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A WRITER in the Maffachuletts Centinel of July 8, con
cludes a speculation upon TITLES in the following words :—
" The TITLE of our FIRST MAGISTRATE should be ex
" preflive of his llation and dignity,as rcprefenting the MAJESTY
t; OF THE PEOPLE, bearing their sword of justice to execute
" their laws : To treat in their names with the sovereign power
46 of other nations ; and in their name to compel other nations to
" fulfill their engagements, and to obfcrve the law of nations.—
" What words are so expreflive and suitable to this great Repre
" fentative of the PEOPLE'S MAJESTY, as, " HIS MAJESTY
V THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES ?"
DR. LETTSOM, of London, in an address to two fuccefsful
candidates for prize medals—thus analtzes a part.of a Dissertation,
with the motto, 14 Hac animal ille evocat Oreo u Our author,"
fays he, " has paid lingular attention to the powers ot electri
cal si re ; this active fluid, which pervades earth and air, is in
the former the tremendous agent of earthquakes ; and in the latter,
of thunder and lightnings equally terrible to man ; until Franklin,
from the new hemisphere, boldly scaled the Heavens, and
taught us to wield the artillery of the Ikies, and dire£l its fire to
aid and restore debilitated man, by its penetrating and nervous
" THE conquests of an Alexander—the flaughtejed mil
lions of a C.tsAß—the daring ralhnefs of a Char les—and the
v.iftorious career and barbarities of a Frederick of Prussia. These
are the tales of wonder, which glow in luch splendid colours be
neath the pencil of an admired recorder. But who are the authors ?
They are the wretches that have filled the world with carnage ;
have trampled on the liberties of mankind ; broke through the ties
of nature ; and facrificed at the fhrincs of Avarice and Ambition,
the happiness of nations. If characters such as these will adorn
the pages of h-.ftory, what pencil can do justice to the merits of
our beloved PRESIDENT. In defence of the rights of human
nature, he unsheathed the sword : During the utmost tumult of
war, the rights of the citizen never were infringed : In him dis
tress always found a friend ; and the tale of injury sustained, ne
ver was heard without being followed by redress : And to crown
the whole, he has discarded every idea of pecuniary emolument.
Blush ! Bluih ! Ye defpotsof the old world : For ye have yet
to learn what patriotism is, and what it is to acquire the name of
FATHER OF THE PEOPLE."
YE Fathers, ye generous prote£lortof American liberty, you
may form Constitutions and laws, that Ihall closely approximate
even perfe&ion itfelf; but unless you enable your people to fee
thebeauty, the worth of them,all will be in vain ! You may as well
41 cast pearl to swine." Would you preserve to yourselves and
your posterity the bleflings and happiness of your dear bought re
publican government, or indeed your government itfelf, you mud
encourage a general education among all ranks in society ! You
inuft prescribe, adopt and bring into operation, a system of edu
cation, by which the minds ot your people, in general, from ge
neration to generation, may be so far enlightened as to discover
and realize the true principles and excellence of civil liberty !
And I fee not why this may not be done. The Americans, as a
nation, are already thebeft inftru&ed people under the fun. There
are, perhaps, individuals in other countries, who have made
greater advances in arts and sciences; but I presume there is not
a nation on earth, where the people at large are so well informed.
Why may they not be raised one degree higher in point of educa
tion ? Were the people absolutely obliged to maintain regular
schools, and in such number that all the children might be taught,
would not the necessary knowledge foonbe diffufed throughout the
continent ? O ! why may we not flatter ourfelvesthat it was refeiv
ed for America to convince the world that a republican govern
ment may exist in its utmost purity to the final close of human
SKETCH OF PROCEEDINGS OF THE LEGI
SLATURE OF NEW-YORK.
MONDAY, JULY 6, 1789.
THIRTY-NINE Members appeared in the Assembly Cham
ber, which number being a quorum, they proceeded to the choice
of a Speaker, when
GL T LIAN VERPLANK, esq. was unanimously ele&ed.
A meflage was received from the Sena*,,informing that they had
made a quorum.
were then sent to the Governor and to the Senate, to
inform them that the house was reajfy to proceed to business.
