Gazette of the United-States. (New-York [N.Y.]) 1789-1793, June 06, 1789, Image 1
No. XVI. the TABLE T. No. XVI. • Customs are not always so-wrong as they appear to be.' IN walking the streets the other day, I over heard two gentlemen conversing ; one of whom warmly reprobated the practice of pre-en gasino votes for an election. The unreserved in which he exprefled himfelf, indicated peculiar degree of franknefs and honesty. 1 *as on the firll impreflion,involuntarily led into a coincidence of sentiment ; but upon more ma ture reflection, I am induced to take a different fide of the question. This is one of thole political points, that can o nly be determined by a consideration of the cir cnmftances, that attend each particular cafe. In a community made up of numerous small corpor ations, where the settlements are frequent, and the inllitutions offociety so formed, that the peo ple, as a matter of course, acquire a knowledge of characters, no benefit results from electioneer ing. Connecticut is a community that falls with in'this description. If a candidate for an office, in that State, comes forward with his pretentions, it will have, either a bad effect, or none at all.— Should it so happen, that his reputation is pre viously eftabli/hed, he has no occalion for any ex ertions in his own behalf. But Ihould his charac ter, from any cause, not be generally known, his solicitude may so operate, as to do an injury to himfelf, or the public. If he is a man of real, though unknown merit, he may render it suspi cious, by an attempt to proclaim it to a people, who have been accuitomed to seek their own objects ofpraife and preferment. If he is an undelet ing man, it is potfible he may, by foine seducing arts, catch the popular humour, and carry his point, to the eKclufionof one who is meritorious. As a general rule in Connecticut, it will be bet ter for the candidate himfelf, and fafer for the people, that he Ihould make no bustle about his election. It may happen, however, that some extraordinary cases will authorise a departure from this principle. In a community differently circumstanced, the reverie may be proper and beneficial. Where the difttifts are latge, the inhabitants thinly scatter ed, and compoled of various descriptions of peo ple ■, and where the interior regulations are not calculated to render it for the inclination or con- Tenience of men to have a general knowledge of cach other, I believe the public interell is promo ted by a pvetty active spirit of electioneering.— The confufion and animosities that prevail on these occasions, may be disagreeable and hurtful; but they must be considered as an evil neceflarily resulting from the nature of the fituarion. When a candidate offers himfelf for an office, he puts himfelf up as a public mark ; and, as it were, calls upon mankind to invefligate his character. His enemies will cxpofe his demerits, and though there may be great Intrigue and deception on both lides, yet upon the whole, if his reputation is no toriously bad, he will not probably succeed in liis election. There is no other method, under such circumltances, for the people to ascertain charac ters. It is a poor method, but it is better than none. It is bad doing with it, but no doing with out it. Probably men would be worse than they are, if they were not restrained from vicious or impru dent conduct, by a fear that their foibles or their vices would be expoled, When they are placed in a conspicuous. ftarion. I rccolleCt an anecdote, whioh may fcrve as a striking instance of the cau tion, which a prudent man observes, in offering hiiufeli to the people a candidate of their choice. A gentleman in a neighboring state was solicited by his friends to propose himfelf as areprefenta tive for a certain diftriift. His vanity was flatter ed witlrthe idea that was suggested to hint. He hid no other oljeCtion.he faid,againft the attempt, than that it would bring his character to a molt critical telt. Though he was hot conftious of any C'tcumftance in his life that deserved censure, or that would excite ridicule ; yet it was possible, ome incident had escaped hiin, which some other Person might recolleift and urge to his diladvan •age, "On such an occasion," said he, " the •neniory of one's enemy is remarkably quick and nearive ; and behdes, any l?;tle inadvertency, t was uv ei looked when it happened,may now e remembered and exaggerated in such ltrong jOiours, as will give it the complexion of a very ameable atflion. There is, upon the whole, a que in defying the World to fcrutlnize .00 exact ) t e diverfified scenes of my life." Such l'ug fj, 10 , ns . not restrain his friends from repeat thp 1 'V Rations ; and at length he allured We^ n,t j tw odays he would give his final anf v p V he lnea, i time, he had a trying inter fo hold with his wife. It occurred to him event, that hrmiglit be pointed