Gazette of the United-States. (New-York [N.Y.]) 1789-1793, July 29, 1789, Page 124, Image 4

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    The RIGHT CONSTITUTION of a COMMON
WEALTH EXAMINED.
[Continued J rom our
IT is pretended by some, that a sovereignty
in a Tingle ail'eivibly, annually eletfted, is theonly
one in which there is any responsibility for the
exercise of power. In the mixed government we
contend for, theminifters, atleaft for the execu
tive power, are responsible for every instance of
the exercise of it ; and if they difpo'fe of a single
commiifion by corruption, they are responsible to
a houfeof representatives, who may, by impeach
ment, make them responsible before a senate,
where they may be accused, tried, condemned,
and puriifhed, by independent judges. But in
a single sovereign aflembly, each member, at the
end of his year, is only responsible to his constitu
ents ; and the majority of members who have
been of one party, and carried all before them,
are to be responsible only to their condiments,
not to the conftituenrs of the minority who have
been overborne, injured, and plundered. And
who are these constituents to whom the majority
are accountable ? Those very persons, to gratify
whom they have prostituted the honours, rewards,
wealth, and jullice of the state. These, instead
of punifhirig will applaud ; instead of dif'carding,
will re-eledl, with still greater eclat,and a more
numerous majority ; for the losing cause will be
deferred by numbers : and this will be done in
hopes of having Itill more injuflice done, Itill
more honours and profits divided among theni
felves, to the exclusion and mortification of the
minority. It is then astonishing that such a fun
pie government should be preferred to a mixed
one, by any raijnal creature, on the score of re
sponsibility. There is, in short, no pollible way
of defending the minority, in such a government,
from the tyranny of the majority, but by giving
the former a negative on the latter, the molt ab"
surd institution that ever took place among men.
As the major may bear all polfible relations of
proportion to the minor part, it may be fifty-one
agairift forty-nine in an allembly of an hundred,
or it may be ninety-nine against one only : it be
comes therefore neceflary to give the negative to
the minority, in all cases, though it be ever so
small. Every member must poflefs it, or he can
never be secure that himfelf and his constituents
ihall not be facrificcd by all the reft. This is the
true ground and original of the liberum veto in
Poland ; but the consequence has been ruin to
that noble but ill-constituted republic. One fool,
or one knave, one member of the diet, which is
a single sovereign aflembly, bribed by an intrigu
ing ambaflador of some foreign power, has pre
vented ineafures the most eflential to the defence,
fafety, and existence of the nation. Hence hu
miliations and partitions ! This also is the rea
son on which is founded the law of the United
Netherlands, that all the seven provinces must be
unanimous in the aflembly of the States General ;
and all the cities and other voting bodies in the
aflemblies of the separate states. Having 110 fuf
ficient checks in their uncouth constitution, nor
any mediating power poflefled of the whole exe
cutive, they have been driven to demand unani
mity instead of a balance : and this must be d >ne
in every government of a single aflembly, or the
majority will instantly oppress the minority.
But what kind of government would that be in
the United States of America, or anyone of them,
that fliould require unanimity, or allow of the li
berum veto ? It is fufficieiit to ask the queltion,
for every man will answer it alike.
FINANCIAL MEMENTO^
From the FEDERAL GAZETTE.
I HAVE had my attention seriously engaged
by the publication of the Estimate of the Supplies
requisite for the United States in the year 1 7SO.
011 investigating this report of a committee, it
appears that the annual demands 011 the Union
for the civil lift expenditures,the instalments due
011 foreign loans, and the interest on the foreign
and domestic debt, amount to 3,207,096 21-90
Deduct instalments a'pd pre
mium on the loan 490,962 8} 90
2,716,133 24-90
which is the clear amount of the annual contri
butions for the support of government —for the
payment of the instalments is a liquidation of
so much of the capital of the foreign debt, which
by being exiinguifhed, will require a proportion
ally less sum to be raised in subsequent years for
interest;
As for the various arrearages,which the report
takes notice of, and which form the balance of
the sum total, they are not to be considered as an
annual demand, but will probably be consolidat
ed with the capital of the debt* and the interest
thereon be alone required.
