Gazette of the United-States. (New-York [N.Y.]) 1789-1793, June 06, 1789, Image 1

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    No. XVI.
the TABLE T. No. XVI.
• Customs are not always so-wrong as they appear to be.'
IN walking the streets the other day, I over
heard two gentlemen conversing ; one of
whom warmly reprobated the practice of pre-en
gasino votes for an election. The unreserved
in which he exprefled himfelf, indicated
peculiar degree of franknefs and honesty. 1
*as on the firll impreflion,involuntarily led into
a coincidence of sentiment ; but upon more ma
ture reflection, I am induced to take a different
fide of the question.
This is one of thole political points, that can
o nly be determined by a consideration of the cir
cnmftances, that attend each particular cafe. In
a community made up of numerous small corpor
ations, where the settlements are frequent, and
the inllitutions offociety so formed, that the peo
ple, as a matter of course, acquire a knowledge
of characters, no benefit results from electioneer
ing. Connecticut is a community that falls with
in'this description. If a candidate for an office,
in that State, comes forward with his pretentions,
it will have, either a bad effect, or none at all.—
Should it so happen, that his reputation is pre
viously eftabli/hed, he has no occalion for any ex
ertions in his own behalf. But Ihould his charac
ter, from any cause, not be generally known, his
solicitude may so operate, as to do an injury to
himfelf, or the public. If he is a man of real,
though unknown merit, he may render it suspi
cious, by an attempt to proclaim it to a people, who
have been accuitomed to seek their own objects
ofpraife and preferment. If he is an undelet
ing man, it is potfible he may, by foine seducing
arts, catch the popular humour, and carry his
point, to the eKclufionof one who is meritorious.
As a general rule in Connecticut, it will be bet
ter for the candidate himfelf, and fafer for the
people, that he Ihould make no bustle about his
election. It may happen, however, that some
extraordinary cases will authorise a departure
from this principle.
In a community differently circumstanced, the
reverie may be proper and beneficial. Where the
difttifts are latge, the inhabitants thinly scatter
ed, and compoled of various descriptions of peo
ple ■, and where the interior regulations are not
calculated to render it for the inclination or con-
Tenience of men to have a general knowledge of
cach other, I believe the public interell is promo
ted by a pvetty active spirit of electioneering.—
The confufion and animosities that prevail on
these occasions, may be disagreeable and hurtful;
but they must be considered as an evil neceflarily
resulting from the nature of the fituarion.
When a candidate offers himfelf for an office, he
puts himfelf up as a public mark ; and, as it were,
calls upon mankind to invefligate his character.
His enemies will cxpofe his demerits, and though
there may be great Intrigue and deception on both
lides, yet upon the whole, if his reputation is no
toriously bad, he will not probably succeed in liis
election. There is no other method, under such
circumltances, for the people to ascertain charac
ters. It is a poor method, but it is better than
none. It is bad doing with it, but no doing with
out it.
Probably men would be worse than they are,
if they were not restrained from vicious or impru
dent conduct, by a fear that their foibles or their
vices would be expoled, When they are placed in
a conspicuous. ftarion. I rccolleCt an anecdote,
whioh may fcrve as a striking instance of the cau
tion, which a prudent man observes, in offering
hiiufeli to the people a candidate of their choice.
A gentleman in a neighboring state was solicited
by his friends to propose himfelf as areprefenta
tive for a certain diftriift. His vanity was flatter
ed witlrthe idea that was suggested to hint. He
hid no other oljeCtion.he faid,againft the attempt,
than that it would bring his character to a molt
critical telt. Though he was hot conftious of any
C'tcumftance in his life that deserved censure, or
that would excite ridicule ; yet it was possible,
ome incident had escaped hiin, which some other
Person might recolleift and urge to his diladvan
•age, "On such an occasion," said he, " the
•neniory of one's enemy is remarkably quick and
nearive ; and behdes, any l?;tle inadvertency,
t was uv ei looked when it happened,may now
e remembered and exaggerated in such ltrong
jOiours, as will give it the complexion of a very
ameable atflion. There is, upon the whole, a
que in defying the World to fcrutlnize .00 exact
) t e diverfified scenes of my life." Such l'ug
fj, 10 , ns . not restrain his friends from repeat
thp 1 'V Rations ; and at length he allured
We^ n,t j tw odays he would give his final anf
v p V he lnea, i time, he had a trying inter
fo hold with his wife. It occurred to him
event, that hrmiglit be pointed at as
From WEDNESDA Y, June 3, to S A T U R D A Y, JunT 6, 1789.