at as From WEDNESDA Y, June 3, to S A T U R D A Y, JunT 6, 1789. a cuckold. He never entertained the lealt fufpi cioii offuch a thing ; and was perfectly happy in Ins conjugal connection. If his wife had ever made a miitake of that nature, he was ignorant of it, and it gave him no uneafhiefs ; but lhould lie uiFer himfelf a candidate for an office, the inmost secrets ofhis family would be discovered. There are certain moments, when the mind of a man is so susceptible, that the possibili ty of an evil afl'uines the appearance of reality. He could not commu nicate the affair to his wife, without a perturba tion of spirits, that indicated real jealousy. .But his feelings were too critical to be suppressed, and he liefitatingly described his cafe. After suitable explanations the matter was amicably fettled : His wife overlooked the enquiry ; and he fa tisfied of her fidelity. No difficulty now flood in his waj. He came out boldly with his preten- but within three days afterwards, he was mortified to fee in the new'fpapers, a very severe attack upon the character of his ancestors. His grandfather had, by some unjuftifiable a<ft, render ed hinifelt odious to his neighbors ; and though the circumstance was generally forgot, yet On this occasion, the whole tranfaOtion was revived ; and our candidate, instead of carrying his ele(flion, had a mean epithet or nick-name fixed upon hiin, which to this day he wears with lively mortifica tion. EXTRACT FROM " AMERICAS' ESSAYS." On C O M M E R C E. [Continuation.] THE Dutch were so early prepofleffed in favor of Commerce, and distant colonies, that even at that critical period, when they were confideredas dependent provinces, and were involved in a long, expensive, bloody war, in order to lhake off the Spanish yoke, they never loft light of those im portant objects, by which, and a due attention to the importance of a NAVY, they were enabled, not only to support the expences of that war, but even greatly to enrich themselves ; and at the fame time, tofurniih Henry the IVth. with men and money, to co-operate with them against the com.non enemy, the King of Spain, who was at that period l'orich, and powerful, from Commerce, and his colonies, that he only wanted less bigotry, with common prudence, to have enabled him to give laws to all Europe. Although nature has been extremely parfuno nious of her favors to Holland, not only with ref pedt to her coast, which is very dangerous, and her harbours few, and barred, (but the country itfelf seems of right to belong more to the ocean than to terra firma, and is only preserved from in undation by dint of constant Itruggle, labor, and immenfeexpenfe) yet it now abounds in produc tions and resources of every kind,the natural fruits of indultry, extensive Commerce, and flourifhing colonies. The Dutch merchants, individually considered, are universally acknowledged to be the richest in the world, and Amjlerdam may, at this day, be considered the second grand mart in Europe ; and the great Store Hoitfe of the commercial world ; and it is computed, that the city of Amsterdam alone, pays more than one third part of all the taxes of the United Provinces. Yet in all emer gencies and exigencies of the States, the Dutch have ever kept in view the importance of Com merce, and necessity of observing great modera tion in laying duties or imposts 011 rrade ; having always considered it their primary and molt cer tain dependence ; and the event has fully proved the measure to be wife and politic. Manufactures, of almoit every kind, are now carried on to great advantage in Holland ; and at the fame time, Amsterdam can furnifh the ma nufactures of all Europe, nearly as cheap as the countries fchere they are made. This ideais worthy the contemplation of the ci tizens of the United States of America. We have very rich neighbors, who begin to open their eyes to tneir own particular interelt : We cannot have better customers ; and nothing is more natural, or probable, than a very extensive and advan tageous commercial intercourse, when it shall be known that we are poffefled of the means to sup port and encourage it. Insurances are now publicly made in London, on veflels and cargoes from that port bound to the coast of Brazil to be fold to the Portugueze, the underwriters take all risks, at 10 pr. cent. The neceflity of a drawback, 011 the exportation of all goods, which pay a duty on importation, is there fore too evident to be controverted,without which it would be fruitlefs to attempt a foreign com merce, on which the prosperity of Ameiica prin cipally depends : Should heavy duties on impor tations into the United States be early attempted, it is greatly to be feared, that it will encourage at tempts at Smuggling, which would be greatly fa- cilitated by our innumerable faf e ports and inlets; because Commerce, in its prefcnt infant state, can