So far from room for despondency in the minds
of the good people of these States, by such a re
presentation of their affairs, it exhibits the most
flattering and favorable -profpedts. The annual
requisitions will not amount to a dollar per head,
£ilimatingthe population .of the .Union at three
millions : A fir.all demand, in exchange for such
invaluable bleltings as peace, liberty and inde
pendence ; and which mult be lightly felt in a
ountry that can afford to pay three {hillings per
day lor a common laborer.
It is not probably a fourth of the contributions
that we Ihould have been compelled to turnilh
towards our proportion of the national debt ot
Great Britain, if we s .ad remained under the
domination of that haughty and exacting nation.
But letus enquire what is the relative iituation
of other countries, with reipeCt to quantum of
public contributions.
Great Britain under the operation of a govern
ment, that it mull be confelled pays pointed at
tention to her agricultural, commercial and ma.
nufaifturing pursuits, flourilhes, notwithllanding
an accumulation of public debt, that demands
an annual supply of lixteen millions sterling, to
fatisfy its interelt,and support her other expences.
But the people are so little opprelled by these
demands, that tkey are enabled, with ease, to
raifc by taxation a fufticient sum to constitute a
linking fund,which in the course of the lalt year
extingui/hed two millions of the capital of the
national debt.
Calculating on eight milions of inhabitants
in Great Britain, there will be apportioned to
each individual, as an annual contribution, forty
Ih'llings llerling, which is betwixt eight and
nine dollars per head.—What a flattering conli
deration for the citizens of the United States,
arises out of the comparative iituation of the
two countries !—But what renders the reflection
ltill more pleasing, is, that Great Britain may
be deemed Itationary, if not declining, in her
population, and consequent resources. But the
United States present an unbounded field for pro
grellive population ; and the encrcafe of inhabi
tants will ease the burthen of the debt, by addi
tional numbers participating in the support ofits
weight.
This augmentation does not only arise from
natural increase in a country firuated like Ameri
ca, where the means of fubliftence aie so easily
to be procured—but likewise from the rapid emi
gration that will neceilarily take place, from the
fupeiior encouragement that a government, so
well conllituted to favor civil and religious liber
ty, and protect the rights of property, will offer.
Such emigrations are usually, accompanied with
conliderable acquisitions of property, which add
to the general Itock of the community.
When the United States of America have ar
ranged their financial fj Item, and made ample
provision for their exilling claims, the progrellivc
increase of the taxes, arising from various cau
ses, joined to the sales of the western teritory,
will form a conliderable surplus, that may be
applied to the gradual and speedy extinction of
the capital of the public debt.
The beneficial cffetfts of the funding system,
when founded on proper principles, will be felt
through all clafles of the community—as it will
throw into circulation the capital of the domellic
debt, increase thereby the general ltock of the
country, and facilitate the various purposes of
alienation.
It a comparative view was formed of the pub
lic debts of France, Spain, or Holland, the Uni
ted States would find, that it would induce are
fult much more favorable than even that with
Great Britain.
This communication of Congress c.'.n therefore
give no cause of exultation to the enemies of the
government. Foreign nations inuft refpeifi the
resources of a country, abounding in such pow
erful means, and so unfettered by its present en
gagements. A FRIEND to the UNION.
ADDRESS 10 THE PRESIDENT.
RDENTON, (N. C.) lOLY9.
The following ADDRESS of the Gai'fTvorand Council of this State,
has lately been prrj /.trd to Ceneru! IVAShINQTQN, President of the
United States : Jo which he has been plc.ifed to return the Anjwcr
thereunto subjoined.
