Gazette of the United-States. (New-York [N.Y.]) 1789-1793, August 12, 1789, Image 1
XXXV.] THE tablet, No. xxxv. « Man's natural love of ease and idleness, and rttitnefi t0 " ldul S e his sensual pleasures are not to it cur'd by precept : His jlrong habits and inclina tims "can only be subdued by pafions of greater via- Preach and demonjlrate to a coward the un l"l'nablenefs of his fears, and you will not make hiJi valiant, more than you can Make him taller by Hiding him be tenfeet high.'" MEN who pass their lives in contempla tion and retirement seldom acquire fuchideas of human nature as are proper to be carried into practice. The melancholy impres sions that are excited by a reelule, l'edentary life have a molt pernicious eH'etit on the government of a family- Most people make their own feel inn-s the itandard by which to try the actions and opinions of others. Tliispropenfity leads to pe culiar inconveniences, when applied by old peo ple to the management of youth. It is to be re acted that systems of education are formed by such men, and imposed on the world as the wifelt and belt. The natural love of company and strong de sire for society, which seem to characterize so areat a proportion of the human race, can never beextinguifhed. They mull and will have scope, and whoever attempts to destroy them, is waging waragainftreafon and nature. His plan will ine vitably be defeated, and he will reap anguish and disappointment by his miltake, while his children blait his fond hopes and fair prospeCts by their profligacy and disobedience. The passions of a ,outh cannot be eradicated ; and if by forced rales of education they are for a while fupprefl ed, the barriers will foouer or later be broken down, and they will rush forth like an irrefutable torrent that carries every thing before it. No thing however is more practicable than to pre vent such difalters. When a child discovers strong marks of vivaci ty and it is difficult to curb his propensities, his temper should not be soured, or his spirit cramp ed by restraints. He may be so managed that his fportsand recreations will turn into fafe chan nels, and not run to pernicious extremes. Does hemanifeila lively inclination for company; let him be indulged in his favorite wiih. The best method to prevent his having bad aflociates, ij to cultivate a spirit of ambition, -that shall re gulate the choice of his companions. His humour mould be watched, treated with delicacy and tenderness, and in that way controuled ; but it can never be subdued. By a fkilful appeal to his pride and vanity, they will constitute a security againftthefeduCtions of low and abandoned cha racters. There is no natural preference in chil dren for vicious company or amusements. They are firft allured into bad practices by finding ea sy access, and feeling little rellraint by the fami liar manners and sportive pleasantry of merry fervauts and wicked wags. Such society gives relief to the young mind from the rigorous pre cepts, and Hern gravity which too often and too fatally characterize parental government. A ve hement love of society is not incoinpatable with the nicelt choice of company, if pains were sea sonably taken to instil an aversion against worth less or scandalous aflociates. Most children may he prevailed upon to have their diversions and companions designated ; but it is as much an aCt of folly to opv)ofe their inclinations, as it is of imprudence not to observe and regulate them. Decency and good morals maybe rendered plea rant aswell as ufeful and commendable. Youth nay be taught to distinguish between actions that are proper and improper, without thwarting their prevailing disposition. Under reasonable indul gence and with a little precaution they may be guarded agaift ngrofs vices and such practices us ire openly scandalous. N - InTablet No. 34, lafl line fir ft paragraph, ■ f ' Jhatl be considered," read should be conlicler e ' The author meant to f'gge/l the principles up lr> which thefubjc[l ought to be viewed ; it was not his "tuition to discuss those points—but merely to intimate 1 order in which they should he considered. i KETCJi OF THE POLITICAL STATE OF AMERICA. WHETHER viewed by the contemplative ye ° the p' ilofopher, or scanned by the more ive mind of the politician and legislator, the ppincls arising to society from the progress oi conT. e m l^C Wor l £ l> presents the most pleaflng ii>U' e^U - enCes .' as our encouragement to eltablifh branch 10 ? V° r the e^ucat i oll °f youth 111 every tedf C I°' terature —no country is more obliga- Weir f cau s e °* learning than America—to the ln 01niei 'i mind of her citizens does flieov e WENDESDAY, Auouijr 12, 1739. her present important rank in the scale of nations ; to this is she indebted for her unparalleled ad vances to greatness and empire, and on this does the preservation of her future liberties and all the invaluable rights of human nature eflential ly depend.