a cuckold. He never entertained the lealt fufpi
cioii offuch a thing ; and was perfectly happy in
Ins conjugal connection. If his wife had ever
made a miitake of that nature, he was ignorant of
it, and it gave him no uneafhiefs ; but lhould lie
uiFer himfelf a candidate for an office, the inmost
secrets ofhis family would be discovered. There
are certain moments, when the mind of a man is
so susceptible, that the possibili ty of an evil afl'uines
the appearance of reality. He could not commu
nicate the affair to his wife, without a perturba
tion of spirits, that indicated real jealousy. .But
his feelings were too critical to be suppressed, and
he liefitatingly described his cafe. After suitable
explanations the matter was amicably fettled :
His wife overlooked the enquiry ; and he fa
tisfied of her fidelity. No difficulty now flood in
his waj. He came out boldly with his preten-
but within three days afterwards, he was
mortified to fee in the new'fpapers, a very severe
attack upon the character of his ancestors. His
grandfather had, by some unjuftifiable a<ft, render
ed hinifelt odious to his neighbors ; and though
the circumstance was generally forgot, yet On this
occasion, the whole tranfaOtion was revived ; and
our candidate, instead of carrying his ele(flion,
had a mean epithet or nick-name fixed upon hiin,
which to this day he wears with lively mortifica
tion.
EXTRACT FROM " AMERICAS' ESSAYS."
On C O M M E R C E. [Continuation.]
THE Dutch were so early prepofleffed in favor
of Commerce, and distant colonies, that even at
that critical period, when they were confideredas
dependent provinces, and were involved in a long,
expensive, bloody war, in order to lhake off the
Spanish yoke, they never loft light of those im
portant objects, by which, and a due attention to
the importance of a NAVY, they were enabled,
not only to support the expences of that war, but
even greatly to enrich themselves ; and at the
fame time, tofurniih Henry the IVth. with men
and money, to co-operate with them against the
com.non enemy, the King of Spain, who was at
that period l'orich, and powerful, from Commerce,
and his colonies, that he only wanted less bigotry,
with common prudence, to have enabled him to
give laws to all Europe.
Although nature has been extremely parfuno
nious of her favors to Holland, not only with ref
pedt to her coast, which is very dangerous, and
her harbours few, and barred, (but the country
itfelf seems of right to belong more to the ocean
than to terra firma, and is only preserved from in
undation by dint of constant Itruggle, labor, and
immenfeexpenfe) yet it now abounds in produc
tions and resources of every kind,the natural fruits
of indultry, extensive Commerce, and flourifhing
colonies.
The Dutch merchants, individually considered,
are universally acknowledged to be the richest in
the world, and Amjlerdam may, at this day, be
considered the second grand mart in Europe ; and
the great Store Hoitfe of the commercial world ;
and it is computed, that the city of Amsterdam
alone, pays more than one third part of all the
taxes of the United Provinces. Yet in all emer
gencies and exigencies of the States, the Dutch
have ever kept in view the importance of Com
merce, and necessity of observing great modera
tion in laying duties or imposts 011 rrade ; having
always considered it their primary and molt cer
tain dependence ; and the event has fully proved
the measure to be wife and politic.
Manufactures, of almoit every kind, are now
carried on to great advantage in Holland ; and
at the fame time, Amsterdam can furnifh the ma
nufactures of all Europe, nearly as cheap as the
countries fchere they are made.
This ideais worthy the contemplation of the ci
tizens of the United States of America. We have
very rich neighbors, who begin to open their eyes
to tneir own particular interelt : We cannot have
better customers ; and nothing is more natural,
or probable, than a very extensive and advan
tageous commercial intercourse, when it shall be
known that we are poffefled of the means to sup
port and encourage it.
