robertfon's mensura tion, Fergufon's ledtures, the late Dispensatories, &c. and corn, we know, is weighed by avoirdu pois—not by troy weight. Grains. 24 | Pennyweight. 480 | 20 | Ounces. 5760 | 240 | 12 | Pounds. " A table of such parts of a pound troy, as " apothecaries use ; commonly called /4pothica " ries weight." Grains. 20 1 Scruple. 60 | 3 | Dram. 480 | 24 | 8 | Ounce. j 760 | 288 | 96 | 12 | Pound. " A table of the pound called Avoirdupois, and " its parts ; by which are weighed drugs, but ter, meat, grocery, metals, &c. Drams. 16 oz. _____ C This lb. contains 256 16 lb. I 7000 grains. 7168 448 28 qr 28672 1792 112 4 cwt -573440 35840 2240 80 20 tun. These are the weights that have hitherto lerv ed us in America, coi/iflex as they are ; and the tables of them are here given, that we may the better fee how preferable arc the weights now to be proposed. The denominations of troy, apo thecaries and avoirdupois pounds, aredi opt. One only weight, with its parts, is retained ; wlucli is the American pound. Excepting gi ains and half tuns, all run in tens. The grains begin the table, with 70 to the net weight, called a prime (or what you please.) The quantity of the grain is not to be altered from what it always was, and the mint pound is mod conveniently to be continued the lame as the old common pound of 7000 grains. rPublijhed on Wcdnefday and Saturday.~] A Table of Weights, proposed, for the United Grains States of America : yo Prime. The firft that runs into tens. 700 10 Ounce. 7000 zoo 10 Pound. 70000 ioqo 100 ic Demif ore. 700000 10000 1000 100 10 Cwt. 7000000 iqoooo 10000 iogo 100 10 | half tun. The grain, the prime, the ounce and the pound, will be used for gold and fine things. Course goods will require nothing below ounces. Work the sums in whole numbers ; when dots will divide the quotient into pounds, ounces, &c. If you have the quantities already divided, write or read the sum without dots, for reducing them to futtle weight ; thus : aC. 2ds. albs. 2oz. are 2222 oz. and 2222 oz. 10 are 2C. 2ds. 2lbs, 20Z. 22 10 222 10 2222 Proof. It is not meant but that the common fractions maybe used at pleasure of individuals : but, the public ltandard, will hold out more commodious fractions, which the people will soon prefer to the old fractions in common use. H. t. C. ds. lbs. oz. Add 28646 42463 71109 What is the futtle? Omit the dots: it is 711090 Z. or in lbs. 7uolbs. 9 oz. ds. lbs. oz. ds. lbs. Multiply 6 4 6by j 2 S 2 1292 5230 33590 Which, being dotted ■off, makes 33c. jds. 91b. 2oz. Divide by jds. alb.) 22.214.171.124 (646; that is 6ds. 4lbs. 6oz. The whole operation in addition ; multipli cation and division, is exa<ftly as if the sums were in whole numbers. If the dots confufe any one who is unacquainted with decimal operations, I advise that he write the figures down without dots, thus: ah.t. BC. 6ds. 4lhs. 6oz. are, without dots, 28646, t hat is so much futtle in the lowest denomination of the sum, which here is ounces : then fay: 28646 oz. 42463 . 7110 9 .... , < This total is divided into several denominate ons wanted, by the application of dots ; begin ning with the unit: 71C. ids. olbs. 90Z. So in division 52)33592(646: all which, when dotted off, is thus, sds. 2lb. )33C. sds. 91b. 20z.( 6ds. 4lb. 6oz. I hope to be excused for these minute observa tions, as they are designed to reconcile those who are not informed in such arithmetical ope rations. Anyperfon who can read sums in figures, can change the higher weights into lower,or lower into higher, by the use of dots, applied or with drawn : always dotting off from the right hand to the left. The pound is the most convenient for an ac count column. Its parts in the fame column, di vided off by a dot, are ounces, thus : 48h.t. 6C. 4ds. 2lb. 6oz. are carried into the account column 6oz. In my next I intend fending you a trcatife on the bulhel measure. NEW-YORK, AUGUST 17. The following is an account of the. elevation of the Mercury, in a Thermometer accurately graduated according to Farenheit's scale, in this city. ON the 7th inft. the Mercury stood at Bo° at two o'clock, p. M. On the Bth ditto 80 ditto. 9th ditto 82 ditto. loth ditto 84 ditto, nth ditto 8 J ditto. 12th ditto 85 ditto. 13th ditto 83 ditto. 14th ditto 88 ditto. 15th ditto 8 J ditto. 16th ditto 84 ditto.