—What more noble or engagingcon fiderations can be urged to prove the propriety and policy of our exertions to place on the molt liberal and solid grounds, the education of the present generation ?—Let schools and colleges be every where reared, as the more pleasing substi tutes of jails andhoufes of correction, that a pro per bias may be given to the tender mind, and youth trained up in the way they fliould in future walk : There is a native ingenuity in the cfifpo fiiion of mankind, which by early cultivation may be brought to maturity, and society thereby re lieved in a great degree from the evils resulting from ignorance and obstinacy—its natural off fpring ; and each individual, inllead of being im pelled by the fear of punifhment,be drawn by acon fcioufnefs of duty to aCt well his part. Constitutions and forms of government will little avail, without a general prevalence of religion—the cultivation of private virtue and a refinement of the moral sense from her local situation, poflef fes greater advantages for ths promotion of lite rature and the arts, than has marked many other nations in the early of their political ex istence—not being subjeCt to the constant inroads of barbarians or the tyranny of superstition, nor interrupted by the frequent din of arms ever lioltile to the arts —here peace waves her gentle banners, and under the pleafine; auspices of our present happy form of government and enlight ened adminiltrators, science shall expand her ge nial rays and the various fountains of learning through the continent,annually iflue their streams, which like the periodical inundations of the Nile shall enrich the country all around. While the lefler schools and every literary in stitution, however final], must be thought wor thy the attentioji of government —I hope to fee the eftablilhment of a federal univerfity—itis an idea which has been heretofore suggested, and which presages much future advantage to the public—Such a society may in a central situation of the Union, under the management of able instruCtors, to whichthe lludents gradua ting at the different state colleges may repair, to finifli their education, by remaining two or three years, and principally directing their ltudies to the political interelts of their country —the great objects of legislation and national jurisprudence. As we have taken our station among the other nations of the world, itis highly proper we should form on national principles, which can be belt done by promoting such institutions as have a tenden cy to remove local views and habits, and beget mutual confidence, esteem and good fellowlhip between those who are embarked in the fame bot tom, and mult rife or fall together. The insti tution above alluded to, I think will be happily calculated to answer those valuable purposes, and have the moll beneficial effects in a political view. In order to avoid the idea, or prevent its being in fact: an exclusive kind of education, it ought to be conftruifted 011 the moll economical plan, that the expence may be no bar to those who may wifhto participate of the inflruCiion there to be received, to form themselves for future eminent Cervices to their country, to which their fludics ought more particularly to be directed. Contract ed and envious minds will always view with pain every exertion made to cultivate and improve the understanding of others, so as to raise them a bove the level of their own : But this 1 presume will be 110 objection of weight to the eltablifh ment of those feniitiaries of learning and science, u here men may be well instruCted in the rights of human nature, and ltreftgtliened in their abi lities to ail'ert those rights, and preserve them in violate from that tyranny and oppression under which mankind have too often groaned in lei's enlightened ages. We find by a review of the history of ancient Rome, wliofe lustre and national greatness was once the alfonifhment of the world, the arts and jciences, and liberty, ever flourifhed hand in hand, while they could boast a set of wife and able Princes who gave thein all due encouragement — and that to check the progress of literature, and to marr every noble exertion of the human pow ers, formed the firft attempts of their tyrannic rulers, to enslave thein ; and we observe liberty and the arts to have gradually decayed, till they finally funk into their original barbarity and Go thicifm. It remains for America, by an early at tention