Gazette of the United-States. (New-York [N.Y.]) 1789-1793, July 04, 1789, Image 1

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[No. XXIV.]
■Xoadufion of the Letter began in the last number.J
t , Jfter the middle age of life, it is not probable a
man will find happiuefs in such oeyMs, as have be
'fore been unpleajantto him."
„ T DO not blame my situation, but my temper
I r or the difcontentinent I feel. My re#et
• all terminate in felf-difapprobation. I fuf-
Sded every enjoyment in my younger days
P"' I nl ight amass a fortune, with which I could
iicrience the delights of leisure and indulgence
"ft interruption. But lam now fatisfied that
Z only way H> be ha PPy in old a ? e is to , culti :
' e habits of innocent amusement m youth, and
roiafte enjoyment as we go along. By this means,
° need not in the latter part of lite counteract
the customs that have become familiar to us in
the former. . .
« My misfortune consists in having, m my ear
ly veals of mankind, rejee'led and despised the
nailing pleasures of the clay, that I might be more
completely prepared for an undilturbed indul
gence in future gratification. Sadly however am
1 deceived ! I can form no relish for fucli new ob
jects as my new situation presents.
« Leifureis dreadful; because I have hitherto
been intensely busy. Reading does not destroy
inch tedioufnefs ; because I have not formerly
been delighted with books. Conversation is un
interelling; becanfe I used to (hun it, in order to
follow my business. Rural occupations and scenes
captivate me not; because I did not fuffer my fell
to be pleased with them, when I was young.
" If I visit myneighbours and find how content
ed the v are, a tl how they envy my easy circum
stances, lam out of all patience with myfelf. It
is now the chief object of my care to impress on
the minds of my children the neceflity of habitu
ating themselves to love conversation ; to love in
nocent pall-time and amusement; to cherish an
inclination for books ; and indeed to raifean at
tachment to many other habits that are always
within the reach of every one, and which are in
offenlive ifnotinunediately ufeful. By this prac
tice of genuine philosophy, they become gradual
lyand fafely familiarized to enjoyments, ofwhich
they mean to participate more liberally,when ad
vance of fortune will permit, and an advance of
years will authorise.
" Fhofe who pass away life as they ought will
fuidall parts of it more equally pleasant than is
commonly imagined. The dilgulls and loss of
plealure attending old age are principally occa
lioned by improper habits and falfe hopes,that are
formed in our youthful days. Men begin a ca
reer of life which, they will tell you, is unplea
fantor perhaps vicious, resolving to lay aside their
vices or improve their pleasures at some future
time, when it is more convenient. Here lies the
mistake ; they are lb controuled by cuftoin that
they niuft end their days, as they began tliem ;
andconfequently they will not probably be hap
py and virtuous when they are old, if they were
not so, when they were young. Whenever we
fee an old man miserable, we must not of course
conclude that age is the cause of it, but mult at
tribute it to the prevalence of palt errors.
" I have never habituated myfelf to take latis
faCtion iu any thing but pursuits of business.
My activity in fomemeafurc fails me, and toil and
anxiety are .becoming insupportable ; but Hill I
can find no fabllitute that is not more dilagreea
ble. None ofthe habits of my youth are suitable
to carry with me into old age. The last periods
of my life will therefore yield me little consola
tion. Lvery man should accustom himfelftoen
joy the innocent pleasures that fall in his v ay, as
they present themselves, even if it a little inter
feres with acquisitions of property. I am far
from atlvifing aperfon to a course of extravagance
or dillipation, or to an indolent, vicious life ; but
there are many gratifications not incompatible
with virtue, and not materially detrimental to
interest. Men destined to hard labour have not
much occafioil for this precaution, as any change
ofcircuinftances with thein will be for the better,
lam speaking of those who are extensively enga
ged in profitable operations ; and who constantly
iubject themselves to felf denial, with a view, as
they fay, of enjo yinglife hereafter in greater per
fcftion. But let me tell them from experience
that no incident can afford tliem pleasure, that
counteracts their pall habits ; and that the true
? rt °f happinei's conlilts in innocently snatching
u, as we go along, from whatever offers. Those
who gain fatisfaction from anticipating happy
avs are in a fair way to disappointment. No
are happy toamind difqualified by old ha
ws fj 01n tailing such gratifications, as theprefent
period or present circumflances can afford."
m 1 le lc ader will determine forhimfelf whether
J a c ?" e rP°^ en t or my preacher has taken the
"eft fide ofthe question.
