Gazette of the United-States. (New-York [N.Y.]) 1789-1793, May 16, 1789, Image 1

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>'o. X.
THE arrangement of the great constitutional
powers of Government, viz. the legislative,
• Hicial and executive, into three diftinift and
derate bodies, differently constituted andinde
rndent of each other, torms the belt security
Ciinft encroachments «pon either, or the abule
power appertaining to each, which human
Lenmty has yet devised , as the oppolingimer
etooftlie several branches tend to produce that
' allance and equilibrium between tne whole,
which affords a great palladium to the libeties
of the people, and forms a government of laws in
cortradiftindtion to a government of men. _
In proceeding to examine the present National
Svftem by the criterion just eitablifhed, we ftvall
find as'near a conformity to it, as the circuin
jfamces and relative fituatjon of the governments
priorly exifting,feemed to admit of; though per
haps net so completely conformable, as might
have been Villied: One branch of the Legillature
iscompofedof men chosen directly by the people,
and at Itated periods, which are as near to each
other as is compatible with the real interests of
the people ; for a ihorter period than two years,
would not have afforded futficient time to become
acquainted with those points, in which thel'e in
terests confiited : The proportion of the Repre
sentatives to the people are adequate to the pur
poses of their inltitution, and at the fame time
free from the inconveniencies and indecision pe
culiar to multitudinous fiflemblies ; they (very
properly) hold the purse-strings of the nation,
which it is natural to suppose they will never
unloose, but for the benefit of the people, in which
coiififts their gfeateft security ; as the want ot
money tofupportit must ever bar the progrelsof
any combination, holtile to their l ights ; and as a
further security against opprellive fyltems of tax
ation, we have the oppofinginterelts of thole who
levy them, being thenifelves fubjed: to the bur
then equally with the reft of the conint unity.
We now proceed to some general reflections on
the other branch of the Legiflaturt, which we
find to be cjiofen indirectly by the people, thro
the medium of each particular government, and
intended to support diltincftly, that corporate
power of their uents, which is the eflence
of this confederated Republic, or confederation
of Republics, and which affords the reason ot an
equal representation from all. AVhile this body
is peculiarly calculated topreferve t'hefe .flential
diltinttions, it has a tendency to check the pro
gi'efs'of any party-projects, and to temper that
zeal and palLon in the other branch, which too
often bears fvvay in popular aflemLlies, wl,iilc their
riper years, and more mature judgment, give the
people a right to expecft the most beneficial conse
quences from their cQjuurrent pov cr. The ad
vantages to be derived from their duration in of
fice, for forming treaties, &<;. need 110 comment,
Upon the joint wisdom of the two branches of
the Legillature, will the Judicial power becftab
lilhed to be perfc&ly independent of either, af
ter being thus conflicted, v. hich independence
must aril 5 from the tenure of the yfliccs " duritig
gwilekavior," and such salaries as will give them
eal'e, and prevent the chance of corruption ; and
perhaps in no cafe can abftraift and uncontroled
power, be Ipdgcd with more security to liberty
and the rights of the people—the experience of
several States in the union w ill strongly support
this pofiiion.
We come now to the executive branch of pow
er, the formation of which proves the difficulties
that attended its cftablilhment, and which under
all circnmftances, is thought to be the most eligi
ble that could have been adopted. Tlje objec
tions which now attend it, confiit inthe want of a
proper responsibility in the fit ft Magistrate (ow
"tgto the partition of his powers with the Senate)
which is peculiarly attainable in an elective Ma
gistracy, and affords the most effective security a
gamft the abule of power; while here we alfp
»nd the fame men legiljators and executors of the
laws, which in some cases may prevent their im
partial administration ; bur the present pQfitio.ii
0 '^ e executive, as corix-fponding wfth the ge
neral ideas of those who planned if. may be
( eemedthe njoft expedient; and while tliat gigat
roan fills the executive power of this government,
10 half whole enlcgium the ablest pane-
S}"'! must blush, and against whom the tonjiue
0 ealum_ny has never daved to circulate a wliif-
Justice will have her commanding power, and
j C var ioJs interests of the community be dircct
and guarded by an equal hand, ll'any futu.e
n e 'ii. government lliould be found
"1 CC a T. we invoke the funics of Heaven on the
From WEDNESDAY, May 13, to SATURDAY, May 16, 1789.