to the encouragement of every art and science, and the cultivation of the human mind, to the highest pitch of improvement, to fit the in habitants of this western world for the enjoy ment of that freedom and independence for r Publijhed on Wednesday and Saturday which they have so nobly fought—and which will never be wrested from thein, while they fuck in with t heir milk, thefirll principles of civil liber ty, and are uniformly educated in an abhorence of every attempt that may be formed to deprive them of this mighty boon from heaven. AMERICANUS. A Jhort sketch of the HISTORY of SWEDEN. AS Sweden occupies at present in a high de gree the attention of the public, we shall fur nifh our 'readers with a concise narrative of its history, from the remotest period to the present time. The firlt epocha of Sweden extends from the firlt peopling of the country, whenever that was, to the time when King Olaus embraced the Chris tian faith, about the yearßj3. This was a period of little importance as nothing certain can be said concerning it. The Swedes, unwilling to be outdone by the Danes, have, like them, been fond of magnifying their antiquity, but the accounts given us byfonie of their histo rians are obviously too fabulous to merit attention. from this period, down to the time when the three northern crowns were united, under Queen Margaret of Denmark, in 1307, there are but few circumstances that deserve our particular no tice. Sweden was pretty much in the fame state with Denmark, being partly involved in intestine troubles, and partly engaged in contests with its neighbors. Though by the Constitution of Calmar, it was agreed upon, that Denmark, Sweden and Nor way, lliould be governed for the future by the fame Princes, yet that constitution being more favorable to the Danes than the Swedes, the latter were perpetually endeavoring to ihake off the yoke. Hence they were involved in perpetual contests and disorders, and were fubje<ftedto great calamities ; till at length the spirit of the nation was roused, such noble efforts were made under the auspicious conduct ofGuftavus Ericfon, about IJ2B, that the Swedes effectually recovered their liberties and their independence. The most important period in the Swedish hi story is undoubtedly the interval between the reign ofGuftavus Ericfon and the death of Charles XII. in tli£ year 1 718. This is a period in which that kingdom is diftinguiihed by several striking events at home, and by ihe figure which it made obroad. Guftavus Ericfon, besides restoring the free dom of his country, aboliflied Popery, and esta blished Lutheranil'm, ruled with great dignity, and renderedthe crown hereditary in his family. Guftavas Adolphus was one of the greatest he rpes of modern'times, and has rendered his name extremely illustrious by his mighty actions in Ger many, in defence of the Protestant cause, againlt the attempts of the House of Austria. The grand enterprizes begun by Guftavus Adolphus, in fa vor of Germanic Liberty, civil and religious,were completed under the minority of his daughter, Christiana, whose resignation of the sovereignty, and whose Angular character are curious objects ot history. Equally lingular is the character of Charles XII, with regard to whom it is needless to fay, that his wonderful achievements and ex traordinary adventures have ranked him among the most celebrated persons whom the world ever produced. The Swedish Kings had been fucceflively grow ing more and more arbitrary, and Charles XII, had become so in a higher degree than any of his predecefiors. But till the revolution in that kingdom in 1772, it appears that the people had again reduced the kingly power within very nar row limits. This country seems to be gradually advancing in knowledge, commerce, and the arts of life ; and though it has not lately made the figure it formerly did, it has been fuccefsfulin its wars ; and though one could form no idea that the mo dern Swedes are the,defcendants of those who un der Guftavus Adolphus and Charles XII carried terror in their names, through the most distant countries, and Ihook the foundations of the gieateft empires, yet that nation will probably soon recover some lhare of her former character under Guftavus 111. the reigning monarch, who, as is evident both from his late and present con duct, is a Prince of great ambition, and of very conftderable abilities. ENGLISH PARAGRAPH. THE Americans, under the direction of Washington, now Prelident of the States, to gain connection between two rivers, tunnelleda hill of more consequence than that of Sapperton inGloucefterfhire,and at twenty timeslefs They worked with a large horizontal borer, by the power of steam.