SATURDAY, July 4, 1789.
IF the unit dollar was made worth exactly 100
difmes of the value of" the English. half-pence,
it would be then sod. sterling—and sterling stand
ard is, according to Sir Isaac Newton (mailer of
the mint, in 1716) the standard of England,
France, Holland and Spain ; which I therefore
call the commercial standard, or the standard of
the commercial countries, which ought to be ob
served by us who are to trade chiefly with them.
Our Congress dollar has more of alloy than the
commercial standard, the gold has the fame al
loy : Yet one dollar has so little of alloy more
than sterling, that it is of less consequence than
the former deviation in the cent weighing but
IS7 I_ 2gr. of copper, when the English halfpence
is 166 gr. of copper. If one cent was 166 grains,
it would be equal to the English halfpence ; and
then 100 cents or halfpence making a dollar,
would give it the sterling value of sod. (or 10c
cents or half pence.) The division into tenths ol
account and coin, is wonderfully convenient. How
easy to multiply and divide 16849 cents by dots
alone—a dot rednces it to difmes and cents—ano
ther dot to dollars, &c. thus : 16. 8. 4., 9 are
eagles, dollars, &sc.
The coin of the United States reduced into ster
ling, (which is the standard finenefs of the great
commercial nations, France, Britain and Holland,
with whom wemuft traffic) would stand thus :
s. d. Sterling.
Mills. o 1-20
io Cent. o o 1-2
100 10 Di. 1 o 5
1000 100 »o | Dol. | 4 2
10000 | 1000 100 I to j Eag. 41 8
Monies of account are dollars, difmes, cents ;
and are wrote
Dol. di. cent.
463 9 8
689 6 4
"53 6 « , . .
But money of account may be kept 111 only
one column, that is in cents or mills ; which are
instantly thrown into other denominations by the
simple application of dots, thus—You receive 3
Eagles, 9 dollars, 7 cents—Enter those figures
in your book without any dot, when they will be
read 3907 cents, the cypher filling the place of
difmes ; or read it 3 eagles, 9 dollars, 7 cents ;
or 39 dollars, 7 cents.
Mills, cents and difmes in columns never have
more than one figure in the line ; for, asoftenas
they amount to 10, the tens are carried forward
and the unites are placed in the column. The
above table is of a dollar of the value of 5 od. al
though we arc to have dollars coined that are
fractional respeCting both English and trench
monies : J2d. 64-iooths do not answer exacftly to
livres, and less to sterling pence or shillings.
The Congress division of monies being in an
exacfl decimal method, admits of multiplication
and division by only placing dots or taking them
away. It is the quickest, most certain and easy
way of reduction, both for the learned and un
learned. Those who can read figures, may avail
themselves of the simple application of dots for
throwing Congress money from mills or cents
into dollars, difmes and cents, or into eagles, dol
lars, difmes, cents, and mills, thus—l46B9 cents
are changed into the liiger by
dots : A dot on the left of the unit's place gives
difmes and cents, 1468.9 ; another dot on the left
of the ten's place, gives dollars, difmes and cents
140.8.9. If eagles are 10 be paid, another dot on
the left of tin. hundred's place, give eagles, dol
lars, difmes and cents — Tliefeare again
thrown into money of account by writing or
reading the figures without the dot for eagles,
146.8.9 ; or if your accounts are kept in only one
column, of ccnts, omit all the dots, 14689.
Interelt and commiHion how easily reckoned !
5 per cent. 011 the above sum of 146.8.9 or
14689, amounts to 7dol. 3di. 4cent. 45-100.
734<45. ~, . , . ,
The convenience would be great 111 having the
unit dollar at the value of scd. exactly : a cent
would then be a halfpenny fterling—lf the dol
lar be worth more or less than jod. equal to ico
cents, it will, without neceflity, fractions,
that will be inconvenient in exchanging. The
present declared dollar is worth 52d. 64100 of a
penny sterling. The value of gold and silver
coins is only to tlx; amount ot the fine metal.
Alloy is used onfy for the purpose of hardening
them, and is of y ety minute value when separa
ted ; it otherwise is a disgrace to those preci
ous metals. The Congress dollar contains 375
64-100 grains of fine silver, and 34 15-100 ol
copper. The orly standard Spanish dollar dilcov
ered by Sir Ifafcc Newton, is the old pillar piecc
of eight, wh" _h contains of fine silver 38? 72-100,
and of alloy 27J-100 grains, worth exactly
rPublifhed on Wediiefday a/id Saturday.]
