Gazette of the United-States. (New-York [N.Y.]) 1789-1793, August 05, 1789, Image 4
The RIGHT CONSTITUTION of a COMMON WEALTH EXAMINED. IT is agreed that the " people know where the " shoe wrings—what grievances are most heavy," and therefore they Ihould always hold an inde pendent and eflential part in the legislature, and be always able to prevent the shoe from wringing more, and the grievances from being made more heavy ; they Ihould have a full hearing of all their arguments, and a full /hare of all consultations, for easing the foot where it is in pain, and for les sening the weight of grievances, or annihilating them : but it is denied that they have right, or that they Ihould have power, to take from one man his property to make another easy, and that they only know " what fences they ftaiyl iu need of to " shelter them from the injurious aflaults of thole " powers that are above tliem ;" meaning, by the powers above them, senators and inagiftrates, though, properly speaking, there are no powers above them but the law, which is above all men, governors and senators, kings and nobles, as well as commons. The Americans have agreed with this writer in the sentiments, " that it is but reason that the " people ihould fee that none be interelted in the " supreme authority but persons of their own " election, and such as mult, in a short time, re " turn again into the fame condition with them " selves." This hazardous experiment they have tried, and, if elections are loberly made, it may answer very well ; but if parties, factions, drun kenness, bribes, armies, and delirium, come in, as they always have done sooner or later, to embroil and decide every thing, the people mult again have recourse to conventions, and find a remedy. Neither pliilofopliy nor policy has yet discovered any other cure, than by prolonging the duration of the firft magiltrate and senators. The evil may be lellened and poltponed, by elections for longer periods of years, till thej become for life ; and if this is not found an adequate remedy, there will remain no otherbut to make them he reditary. The delicacy or the dread of unpopu larity, that should induce any man to conceal this important truth from the full view and contem plation of the people, would be a weakness, if' not a vice. As to " reaping the fame benefit or " burthen by the laws enacted that befals the " reft of the people/' this will be secured, whe ther the firft inagiftrate and fenape be elective or hereditary, as as the people are an integral branch of the legislature ; can be bound by no laws to which they have not consented ; and can be fubjed'.'dto no tax which they have not agreed to lay. It is agreed that the " ifl'ue of luch a " constitution," whether the governor and senate be hereditary or eleiftive, must be this, " that no u load be laid upon any, but what is common " to all, and that always by common consent ; " not to serve the lust of any, but only to sup " ply the neceflities of their country." The next paragraph is a figurative flourifh, cal-> culated to ainufe a populace, without informing their understandings. Poetry and myllics will answer no good end in difcuflingqueftionsof this nature. The simple style, the molt mathemati cal precision of words and ideas, is belt adapted to discover truth, and to convey it to others, in reafoningonthisfubjed:. There is here aconfu fion that is more than accidental—it is artful :— the author purposely states the question, and makes the comparison only between simple forms of government, and carefully keeps out of fight the idea of a judicious mixture of them all. He seems to suppose, that the supreme power must be wholly the hands of a limpie monarch, or of a single senate, or of the people, and studi ously avoids considering the sovereignty lodged in a composition of all three. " When a supreme " power long continues in the hands of any per " son or perlons, they, by greatness of place, be " ing seated above the middle region of the peo " pie, fit fecurefrom all winds and weathers, and " from those ltorms of violence that nip and ter " rify the inferior part of the world." If this is popular poetry, it is not philosophical reasoning. It may be made,a question, whether it is true in fact, that persons in the higher ranks of life are more exempted from dangers and evils that threat en the commonwealth than thole in the middle or lower rank ? But if it were true, the United States of America have eltablifhed their govern ments upon a principle to guard against it ; and, " by a fuccellive revolution of authority, they " come to be degraded of their earthly godheads, " and return into the fame conditions with other " mortals and, therefore, " they must needs " be more fenlible and tender of what is laid upon " them." Our author is not explicit. If he meant that a fundamental law should be made, that no man Ihould be chosen more than one year, he has no where laid so. He knew the nation would not have borne it. Cromwclland his creatures would all have detested it ; nor would the members of the Long Parliament, or other constitutions, have approved it. The idea would have been uni versally unpopular. No people in vhe world will bear to be deprived, at the end of one year, of the service of their belt men, and be obliged to confer their fuffrasres, f rom year to vear. on the next best, until the rotation brings them to the worst. The men ofgreateft interest and influ ence, moreover, will govern ; and if they cannot be chofeu themlelves, they will generally influ ence the choice of others lb decidedly, that