Gazette of the United-States. (New-York [N.Y.]) 1789-1793, August 19, 1789, Image 1

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    [No. XXXVII.]
« Innumerable causes confptre to divide and agitate
the public mind\"
IF some intelligent being, unacquainted with
human affairs, and yet capable of forming
definite from language, were to hear the
conversation of a promiscuous croud of people,
he would have no conception that they were in
habitants of the fame world, or that they had any
similarity of principles or feelings. While one
ffl au would represent to him, a very virtuous and
flourifliing Itate of society, another would exhibit
on ]y the dark shades of the picture, and lead him
I 0 imaoine that he had entered upon a scene of
difcorcf, misery and vice.
After some experience however he would find
ou t, that these contradidory, who talked
fodifferently, approached nearer to each other in
v j e ws and sentiments, than appearances indica
ted. A great part of the clamours of one set of
men anil the applauses of another, are mere fay
iinrsof course, that are uttered without any deter
minate meaning. The good humored and fortu
nate among mankind represent the community
better than it is ; and the morose and ill-fated
run into the contrary extieme. One praises the
world and the other condemns it, pretty much
according to the fare they have met with, in their
through it. If we could analyze the mo
tives'from which they ad:, and try their condud
by any intrinsic standard, we ihould not find their
real intentions so unlike as their words. He who
reprobates the government is not perhaps itsene.
niv, and he who flatters it, is not always its friend.
The OLher evening, I was in company, where
the conversation turned upon politics. It hap
pened as is usual in such companies, that two or
three men did molt of the speaking. The two
wliodiftinguifliedthemfelveson the occasion were
P ACiDDsandlGNATius. There seemed to be a
difference of opinion refpeding the public mea
fttres of the day. Ignatius lpoke like a man of
much bitterness of spirit, and nothing escaped the
darts of his spleen and severity. The new con
flicution, he said, was only a scheme of the great
and artful to ensnare, the common people, and
gradually take away their liberties. As soon as
the planners of it had provided well for them
selves and friends, we should hear no more about
tlie public welfare. The onlyftruggle then will
be, who ihall get the mod, and perform the leall.
Piacidds had quite another way of thinking.
He appearedfatisfied that the si amersof the COll
- had the liberties and happiness of the
community at heart. Great and final] are all em
barked in the fame bottom, and must Hand or fall
together. The principles on which the govern
ment is eftablilhe 1 a e not unfavorable to the
rights of man, and we shall continue to be blefled
with able and virtuous rulers. He disapproved
of the ill-nature discovered by his neighbour,
aud said it orginated only in jealousy. But 1G N
tius was the molt plausible, and his remarks
gained mod attention. I have observed him fe
deral times in the streets, and he generally has a
crowd of people about him, whom he will poifou
with his envy and discontent, unless they are
taught to be on their guard against his insinuations
and complaints.
It would be a good rule for every individual,
when he hears private or public men slandered or
condemned, to enquire into the charader of the
perlons who thus find fault. I took this method,
and am now proof againlt the secret whispers, or
openclamours of Ignatius. He is nota man of
nuch property, and therefore has little to fear
from public commotion. He does not pollefs con
siderable knowled e, and therefore can be no ac
'urate judge of political propriety. lie has no
friends in important offices, and therefore is not
without some envy and prejudice. lam told that
Ignatius will not utter palpable fallhoods, and
'tat in his private concerns, he oblerves foine ho
nesty and fairnefs. But he is constantly out of
temper with public affairs, and endeavors to make
his neighbours as reltlefs and petulentas himfelf.
''ewifhes to save some appearance of charader,
aill i this makes him the more dangerous. In (hort
is the perpetual marplot of men, who are try
ing tolead a quiet, contented life.
The tranquility of the public is liableto a thou
wdcauses of interruption. It mult be supposed
j.* the vulefs of the people participate of the
,' me frailties and imperfedions, as the people
,lci,l felves pofleis. Ignatius* avails himfelf of
little miltakes and inadvertencies, and repre
' 11 s them in glaring colors, while he artfully
all meritorious adioiis. Jealousy is so
j jilt able a spring of the foul, that such men, keep
, e public mind in fluduation and alarm. Ihe
■"'ends of good order and virtue fliould watch and
c °anterad all their attempts.
WEDNESDAY, August 19, 1739
If people would use the fame common sense in
judging of public measures, as they do in their
common concerns, these clamorous men would
have no influence.
One inuft conclude that the virtuous feelings
are mild and conciliating, and that bustle, and a
captious disposition are no pledges of patriotism.
Our government has commenced in prosperity,
and there are no special circumstances which at
present threaten to disturb it. But as our citizens
are composed of the fame ingredients as other
people, it is well to anticipate the sources of dif
quietude and complaint, from which no portion
of the human race can be long exempted.
THE grain is the basis of the weights used
in Europe ; and a pound weight is generally there
used. Divisions of pounds and ounces into fourths,
&c. are inconvenient fractions that accident seems
to have produced, and habits hftve continued a
mong the old nations ; but which America is in
the fined situation to avoid, and to give a pre
ference to the more fnnple and harmonious divi
sions in tens.
The French have their pound of 16 ounces, or
2 marcs ; the marc being equal to 8 ounces ; the
ounce 8 grois ; the gross 3 penny weights ; the
penny weight S4 grains : with thafe are weighed
gold, and other fine articles. Another pound
weight they have for less valuable commodities :
it is divided into half pounds ; the half pound
into quarters ; the quarter into eights ; theeighihs
into 2 ounces ; and the ounce into half ounces.