I 53d. 87-100, but palled currently for J4d. —A
dollar of 358 i-xo and 29 35-1000 al
i loy, would be of the fame standard finenefs, and
worth jod. exatftly, and divides into tens, in c
ven numbers, without deviating from well known
monies of the foreigners, great iii commerce,
with whom we mult have Commerce even againlt
prejudices.—The dollar of J2d. 64-100 agrees,
nearly, with the livre ; 5 of them making such a
dollar within 1 4-100 of & penny, wheli the livre
is at iod. 1-2 sterling : And the dollar of jod. a
grees exaCtly with pence sterling ; which again ex
aft/yzgrees with cents : For, jod.being a dollar, 100
cents are jod. the one attends money that is per
manent, never varying—the other regards mo
ney that is less fixed. Monies that are the lcaft
fixed, are the molt suitable to gamesters and Iharp
ers ; such too are coins of inferior finenefs to the
standard of the great commercial nations ; be
it ever so (mail, it (lamps a stigma on it; clipc
coins are also the best creatures of those (harpers.
The debts and contracts among some
of people of the United States at present, gene
rally (land stated in sterling money, or in the cur
rent monies of the relpedtive States, under the
old denomination of pounds, (hillings, and pence :
Some however are in dollais—that is Spanilh.
pieces" of tight of the value of J4d. sterling.
Many millions of accounts of those debts are,
henceforward, to be reduced from those
minationsto Congrels dollars, difmes and cents fai
as to preserve the value of the debts. How is this
last to be done ? Will it be as readily perform
ed as if the Congress dollars were of the exact
value of jod. and the cent of the exa»il value of
a halfpenny sterling ?
Our citizens well know what pence sterling are,
that J4 of them are equal to a Spanilh piece of
eight, and 108 halfpence are also of that value;
and the people of every State know the par of
exchange between the dollar in sterling and in
the currency of the State—that the dollar of J4d.
sterling is, in the middle States, equal to'9od.
currency, See.—So that if the Congress dollar was
exa&ly worth jod. sterling, its cents Would be
equal to halfpence ; and all sterling debts thrown
into halfpence, are at once turned into Congress
money. An instance : A is to pay a debt, of
£.J4 6 8 sterling, in Congress money. Thac
sum contains 13040 pence, or 26080 halfpence,
that is cents ; which by dots are thrown into
260.d0. B.di. o.c.—lf a debt is in Currency.
£.90 II 1, of the United States, 7/6 the Spanilh
dollar, then by firft reducing into halfpence, and
fubftradting 2-Jths, you have 26080 cent ; /. e.
260.d01. 18.di. oc. equal to £.90 11 1 currency.
There maybeclearer and more concise methods ;
but, this is noted off hand.
It is not surprizing that objections fliould be
made by simple people, to the change of terms
from'£. 1. d. to Dol.difwes,cents —But,a(liiredly,the
divisions into tens (with those new terms) will
presently become familiar, and are the rnoft ex
cellent above those of all other nations, for rea
dy and corrccft reckoning, to the unlearned as
well as the learned. It is the molt natural and
harmonious division ever discovered. Some object
to the columns of account requisite for
separating Dol. dif. cents ; that inconvenience
will flow from the us« of three columns, they at
present using only two, for dollars and ninetieths ;
but,three columns they have been used to in £. d. s.
However, the Congress money admits of those
people, and all others, pleafuig themselves by a
choice of columns from 4 or J down to one : Of
which here follow specimens :
Eag. dol. dif. cent. mil.
12 1 o 8 7
ao 4 3 1 4 I
Dol. dif. cent. mil. Dol. dif. cent.
64 8 5 8 64 8 5
8369 836
,087 108
74 3 » 4 74 2 9
cents. mil s. cents.
6485 8 6485
836 9 836
108 7 108
! 743 1 1 4 7429
How plain and simple this last.—Dots will di
vide the sum as you please.
The eagle containing 10 dollars of jod. (fee
table) is worth 2 guineas, French or Englilh, and
rather more. The Englilh guinea, current at 21s.
iterl. is only worth 20s. Bd. or iod. according to
Sir Isaac Newton, who by the bye, aliens, that
the finenefs of French, Englilh and Dutch money,
is so nearly alike, that heconfiders it the fame in
them all, in standard goodness. Therefore fterl.
is a standard of the monies of the great commer
cial nations, and ought to be equalled, mo!t cx
attly, by the monies of the states.' B/