Shortly after, the Senate havingcomeinto the assembly chamber,
for the purpose,' »*
His Excellency the GOVERNOR delivered the following SPEECH to
to both Houses.
Gentlemen of the Senate and Assembly,
I CONCEIVED it to be my duty to convene you at this early period,
that the Legijlatuie might again have an opportunity of chuftng Senators,
toreprefent this State in the Congress of the United States ; and I flatter
myfelfthat an occasion so importantand interefling will command an ap
probation of the measure. I amfenfible, however, thatfhoiJd your fefpon
be protracted at this season, it would be injurious as well as inconvenient
to many of the members. Imprejfed with this idea, and as nothing extra
crdinary hath taken place in the recess, IJhall not attempt to call xour at
tention to any other object: Our circumflances require unremited induflry
and theflriclcfl economy ; and I have confidence, that this consideration
alone will be a fifficient motive with you, to give as much dispatch to the
public business as may be confijlent withfifety.
Whiljt the diflrefses experienced by the failure of the lafl year's,crops,
particularly in the exterior settlements, and by the poorer dafs of people,
are contefntlrted with anxiety, the unmerited favours daily conferred up
on us by Almighty God, and especially the kind interposition of his divine
providence, in so ordering the seasons, as to afford a prifpett of rehej,
Jromthe approaching harvefl, cannot fail to inspire us with feniimbxts of
unfeigned gratitude and thankfuhiefs.
Albany, July 6, 1789.
This Spepch was referred to a committee of the whole house.
Col. James Livingston, in the chair.
The commitree having resolved that a refpe&ful address should
be made in answer to the Speech, rose and, reported accordingly.
The House accepted of the report, and appointed Mr. King.
Mr. Si l l, and Mr. Jones, a committee to prepare the draught ol
an address. Adjourned.
TUESDAY, JU L Y 7.
The committee appointed to prepare an answer to the Gover
nor's Speech, reported one, which being read, was referred to a
committee of the whole, and finally adopted by the House witl
A message was sens to the Governor, to enquire when it woul£
be agreeable to him to receive the address—who appointed 11
o'clock, to-morrow morning.
The House then proceeded to appoint a committeee of ways
and means ; A committee of grievances : A committee of privi
leges ?nd elections : A committee of courts of justice; and a com
mittee to examine and report what laws have expired, &c.
On motion, it was ordered, that a committee wait on the clergv
of the city of Albany, and reoueft of them to make such arrange
merits amnng thcmfelvts, as that one of them may attend to opco
the bulinefs of the house, each morning, with prayer.
On motion, it was Refilled, That theLicut. Governor be requeu
ed to wait on the house, at 12 o'clock, to adminlller to the mem
hers the oath required bv the ast ot the Congress of the United
States, entitled, " an jft prescribing the manner ol adminiltering
certain oaths." c ,
At 12 o'clock the Lieut. Governor attended, in pursuance ot the
foregoing resolution, and adminiitered the said oath to the leveral
members of the assembly.
The following resolution was agieed to.
" Resolved, (it the honorable the Senate concur herein] that a
joint committee be appointed to prepare an address ot the Legifla
tuteof this State, to The President of the United States ot A
merica* congratulating him upon his appointment to his present
dignified Ration, assuring him of the regard they have for his per
son, of the confidence they place in his wisdom, and of the firm
expectation which they entetiain that his administration of the na
tional government will be glorious to himfelf, and iiappy for his
WEDNESDAY, JULY 8.
The bill for appointing commissioners, with authority to declare
the Independence of Vermont, was read a second time,and com
At 11 o'clock, the House waited on His Excellency, when the
Speaker delivered the following ADDRESS.
To His Excellency GEORGE CLINTON, Efi. Governor of the Stat
of New-York, General and Commander in Chief of all the militia, and
Admiral of the Navy of thefume.
The refpeCtiul ADDRESS of the Assembly in answer to His
WE, the Representatives of the People of the State of New-York, in
fffembly convened, impressed with the high importance of a complete or
gdmzation of the government of the United States of America, do in the
ful/efl manner approve oj your Excellency's having convened the Le^ifix
ture at this period for tne purpose of appointing senators to reprefentthis
State in the Senate of the United States.