The Engilh have their grains, fcrupfes, drams,
ounces, pounds, quarters, quintals, and tuns.
Their pounds is divided into 4ths, 3ds See. as are
their ounces. Tables of their weights follow :
" A table of the pound troy and its parts ; by
" which gold, silver, jewels amber, bread, corn,
" liquors, &c. are weighed ; and by which the
" proportion of gravity in philosophical experi
" ments is usually tried ; as of water to quick
" silver, gold to silver," &c. accerding to Eng
lish writers : yet, that avoirdupois (their laige
weight) is sometimes used in these cases, the ta
bles of fpccific gravity in Robertfon's mensura
tion, Fergufon's ledtures, the late Dispensatories,
&c. and corn, we know, is weighed by avoirdu
pois—not by troy weight.
24 | Pennyweight.
480 | 20 | Ounces.
5760 | 240 | 12 | Pounds.
" A table of such parts of a pound troy, as
" apothecaries use ; commonly called /4pothica
" ries weight."
20 1 Scruple.
60 | 3 | Dram.
480 | 24 | 8 | Ounce.
j 760 | 288 | 96 | 12 | Pound.
" A table of the pound called Avoirdupois, and
" its parts ; by which are weighed drugs, but
ter, meat, grocery, metals, &c.
16 oz.
_____ C This lb. contains
256 16 lb. I 7000 grains.
7168 448 28 qr
28672 1792 112 4 cwt
-573440 35840 2240 80 20 tun.
These are the weights that have hitherto lerv
ed us in America, coi/iflex as they are ; and the
tables of them are here given, that we may the
better fee how preferable arc the weights now to
be proposed. The denominations of troy, apo
thecaries and avoirdupois pounds, aredi opt. One
only weight, with its parts, is retained ; wlucli
is the American pound. Excepting gi ains and
half tuns, all run in tens. The grains begin
the table, with 70 to the net weight, called a
prime (or what you please.) The quantity of
the grain is not to be altered from what it always
was, and the mint pound is mod conveniently to
be continued the lame as the old common pound
of 7000 grains.
rPublijhed on Wcdnefday and Saturday.~]
A Table of Weights, proposed, for the United
Grains States of America :
yo Prime. The firft that runs into tens.
700 10 Ounce.
7000 zoo 10 Pound.
70000 ioqo 100 ic Demif ore.
700000 10000 1000 100 10 Cwt.
7000000 iqoooo 10000 iogo 100 10 | half tun.
The grain, the prime, the ounce and the
pound, will be used for gold and fine things.
Course goods will require nothing below ounces.
Work the sums in whole numbers ; when dots
will divide the quotient into pounds, ounces, &c.
If you have the quantities already divided, write
or read the sum without dots, for reducing them
to futtle weight ; thus :
aC. 2ds. albs. 2oz. are 2222 oz. and 2222 oz.
10 are 2C. 2ds. 2lbs, 20Z.
2222 Proof.
It is not meant but that the common fractions
maybe used at pleasure of individuals : but, the
public ltandard, will hold out more commodious
fractions, which the people will soon prefer to
the old fractions in common use.
H. t. C. ds. lbs. oz.
Add 28646
What is the futtle? Omit the dots: it is
711090 Z. or in lbs. 7uolbs. 9 oz.
ds. lbs. oz. ds. lbs.
Multiply 6 4 6by j 2
S 2
Which, being dotted ■off, makes 33c. jds. 91b.
Divide by jds. alb.) (646; that is
6ds. 4lbs. 6oz.
The whole operation in addition ; multipli
cation and division, is exa<ftly as if the sums were
in whole numbers. If the dots confufe any one
who is unacquainted with decimal operations, I
advise that he write the figures down without
dots, thus: ah.t. BC. 6ds. 4lhs. 6oz. are, without
dots, 28646, t hat is so much futtle in the lowest
denomination of the sum, which here is ounces :
then fay:
28646 oz.
. 7110 9 .... , <
This total is divided into several denominate
ons wanted, by the application of dots ; begin
ning with the unit: 71C. ids. olbs. 90Z. So in
division 52)33592(646: all which, when dotted
off, is thus, sds. 2lb. )33C. sds. 91b. 20z.( 6ds.
4lb. 6oz.
I hope to be excused for these minute observa
tions, as they are designed to reconcile those
who are not informed in such arithmetical ope
rations. Anyperfon who can read sums in figures,
can change the higher weights into lower,or lower
into higher, by the use of dots, applied or with
drawn : always dotting off from the right hand
to the left.
The pound is the most convenient for an ac
count column. Its parts in the fame column, di
vided off by a dot, are ounces, thus : 48h.t. 6C.
4ds. 2lb. 6oz. are carried into the account column
6oz. In my next I intend fending you
a trcatife on the bulhel measure.
The following is an account of the. elevation of the
Mercury, in a Thermometer accurately graduated
according to Farenheit's scale, in this city.
ON the 7th inft. the Mercury stood at Bo° at
two o'clock, p. M.
On the Bth ditto 80 ditto.
9th ditto 82 ditto.
loth ditto 84 ditto,
nth ditto 8 J ditto.
12th ditto 85 ditto.
13th ditto 83 ditto.
14th ditto 88 ditto.
15th ditto 8 J ditto.
16th ditto 84 ditto.