Gazette of the United-States. (New-York [N.Y.]) 1789-1793, August 05, 1789, Image 1

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    [No. XXXIII.]
fj-pjg TABLET.
« Prohibition often creates eager and intemperate
yjfots towards objeCts; -which we Jbould otberioife
ftek after moderately, if at all.
IT is not an easy queflion to decide, whe
ther it is a more common fault in educa
tion to indulge children too far in certain instan
ces or to reftritft them too rigorously in others.
If we take a critical view of human life, we shall
probably find a considerable proportion of the
B oft abandoned characters, that disturb and dif
arace society, to have originated frdm parents of
very scrupulous piety, and severe and exalted
morality. Such over-exad: people draw the
cords of discipline so hard, that they mull inevi.
tably break asunder. They cxprefs the strongest
detestation, and bear unrelenting testimony
aaainft many recreations and pastimes, which
onlyceafe to be innocent when carried to excess,
and which would seldom be carried to excess,
were a proper medium of indulgence seasonably
The children of auftere,unaccommodating pa
rents discover a flronger inclination for some
plcafures and amusements, which are prohibited,
than they do for others, more tempting in them
selves, which are not barred by such prohibitions.
Itisevident therefore that the prohibition itfelf
gives the principal edge to the temptation.
There are two sources of inordinate love of
pleaf'ure that fliould be guarded against. One of
them consists in indulging recreation to so great
a degree, that we feel pain in refraining from
it, because is has become so fixed an habit as not
to be laid aside without reluctance. The habit
of enjoying conftitutes,in this instance, the prin
cipal stimulus to gratification. The other source
depends on a cause exactly the reverse. Some
youth, by being prohibited from diversions, affix
an imaginary delight to the enjoyment so much
greater than the reality would afford, that their
dcfire to trespass becomes k reliflable. They are
tempted tbtarte what is forbidden. Had they
beenleft free, it is ten chances to one, whether
the object had contained charms fufficient to at
tract their attention.—lmagination is on the
*ing,ftamps a value on what is indifferent, and
creates a paflion which runs into extremes. The
ardor of inclination is heightened, by the fatis
fadtion that is felt in violating an unreasonable
command, and passing over reftritflions that are
founded in fuperltition or auflerity.
But this is not the worll of it. When attempts
are made to draw children into a belief that all
pleasures are vices, and that all vices are equally
abominable and injurious, they make no distinc
tion between atftion§ of moral demerit, and those
uhich are only deemed wrong by the caprice,
'be ignorance or over-exacft maxims of their pa
rents. ihe consequence of such an error is
dieadful to think of. A child of common sense
ma y pcifuade hiinfelfthat he is forbidden many
gratifications which are not intrinsically wrong.
From a fpfightlinefs of imagination he will easily
e enticed to break over parental authority in
fash things,?s he fees bther people pra<ftice with
°Ut Convenience or reproach. The eifeCl of
tbisdifobedience is, that he gradually accustoms
himfeh to uifregard the admonitions of his pa
ints,and is instigated into actions which he would
cv er commit, had his parental reltriiflions been
onfined within reasonable limits.
The iJeas suggested in this number deserve a
°' e a ri plc confuleraiion than can be allowed in
a Single paper. In my next the subject shall be
a ß a in introduced.
WEDNESDAY, August J, 17^9.
COMPARED with Great Britain, America
justly claims the superiority in extent of territo
ry and sea coatt, multiplicity of fafe harbours,
variety of climates and productions, with many
other natural advantages.