We are with your Excellency fenfble of the inconvenience of a fjjion
of the Legrflature at this particular season, and are therefore anxious to
pin fine our deliberations to those objects which shall appear absolutely ne
cejjury to the public happiness. x
At thefame time that zee lament the diflreffes to which many of our fel
low citizens in the exterior settlements of the State have been txpofed from
a scarcity offome of the necejfaries oj life, we unite with your Excellency
in rendering our fervent thanks to Almighty God, for thefreauent inter
positions of his providence in our favour, and more cfpeciallxfor the prof
pe3s which we enjoy of relief and plentyfrom the approaching harvif.
By order of the Assembly,
GULIAN VERPLANCK, Speaker.
Assembly-Chamber, July 7,1789.
To which His Excellency was pleased to make the following Reply.
PERMIT me to tender you my cordial thanks for this polite address.
The approbation which you have been pleased to express of my conduct,
in convening the Legijlature on the present occasion, affords me much plea-
Jn r e; and lam persuaded that your punctual attrndarne on the public bu
fides, particularly at this season, cannot Jail of being highly acceptable to
yourconjlituents. GEORGE CLINTON.
Albany, July 8, 1789.
A bill was moved for, and brought in, dire&ing the manner of
appointing Senators of the United States, tobechofen in this State,
which was read a firft time, and ordered a second reading.
A raeffage was received from the Senate, iqforming, that they
had agreed to the resolution for prcfentine; an Address to the Pre
sident of the United States. Adjourned.
SKE TCH of PROCEEDINGS of CONGRESS.
In the HOUSE of REPRESEN 1 A JIVES of the
UNI TED STA'I ES.
SATURDAY, JULY 11, I 789.
THIS day the House, according to order, re
ceived the report of the committee of the whole
on the bill for colle&ing the Imj-oft; whichbe
ing read, and the several amendments to the lame
agreed to,it was ordered to be engrofled for a third
reading on Monday. >
Monday, July 13.
The reading of the engrofled bill for regula
ting the collection of the iinpoft was postponed
Upon motion it was voted, that the report of
the committee upon the memorial of Andrew
Ellico tt, Surveyor, should be taken into confi.
deration The report was accordingly read—it
jtated, that the survey ordered by Congress of the
lands ceded to the United States in 1 786 ouo-ht
to be compleated forthwith, and that the survey
or be reimbursed the expences he had already in
curred in the prosecution of the business.
Mr Sedgwick observed, that this business in
volved certain p ,rchafe S , in which some citizens
of Maflacbufelts were interested— that he was not
pofiCTled of such a state of farts as he could wifli
he therefore proposed that any decision upon the
lubjedl fliould be delayed.
Mr. Scott, said, I do not think, Sir, that the
reason offered by the gentleman is fufficient to
induce a postponement It is not intended that
the House fliould at present determine upon any
deputed claims—the completion of the fiirvev
will not affecl those claims in the least.
Mr. Sedgwick, said that he onlv wished that
the report fliould lie on the table till to-morrow
Upon the vote's being taken on the poftpone
merit, it pafled in tlie affirmative.
r , Th f then 011 motion of Mr. Scott, re
solved itfelfinto a committee of the whole upon
the ft!,! f !i e U T n ~ t0 ta . ke into confutation
the itate of the weftcm territory.
Mr. Boudinot in the chair.