To his Excellency GEORGE WASHINGTON, Efquiie, Prefi
> dent of the United Stales.
S 1 R,
AJMIDST the congratulations which surround you from all
quarters, WE, lire Governor and Council of the Stat:: of North-
Carolina, beg 1 ave to offer ours, with equal fmcerity and ferven
cy with any which can be presented to you. Though this-St. te
be not yet a member of the Union under the new. form of govern
ment, we look forward with the pleasing hope-os its shortly be
coming inch ; and in the mean time confidtr ourselves bound ;n
■ common interefl end affection with the other States* waiting
on'y for the happy event of such a't rations b< ing proposed as
will remove the apprehenficns of many of' the.good c itizens of
th s State, tor those libei ties for which they have fought and fuf
fer din common with others. This happy event, we doubt not
will be accelerated by your Excellency's appointment to the firft
office in the Union, fm:e we are well allured the fame greatnek
of ir.jod* which 111 all scenes has so eminently charaftu riled your
Excellency, will induce you to advifeevery measure calculated to
compofepaity diviiionSj.and to abate anv animofit* that maybe ex
cited by a mereaiffeience in opinion. Your Excellency will con
derfhowever others may f.rget)how extremely difficult it is to unite
ail the people of a.great country in one common sentiment upon
lmolt any political much Jess upon a new form of govern
m\nt n \ ateriall y from one they have been accufl.omed to.
and will therefore rather be disposed to rejoice that so much has
been effected, than regret thai more could not all at once be ac
compli (bed. We ft nceniv.believe America is the only country 11
tie woi Id where luch a deliberate change of government could
P'ace under any circumilances whatever.
hope .your Exce'llcncy will pardon the liberty.we take in
wriiin® so particularly on this fubjefl ; tut this Srate, however it
tnav liitrer in any political opinions with the other States, cordial
ly jo ns wit.i them in sentiments of the utmoli gratitude and ve-
ration for those diftinjui-thrd ta!:r. ssrd thdt Hiuftrioui
winch we fee! a pride ia' faying we believe, under God, have be"'
'he principal mcaju of prticiving the liberty and pTocurinnh
independence of our country. We cannot help confide™?°o'
Sir,in some measure, as the father of it, and hope to experience'th'
good effetts of that confidence you fojnltlv have acquired, in an
abatement ol the party spirit whichjo much endangers a Uniono
which the fafety and happiness ol America ran alone befounded
May that Union, at a Ihnrt distance of lime,be asperfeftar.d more"
fafc than ever! And in the mean while, mav the State of NortH
Carolina be confidrred. as it truly rleferves to be, attached wit',
equal warmth any State in the Union,to the true interest, prof,
perity, and glory of America, differing onlv in some particulars
in opinion as to the nit ans of promoting them !
SAMUEL JOHNSON.
By order and on behalf of the Council,
Jamls Iredell, President.
By order, William JohnJton DawL
May to, 1789. Clerk Council.
To the CovEiisoi and Council of the State of North-Carolina.
Gentlemen,
IT was fcorcely possible for any address to have given me great
er plealure than that which.l have jufl received from you; because
I conlider it not only demonstrative of your approbation of m-'
conduct in acceptingthe fitft office inthe union,but altoindicative
of the good dilpotitions of the citizens of your State towards their
lifter Slates, and of the probability of their fpccdily acceding to
tne new general government.
In juftfiidtion of the opinion which you are pleased to express
of my readinefsto advifc every' rneafure calculated to compose
' party divilions, and to abate any animofitv that may be excited
' by mere difference of opinion,' I take the liberty of referring
y u to the fcntiments communicated by ine, to the two Houfesot
Congress. On this occalion, lam ltkewife happy in being able to
add the ftroogeft alfurances, that I entertain a well grounded ex
pectation that nothing will be wanting on the part of the different
branches ol the general government to render the union asperietf,
and more late than ever it has bfeo.