Among some of the powerfully active means
now in her pofleffion, may be primarily confider
eel the article of Tobacco, which is not only
productive of immense revenue to some of the
European States, but is become from habit, and
a general faith in its virtues, of such importance
throughout all Europe, that it may at this day
with propriety*be ranked among their necefla
riesof life. In OsTEND,a free port in Austrian
Flanders, where our American tobacco is ma
nufactured in various ways for different markets,
I have observed the manufacturers very careful
to preserve all the duft,dirt,and sand that appear
ed to be considerably impregnated with particles
of tobacco, to be sent to the British market, there
to be further compounded with glass, and other
llernutatives, and then fold for genuine pulveri
zed tobacco, or fnuff. This is probably the rea
son why the French manufacture of that article,
though not always pure and unadulterated, is
in much higher eftiniation in all countries except
America, where I am told there are tliofe who
still prefer the British fnuff.*
If the various modesof manufacturing tobacco,
suitable to all the different markets in Europe
were perfectly understood in America, and rigo
rously pursued in all its branches, vast numbers
of now idle people might soon be profitably em
ployed ; workmen in every branch may be easily
procured from Europe, with all the different ma
chines,or the models—the business would occupy
young and old in the various operations—it is
less injurious to health than almost any other ma
nufacture—it would open an extensive trade and
correspondence, and draw large returns from al
most every foreign country : ltistliemoft simple
of all arts, and therefore easily acquired at any
age, and is probably one of the inoft important
and lucrative objects, that at this particular pe
riod could poflibly occupy the attention of the
New England States.
In the town of Dunkirk, another free port in
French Flanders, large quantities of American
tobacco are also manufactured, I have frequently
seen Dutch ships loading there with the stalks and
other ligneous parts of that weed to be carried
to Holland, there to be manufactured into fnuff
for particular markets. —Sweet,' precious, won
der-working weed ! that haft the powerful charm
to crown the zest of rich luxurious feafts, and to
beguile the pangs of poverty ! Tobacco is also
supposed to poflefs great medicinal virtues, its
anti-septic qualities were particularly remarked
so early as the year i66j, when the plague raged
in London and carried off near seventy thousand
inhabitants : Various narrators of that melan
choly event have observed, that the tobacconists
in general escaped the contagion, and that the
remarkable preservation of the inhabitants in
their neighbourhood could be attributed to no o
ther cause but the virtues of tobacco. The
Spaniards and Dutch, particularly those of their
colonies finoke continually, believing it to be not
only in itfelf salutary, but the most effectual pre
servative against the fatal effects of the humid
vapours, and other noxious exhalations continu
ally rifingfrom the vast bodies of putrid stagnant
waters, as also against all other baneful effluvia
that commonly abouYid, and contaminate the air
in all low, flat, and hot countries. And it is a
well known fact that the Dutch in Surinam,
and the Spaniards in New-Orleans, are much
less subject to the endemial diseases of those sub
aqueous torrid countries, than the most tempe
rate of every other nation who reside there,
and make less use of that weed. I knew two
Spaniards in New-Orleans, who kept servants
constantly in waiting in the night, for the sole
purpose of lighting their fegars as often as they
waked, such was their faith in the virtues of to
bacco. Ido not recollect to have seen a Portu
gueze in Lisbon, male or female of any age make
* This ias been the cafe —but the citizens of the United States
have learnt better—the manufacture of fnuff is now carried on so
cxtenfively, and it is made of so excellent a quality, that all im
portation of that article has entirdjeeafed for a long time —in the
Stateof Majfachufctts,ConneSicut, Pcnnfylvania,&. N. York,fuch large
worksare ere& tofurnilh fufßcient quantities for home con
sumption, and a large furplusfor exportation. —The inuff mills
of Mr. Elliot in the neighborhood of Boston, are conftrufted tip
on a mod ingenious and extensive plan—they attract the attention
ot all foreigners who visit that part of the Union —and are con-
Itantly resorted to as a grrat curiosity by the ingenious from all
parts of the continent.—We promile ourselves the pleasure of
giving some particulars of this manufactory, in some future
[Publijh-'d on Wednesday and Saturday ,~\
use of fpe<!tacles, but have often with surprize
remarked in very old people the unfaded lustre
of their eyes, and have not been able to afiign a
more probable cause of their preservation, than
the universal cuilom of taking fnulF, which pre
vails in no finall degree ofexcefs among all ranks,
ages and sexes : It cannot fairly be imputed to
any particular quality in the air or climate, as
the many English who reside there, and who will
not conform to the custom of taking frTuff, par
ticularly the ladies because they think it un
cleanly, can boast no advantage in this particu
lar over the inhabitants of the island of Great
Britain. The French Snuff made of the tobacco
from the United States, is greatly prefered by
the Portugueze to the fnuff manufactured in their
own country of the Brazil tobacco, but it is pro
hibited, and therefore only to be obtained in
small quantities by special indulgence. There
is very little danger of the Portugueze being able
to rival us at any market in that article —their
tobacco for exportation is chiefly manufactured
in one particular way, principally for the African,
trade, the privilege is fanned, and therefore ex
tlufive ; they use a vast quantity of molafles in the
process, which is supposed to be a great preserva
tive in hot climates ; the common, and I believe
almost invariable price, is two thousand, eight
hundred and eighty reis for an arobe, which is
about fix pence sterling the pound.