The report of the committee appointed on a
former discussion of this subject, was then read,
and is as follows—
Resolved, that it is the opinion of this commit
tee that an a& of Congress fliould pass for efla
bliflung a Land-Office, to regulate the terms of
una PP ro p.iated land, i„ , he
Mr. Scott—Sir, I apprehend the fubjeift before
as is very interesting lo the United States.—This
appears from a variety of considerations.— It ap
pears from a view of the extent of the territory
I think I/hall be within the mark, to fay, thar it is
one thouland miles, by five hundred This will
in a few years be peopled by fix millions of loul s
and chieHy farmers—double tlie number of the
present inhabitants of the Atlantic States 'l] lc
climate, the foil, the waters, arc fuclias will com
mand inhabitants —the temperature of the cli
mate is happily calculated to suit the people of all
parts of the Union—they will find it healthy ami
l'he extensive trade with the Indians f or
peltry, furs, &c. renders it valuable To my
knowledge, great exports are brought from that
country. • Its importance further appears from
the great advantages already derived to the Uni
ted States, from the sales which have been made
of those lands; although but a trifling partitas
been disposed of.—The sales already amount to
near five millions of dollars; almost one fifth of
tliedomeftic debt of the Union is hereby extin
guiihed : Have the whole exertions of the Uni
ted States done so much ? No, Sir.—This renders
that property an objecft of iinmenfe future can
We have also made great donations of those
lands to the officers and soldiers of the late army—
but the part fold bears no proportion to what re
mains.—The national honor is deeply engaged
to these officers and soldiers, in point of govern
ment and protection—lt cannot be supposed that
they are to be considered as the outcalis of soci
ety : We are bound to afford them our protection;
and all the rights and immunities of citizens en
joying the blelfings of good government.—But
these are not the only obligations that Congrels
is under.—We have formed treaties with thena
ti ves to secure them in the pofieflon of those lands,
which they have not fold or ceded to the United
States : A due observance of'treaties with the Indi
ans must be sacredly adhered to: It will not be for
the interest of the States to have that countryfettled
by an unprincipled banditti : It is of the lafl im
portance to enforce those treaties, which can qn
ly be done by establishing good government
Justice, honor and good faith, call loudly upon
us notto disappoint the just expectations of those
who have confided in us.—The truth and propri
ety of these observations will not be disallowed:
But the point of policy as connected with the
question relpetfling the encouraging emigra
tions to that country, will not perhaps befo
readily granted.—lt has been said, that except the
fettling of that country js effcouraged, we (hall
depopulate the Atlantic States.
Sir, I am not in favor of depopulating the old
settlements—and would not urge this business,
did I suppose it would produce this effect.—The
emigrations to that country will proceed, inde
pendent of all regulations. I mentioned upon a
former occasion the encouragement held out by
the neighbouring government —Since then, I
have received such further accounts as fully con
firm what was then advanced.—He then read a
proclamation from a Spanish Governor, dated at
the Illinois, in which every inducement of lands,
law, exemption from taxes, protection, civil and
religious liberty, were held out, to induce settlers
to pass into, and fettle in the Spanish territories-
And observed, that this will have all the effect
that encouragement from'this quater would have.
It may be laid, that Americans will not pat
tlieinfelves under the Spanifn government; but
to this it may be replied, that when people are
determined upon emigrating, provided they can
befecured, and quieted in their pofleffions, the)
care little about the form of the*goveriunentun
der which they are to live.
The old established settlers in the Atlantic States
will never emigrate ; it is a different defcripntw
of people that fettle new lands—Your rough boii
terous people, of which thousands are already
in that country. Such persons cannot be confii ie ">
they never can be prevented from emigrating.—
There are particular clafles of persons who com
pose the great body of emigrants. —Can Congr' !
make a law that shall point at individuals ? Wi
Congress pass a law to prevent the unfortunate
from feekingan asylum ? This would not be act
ing like nursing fathers. It remains for Congrf
to make the most of their settlements —the peo
ple are already there by thousands. Emp
has been continually pointing its course weftwar ■
Emigrations have been uniformly extending 1
that direction from the Garden of Eden to t
present day. .
We are told that these people will be loft tO V
United States.—Arguments are brought roin
limited boundaries of European g over . limell
prove that extending the dominions of r^e , 11
ted States will tend to weaken and deftrov tn^!
These observations are further extended to
Roman empire, which it is said, fell hv its
weight—by its extensive colonization, & c \~~
in my opinion, a very different reason may e
signed for this event—it was dividing the
and changing the feat of government, to ? p.
we must ascribe its downfall. These circum
do not apply to the United States. The tep, .
tion of the United States from Great B llt: j| erß
brought as an argument to prove that the wc
territory owing to the distance, if from no 0..