they may be said to have the appointment, if it is true that " the strongest obligation that can be " laid upon a man in public matters, is to fee that " he engage in nothing but what mult either " offenfively or,beneficially refWl upon himfelf," it is equally true at least in a mixed government as in a finiple democracy : it is indeed, more clearly-and universally true, because in the tirft the reprelentatives of the people beingthe special guardians of equality, equity, and liberty, for the people, will not consent to unequal laws ; but in the second, where the great and rich will have the greatest influence in the public councils, they w ill continually make unequal laws in their own favour, unless the poorer majority unite, which they rarely do, set up an opposition to them, and run them down by making unequal laws againlt them. In every society where property exists, there will ever be a struggle between rich and poor. Mixed in one aflembly, equal laws can never be expedted : they will either be made by numbers, to plunder the few who are rich, or by influence, to fleece the many whoare poor. Both rich and poor, then, must be made independent, that equal justice may be done, and equal liberty enjoyed by all. To expert that in a single so vereign aflembly no load (hall be laid upon any but what is common to all, nor to gratify the pailions of any, but only to supply the necelfities of their country, is altogether chimerical. Such an aflembly, under an awkward unwieldy form, becomes at once a finiple monarchy in effe<sl : some one overgrown genius, fortune, or reputa tion becomes a despot, who rules the state at his plealure, while the deluded nation, or rather a deluded majority, thinks itfelf free ; and in every relblve, law, and acft of government, you fee the interest, fame, and power, of that single indivi dual attended to more than the general good. (To be continued.) ~L ~0 ~N D 0 N. HOUSE of COMMONS. MAY IJ. The following PROPOSITIONS were fu'bmitted by- Mr . Wilberfok ce—which wire by consent order ed to tie on the table. I.—That the number of (laves, annually car ried from the coast of Africa, in Britilh veiiels, is supposed to amount to about 38,000. That the number annually carried to the Bri tilh Weft-India islands, has amounted to about 12,500, on an average of four years, to the year I 787, inclulive. That the number annually retained in the said islands, as far as appears by the custom-house ac counts, has amounted on the fame average, to a bout 17,500. 11. That much the greater number of the ne groes, carried Sway by European veiiels, arebro't from the interior parts of the continent of Africa, and many of them from a very great distance. And the slaves may in general be clafled under some of the following del'criptions 1 1 ft. Prisoners taken in war. 2d. Free persons fold for debt, or 011 account of real or imputed crimes, particularly adultery and witchcraft, in which cases they are frequent ly fold with their own families, and sometimes for the profit of those by whom they are condemned. 3d. Domestic slaves fold for the profit of their mailers. 4th. Persons made slaves by various a(fts of op pression, violence, or fraud, committed either by the princes and chiefs of those countries on their fubjefts, or by private individuals on eacli other, or lastly by Europeans, engaged in this traffic. 111. That the trade carried on by European nations an the coast of Africa, for the purchase of slaves has neceflarily a tendency to occasion fre quent and cruel wars among the natives. To en courage acfts of opprelfion, violence, and fraud, and to obstruct the natural course of civilization and improvements in those countries. IV. That the continent of Africa,in its present state, furnilhes several valuable articles of com merce, highly important to the trade and manu factures of this kingdom, and which are in a great measure peculiar to that quarter of the globe. V.—That the slave trade has been found by ex perience to be peculiarly injurious and destruc tive to the Britilh seamen, who have been employ ed therein. Vl.—That the mode of transporting the slaves from Africa to the Weft-Indies, neceflarily expo ses them to many and grievous fuft'erin'o-s, for which no regulations can provide an adequate remedy. Vll.—That a large portion of the slaves fotranf pot ted has also perished in the harbours in the Weft-Indies, previous to their being fold. That this loss is stated bv the aflembly of the island of Jamaica, at about four and a half pr. cent, of the number imported. Vlll.—That the loss of newly imported negroes within the firft three years after their importa tion, bear?, a large proportion to tliewhok num ber imported. IX—That the natural increase of pop U i at ;. among the slaves in the islands, appears to ha been impeded principally by the follow injrcaufo i ft. The inequality of the sexes in the i lni ,or' tations from Africa. A 2d. The general diflblutettefs of manners mong the slaves, and the want of proper reeul " tions tor the encouragement of marriages a'"d of.rearing children. ' ;d. The particular difeai'cs which are prevalent among them, and which are, in some instances attributed to toofevere labour, or rigorous treat' ment,and in others to infulficient or improperfW 4th. Tliofc diseases which affe<si a large pro' portion of negro children in their infancy and thofeto which the negroes newly imported from Africa have been found to be particularly liable to X.