A very extensive and lucrative trade with Por
tugal may beeftablifhed,when a permanent peace
with all the Barbary powers shall render the inter
course less dangerous. They are atprefent prin
cipally supplied by the English and Irish with
fifh, grain, pulse, pork, beef, butter, cheese/and
many other articles, which with due care and at
tention, might be furnifhcd as good and cheap,
and some of them better and cheaper from Ame
rica : It is found by an accurate investigation,
that seven thousand, seven hundred bushels of
wheat are con fumed daily in the city of Lisbon
only, exclusive of barley, indian corn, and
other grain, as also hard bread and pulse.
E. C.
PERHAPS no country, pretending to nnder
ftand so well the faience of government, and other
principles of political economy which tend to the
prosperity and welfare of a nation, that pracfti
fes so little upon them, as this.—lt is high time
that America Ihould quit herleadingfirings, and
feel the difference between her present situation
and what it was when subject to a foreign yoke.
It will not fufficethat in unmeaning words we as
sert the importance of our Independence; nor shall
we be able to realize its just effects, or meet with
that respect fromother nations which is paid to the
different sovereignties of the world, till weftrive
to conquer the inveterate habits and prejudices
imbibed by our mode of education—no longer
fuffering our commercial concerns to be regula
ted by the caprice of a foreign power, and made
alone subservient to her intcreft.—lt is time that
this country Ihould begin to trade on its own capi
tal, and not continue to be the slave or hireling
of an imperious matter.—lt will be said that we
are yet young and poor, wanting the aid of a
borrowed capital.—l venture to aflert that while
we go on to borrow it on the present disadvan
tageous terms we lhall be ever poor and helpless.
There is no doubt under certain circumstances
and conditions, that credit is of eflential service
in assisting the growth of a young country, and
the progress of infant manufactures—but credit
often holds out a specious benefit which is not in
the end realized ; therefore its nature & tendency
ought to be carefully examined, before we can
determine its benefit. Prior to the revolution,
and while we were a component part of the Bri
tifli empire, our interests were united and such
exclusive advantages given to the trade of this
country, that the credit then had from their mer
chants, was doubt!efs serviceable in promoting
our increase and strength*— It was then that we
could discharge the loan by the product of the
business in which the borrowed capital was em
ployed—Our Ihips, fifh, lumber and oil, the na
tural exports of the country formed our remit
tances, and the exchange was from 5 to 10 per
cent, in our favor ; but we are now totally exclu
ded from the advantage of such returns, and com
pelled to seek other markets for these articles,
paying repeated commissions on their negociation,
in order to avail ourselves of the solid coin which
seems to be almost the only property receivable
in payment for many luxuries, but ill suited to
the consumption of a young country continually
pleading its poverty, while the rate of exchange,
generally the best criterion by which to deter
mine the benefit of a trade, forms a deduction of