A difference of opinion ou points is not to be imputed
to freemen as a fault; lince it is to be prefumcd that they are all
afiuated by an equally laudable and sacred regard for the liberties
ol then country. II the mind is so formed in different perfonsas
to consider the lame object to be somewhat different in its nature
and consequences, as it happeni to be placed in different points oj
view, and if the oldelt, the ablcft, and the mod virtuous flatefmea
have olten differed in judgment as to the best forms of govern
ment*—we ought, indeed, rather to reioicethat so much has been
cff'lttd, than to icgret that more could not all at once bcac.om.
pliHicd.
Giatified by the favorable fentimerits which are evinced in your
addrefi to me, und impressed with an idea that the citizens of your
State are sincerely attached to the interest, the prosperity, and the
glory ol America, I molt carneitly implore the divine benedidioa
and guidance"in the councils which are Ihortlyto be taken by their
delegates on a fubjett of the most momentous consequence, I
mean the political relation which is to subsist herealter, between
the State of North-Carolina, and the States now in union under
tJic new general government.
C. WASHINGTON.
New-York, June 19, 1789.
A SEW METHOD Of MAKING POTASH.
PUT your ashes into your fatts about four
inches deep, then put in flack lime about two
inches deep, then put in your aihes as ui'ual—
when begining to boil, put in about the bignefe
of an hen's egg of hog's fat every day when boil
ing, into each kettle, and skim your kettles once
a day, which will take of all the fat ; and when
drying clown your falts,throw in a piece of allum,
one ounce, and take great notice about yourfalts
fettling-»-when they once fettle, it will not be but
a few minutes before there will be a fmallcrufton
the top,but it w ill follow boilingup immediately,
—as soon as the boiling is all over the kettles,
then stir it until it leaves of at frying, then dip
it off into your coolers. The melting down is
accomplilhed in 45 minutes, that used to take four
or five hours.
From a VIRGINIA PAPER.
(Puhlijltei so authority.)
THE public are advertifed,that the French pack
et-boats, which had been suspended by order of
government, are lately re-eltablifhed—and that
from the 1 sth of March, 1789, a packet-bcat will
fail from the port of Bourdeaux, the 15th March,
1 sth May, 15th July, 15th September, 15th No
vember, and 15th January, in every year, which
will take charge of the letters and packets intend
ed to be sent to the United States of America.—
Tliefe veflels will arrive alternately at New-York
and at Norfolk, where they will deposit the mails
they bring, and take those intended for 1 ranee,
which they will convey directly to Bourdeaux.
On their departure from France, there will be
made out two lifts, the one addrelled to the Di
rector of the French poll at New-York, compre
hending all the letters directed to the States 01
New-Hamplliire,Mafiachufetts-Bay.llhode-Ill3na,
Connecticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennfyb 3 '
nia, and Delaware; the other addreflcd to ue
Vice-Consul of France in Virginia, containing th e
letters for Maryland, Virginia, North, and Sou
Carolina, and Georgia.
The fupei intendance of the packet bo®' s
Norfolk, being confined t<s Mr. Ofter, Vice-Con
ful of his Most Christian Majesty, letters 0
France, Englan 1, Germany, Holland, &c. &c.. WI
be received at his office, 011 payment of p° a S
to Bourdeaux. t
Na B. All letters sent by land, which are not
franked, will remain in the Poft-Office.
6 0 N M O T.
SOME days ago a gentlemen ot the order of Epicur
dining at a Friend's tabic, and was displaying some ver)
diriary fears of eating ; by way of apology, however, or tr.
ithe Lady of the house to help him so frequently, 7 ° i] V [hink
[nor madam, I am sorry to trouble you so often, but I rea 7
'i have loft the bottom of my stomach" —The aufwer w
" Upon my. honor. Sir, 1 have not found it." —-
Published by JOHN FENNO, No. 9,
Lane, near the OJivcgo-i-larket } New-York-' 13 c ''