Insurances are now publicly made in London,
on veflels and cargoes from that port bound to the
coast of Brazil to be fold to the Portugueze, the
underwriters take all risks, at 10 pr. cent. The
neceflity of a drawback, 011 the exportation of all
goods, which pay a duty on importation, is there
fore too evident to be controverted,without which
it would be fruitlefs to attempt a foreign com
merce, on which the prosperity of Ameiica prin
cipally depends : Should heavy duties on impor
tations into the United States be early attempted,
it is greatly to be feared, that it will encourage at
tempts at Smuggling, which would be greatly fa-
cilitated by our innumerable faf e ports and inlets;
because Commerce, in its prefcnt infant state, can
not be fufficiently productive to support the num
ber ol officers, that would be necellary effeiflual
'y to guard all thole ports ; and at the fame time,
anlwer the more eflential purpofesof revenue: If
therefore only moderate duties are imposed, they
will of courle be more cheerfully paid—will dil°-
coujage all illicit attempts, and be certainly pro
ductive of much greater revenue: Smuggling Js
known and pradtii'ed more or less in all countries :
I here are many who atfedl to think it no crime to
rob the revenue ; and it is well known, that njany
captains of vellels have not scrupled to swear to
the truth of falfe manilefts and invoices; and
have often not been aihamed to avow the perjury,
pretending to believe a cuftom-lioufe oath less sa
cred than any other ; and thereby iinpioufly deny
ing the übiquity ofthe Deity ; but however infa
mous the name of an hifcrt/ter may have founded
in the ears ol the people of America before the re
volution, and however venial the offence may have
then appeared to cheat a king, the cafe is now wide
ly different : In robbing the revenue at this day,
we cheat ourselves ; an Informer is therefore our
friend; a Smuggler is incontrovertibly a pub
lic injury, and therefore deserves the moll igno
minious punilhment ; the fair trader is a public
benefit, and therefor deserves the greatest en
couragement and support ; and as a contraband
trade, with every other species of fraud by which
the revenue is robbed of its duds, directly tends to
the ruin of the fair trader, as well as to the injury
ofthe state, surely no honell man can hefnate
which fide to take, or doubt whether he shall sup
port a friend, or an enemy : None but an enemy
to the country will attempt to injure it ; none
but an enemy will encourage, or even conceal the
attempt.
No natron upon the globe is poflefled of so many
natural advantages for the great purpofesof Com
merce, and Colonization, as the United States of
America : Her coast, and alnioft innumerable har
bors, from her molt northern boundaries to the
river St. Mary, which divides Georgia from the
Spanish territories, are throughout their vail ex
tent, the fa left, most navigable, and most commo
dious in the world. There is no part of the globe
where ships may with equal fafety navigate, where
the risk is so equal in all feafousof the year, not
withstanding the fcverity of the winters on the
northern coast, or where navigation fultains so
few injuries : Nothing more is wanting to ensure
ourprofperity, but to find markets to take off our
almost incxliaultable, and still encreafing fuper
fluities : These markets would probably be most
elfcd.ually secured by planting diflant colonies,where
we could establish a certain exclusive interchange
of commodities,to mutual advantage—or by eftab
lifliing factories in some of the Aliatic provinces,
or elfewhere,totally independent of any European
power—to barter with the natives for such arti
cles, as may either serve for our own use, or to re -
mit where our own produce will not fell, or is pro
hibited.
The establishment of colonies, or even facto
ries, in advantageous situations, particularly in
Alia, (though I would by 110 means confine my
views to that quarter ofthe globe) is evidently an
objed: of vast importance to the United States, as
naturally tending to promote the rapid increase
of their naval strength, which would soon render
them too formidable to dread any unprovoked in
jury, or insult. lam well aware, that the pre
sent exhausted state of our public finances pre
cludes the idea of any early public exertions in sup
port of the prosecution ofany new schemes, how
ever advantageous they may appear ; but there
are private merchants in America, of abilities,
enterprise, and fortunes, equal to any poflible un
dertaking ; and government is always able so far
to promote every measure tending to the public
good, as to secure to the firlt pat iotic adventur
ers, certain privileges and immunities, that lhall
ultimately compensate to them, or their heirs, the
risk, trouble and expence.
The world is wide, and immense tracfts in Asia,
Africa, and America, perhaps some of the richest,
remain yet unknown," or unexplored : these may
hereafter fall to the lot of Americans to clifcover
and poflefs ; and thereby open new sources of
riches—and be a new stimulus to our industry.
E. C.
AMERICAN MACHINE.
It is raid, that ihere is now in the pofleflion of William Pol
lard, Eta. of Philadelphia, a valuable spinning machine on a
new conftruftion, and far superior to any tiling of the kind,
which has yet appeared in Pennsylvania. Britifti emilTaries have,
on former occaiions, purchased and lent off from this countrv,
machines calculated to promote the manufa£hires of America.
Doubtlefsthe present proprietor of th;s machine will be lufficicnt
ly on his guard against negotiations so prejudicial to the United
States.
PRICE SIX PENCfc.