—That the whole number of the slaves in the island of Jamaica, in 1768, was about 167 0M That the number in 1774, was, as Ha ted by Gov. Keith, about io;ooo And that the number in Dec. 1787, as stated by Lieut. Gov. Clark, vyas about ' ' * 256,000 Xl.—That the whole number of flares in'the island of Barbadoes was, in the year 1764, accord ing to the account given in to the committee of trade, by Mr. Braithwaite, - y 0 That in 1 774, the number was, by the lame account - - 74,874 In 1 780, by do. - 6Sj ' 27() In I 781, after the hurricane, accord ing to the fame account, - 63,248 In t 786, by do. - * 62,115 Xll.—That the accounts from the Leeward Islands and from Dominica, Grenada, and St. Vincent's, do not furniih fufficient grounds for comparing the state of population in the faidill aiuls at different periods, withthe number pfflaves which have been from time to time imported in to the said islands, and exported therefrom. But that from the evidence which has been received ref'pe (fling the present state of these islands, as well | as of Jamaica and Barbadoes, and from a conli deration of the means of obviating the causes which have hitherto operated to impede the na tural increase of the slaves, and of lefloning the demand for manual labor, without diminifliing the profit of the planter, it appears that no con siderable or permanent inconvenience would re sult from discontinuing the farther importation of African slaves. To the Printers of the Daily Advertiser. I ENCLOSE y«u a hand-bill, pointing out a modeofpra venting the dreadful consequences of the BITE of a MAD DOG. I received this hand-bill a few daytfmce, from Dr. Hagaxth, a phyficianof great ability and Angular probity, at Chester, in Eng land. The recommendation of so able and humane a physician, together with iny own opinion of the efficacy of the modepropo fed, induce me to request you, and all other printers in the United State*, to re-print it : and to continue it for some time in the newspapers, that it may be as generally communicated aspoflible. I am persuaded, that your regard for humanity, will be a fufficient motive for complying with what I requrft. I am your mod' obedient servant, ARTHUR LEE. BITE OF A MAD DOG. NEAR Wrexham, in North-Wales, three men died of canine madnrfs, in Oftobcr and November, 1788. These melancholy cases spread a general alarm. But it ought to give great comfort and fatisfadlion to any one who may be bit, to know that there is a lafe, easy, and effetlual method ofj>revem ing the infection ; which can seldom give pain, or require fkill,acd is in the power ot every pcrfon to employ. It is univerlally al lowed by physicians that the spittle of a inad animal, infufed into a wouna, 1$ the only cause hitherto known, that can communi cate canine madness to the human body. This poison does no immediate mifchief, but is slowly absorbed into the blood,and Efficient opportunity is given to remove it, before any danger can arise. Whenever a person is bit, the plairt and obvious meansof preventing future injury, is, firft to wipe off the spittle with a dry cloth, and then to wash the wound with cold water—not (lightly, and fuperficially, but abundaptly, and with the most persevering attention, in bad cases, sos several hours. After a plentiful effu fion of cold water, warm water may be employed with fafety and advantage; a continued stream of it, poured from the fpoutofa tea-pot, or tea-kettle, held up at a considerable diihnce, is pecu liarly well adapted to the purpose. If the canine poison infufed into a wound were of a peculiar color, as black, like ink, we should all be aware that plenty of water and patient diligence wduld walK out the dark die ; but this could not be expected by a flight and fuperficial ablution. After the full careful washing, «pply to the bite, saliva, colored with ink, indigo, &c. and by the second wash • ng, a visible proof may be obtained, how soon and how perfect ly it can be cleaned out of the wound. As a proof that flight waHi ing of th« wound is not fufficient to cleanse it effectually from the poison, we may mention, that in some cases, after inoculation for the small pox, the poisonous matter has been attempted to be walhed out of the wound, by peifons who wished to prevent its v ffe£ts : yet the inoculated small-pox appeared at its proper per iod . These unfuccefsful attempts were performed lecretly, haflity and timidly, by a female hand. But, in a cafe when the ablution was more perfe6Hy performed, inoculation Was prevented from taking effect, though the patient was susceptible of infection. They teach us the importance of patient perseverance in wadung away the poison ; but they need not abate our confidence that i uc 1 perseverance will certainly be fuccefsful. . The ablution should be accomplished with great diligence, an without delay, and may be performed bv the patient or any a fiflant. However, as the apprehension of this dreadful diiord<- r always excites the grcateft anxiety, a surgeon's advice and affiliate ought to be obtained as soon as p'offible, in nil cases where the Uijj is injured. He will execute those directions most dexterously an completely. In a bad wound, the poison may be conveyed ec P into the flkfh, by long teeth, or by lacerations. In such circum ltances, he will open, cup, syringe, and wash every fufpic place, and whenever any uncertainty can remain, that ma y oC< \j lion future solicitude, he will previously (have off the fur face, a cut away the jagged or other parts of the wound —by of purification it cannot be doubted that every particle 0 po* and, confcquently, that every cause of danger may be e e .removed. PubliThedby JOHN FKNNO, No. 9, MaU> eN "