not be fufficiently productive to support the num ber ol officers, that would be necellary effeiflual 'y to guard all thole ports ; and at the fame time, anlwer the more eflential purpofesof revenue: If therefore only moderate duties are imposed, they will of courle be more cheerfully paid—will dil°- coujage all illicit attempts, and be certainly pro ductive of much greater revenue: Smuggling Js known and pradtii'ed more or less in all countries : I here are many who atfedl to think it no crime to rob the revenue ; and it is well known, that njany captains of vellels have not scrupled to swear to the truth of falfe manilefts and invoices; and have often not been aihamed to avow the perjury, pretending to believe a cuftom-lioufe oath less sa cred than any other ; and thereby iinpioufly deny ing the übiquity ofthe Deity ; but however infa mous the name of an hifcrt/ter may have founded in the ears ol the people of America before the re volution, and however venial the offence may have then appeared to cheat a king, the cafe is now wide ly different : In robbing the revenue at this day, we cheat ourselves ; an Informer is therefore our friend; a Smuggler is incontrovertibly a pub lic injury, and therefore deserves the moll igno minious punilhment ; the fair trader is a public benefit, and therefor deserves the greatest en couragement and support ; and as a contraband trade, with every other species of fraud by which the revenue is robbed of its duds, directly tends to the ruin of the fair trader, as well as to the injury ofthe state, surely no honell man can hefnate which fide to take, or doubt whether he shall sup port a friend, or an enemy : None but an enemy to the country will attempt to injure it ; none but an enemy will encourage, or even conceal the attempt. No natron upon the globe is poflefled of so many natural advantages for the great purpofesof Com merce, and Colonization, as the United States of America : Her coast, and alnioft innumerable har bors, from her molt northern boundaries to the river St. Mary, which divides Georgia from the Spanish territories, are throughout their vail ex tent, the fa left, most navigable, and most commo dious in the world. There is no part of the globe where ships may with equal fafety navigate, where the risk is so equal in all feafousof the year, not withstanding the fcverity of the winters on the northern coast, or where navigation fultains so few injuries : Nothing more is wanting to ensure ourprofperity, but to find markets to take off our almost incxliaultable, and still encreafing fuper fluities : These markets would probably be most elfcd.ually secured by planting diflant colonies,where we could establish a certain exclusive interchange of commodities,to mutual advantage—or by eftab lifliing factories in some of the Aliatic provinces, or elfewhere,totally independent of any European power—to barter with the natives for such arti cles, as may either serve for our own use, or to re - mit where our own produce will not fell, or is pro hibited. The establishment of colonies, or even facto ries, in advantageous situations, particularly in Alia, (though I would by 110 means confine my views to that quarter ofthe globe) is evidently an objed: of vast importance to the United States, as naturally tending to promote the rapid increase of their naval strength, which would soon render them too formidable to dread any unprovoked in jury, or insult. lam well aware, that the pre sent exhausted state of our public finances pre cludes the idea of any early public exertions in sup port of the prosecution ofany new schemes, how ever advantageous they may appear ; but there are private merchants in America, of abilities, enterprise, and fortunes, equal to any poflible un dertaking ; and government is always able so far to promote every measure tending to the public good, as to secure to the firlt pat iotic adventur ers, certain privileges and immunities, that lhall ultimately compensate to them, or their heirs, the risk, trouble and expence. The world is wide, and immense tracfts in Asia, Africa, and America, perhaps some of the richest, remain yet unknown," or unexplored : these may hereafter fall to the lot of Americans to clifcover and poflefs ; and thereby open new sources of riches—and be a new stimulus to our industry. E. C. AMERICAN MACHINE. It is raid, that ihere is now in the pofleflion of William Pol lard, Eta. of Philadelphia, a valuable spinning machine on a new conftruftion, and far superior to any tiling of the kind, which has yet appeared in Pennsylvania. Britifti emilTaries have, on former occaiions, purchased and lent off from this countrv, machines calculated to promote the manufa£hires of America. Doubtlefsthe present proprietor of th;s machine will be lufficicnt ly on his guard against negotiations so prejudicial to the United States. PRICE SIX PENCfc.