The great objecfts to be attended to by this go
vernment, as Revenue, Agriculture, Manufactures,
and Commerce future principles of Taxation,
Public Debts, Public Faith, or Credit, uulocated
Land?, Naval and JMilitary Strength, ire. ire. will
be attended to m the form heretofore pursued,
or by a special publication.
[If the following Speculation, taken from the " DAILY AD
VERTISER" of Thursday la it, did not merit a re-publication
.from the importauce of tne fubj'ft it x-efers to, y£t its beau
ties as a Compnfition, would be a luflicient apology for its appear
ance in the (.azetteof the United States; but its eligibility on both
accounts is fl.rik\ng!y apparent.]
S I R,
A committee of Congress are appointed to re
port 011 the style in which the legislature are to
address The President of the United States:
That ibniething in addition to the word Presi
dent is proper, maybe inferred from the practice
of all the most civilized, and the moll
barbarous,"rom the condu'ft of these States, to
wards their own officers, and from the declarati
ons of those who by their lex or station, are pla
ced out of the vortex of politics, and speak on
ly from their feelings : By these the title of Ex
cellency is considered as too little for so dignified
a fubjec r t, and for want of a better term, the
word Highness is substituted. This too is excep
tionable, as conveying no definite meaning; and
as it lias hitherto been applied to the little Prin
ces of Europe, cannot be expreilive of the rank of
the firft magistrate of" a free people. Why ftiould
not the style be commensurate to his station ? If he
is the firft wliy fliould any other ap
pellation be fought in the court calenders of Eu
rope, or the fubliute bombast of the east; GEORGE
WASHINGTON, Supreme Magistrate, and
President of the United States, is surely
not harflier than the various titles aflumed by the
executive powers of other nations; nor will Tour
IWagijlracy, or J'our Supremacy, found worse than
Your Grace, Your Eminence, and Your Highness,
when once the car is famiiiarized to the found.
The ideas thqfe terms convey, are not only bet
ter adapted "to the fubje«ft,*but are infinitely more
elevated, since in this firft application, they will
borrow all the lustre of the man to whom they
aiefolely appropriated, and to every hearer they
will be fynonimous with Bra v ery, Dig nity, Pa
triotism, ViRTtfE, Wisdom, WASHINGTON;
and when the tears of a grateful people shall be
dew the grave oftheir beloved Chief, these titles,
endeared and dignified by their firft wearer, will
reflecfl lustre on his fuccelior. A. L.
" WiLkiincton, May g, 1789.
An ADDRESS of the Dclatcare Society for promoting dotnejlic Manu-
JtUhrcs, tt George Washington, Pre/idcfit-Gcncral oJ,the
United States.
WE the members of the Delaware Socicty for promoting domes
tic manufattui'ts, beg leave to prcfent youT Excellency with our
warpieft congratulations on you>iappointment to the presidency
of the United States.
Dfceply penetrated with the most indelible Sentiments of grati
tude for yoUrfortner inestimable frrvices, we participate the lively,
effufions of joy so univerfaily communicated by your consenting
to accept the high trust to which you have been so honorably
We are sensible that the eftabl fhrnen: of ? £ene»al government,
in which freedom and energy are so happily blended, is an object
of the* highest consequence, and will require the reftnration of that
Confidence in the ad mi niftrat ion of p. . licaffaiis, which the general
opinion of your disinterested virtue, moderation and other eminent
qualities alone can inspire.
As your excellency has been plcafed to rclinquifh the enjoy
ment of a dignified retirement. iid incompliance with the ardent
felicitations of a numerous ar\d grateful people, once more to afford
us the benefit of your sage direction and illustrious example, we
contemplate with pee.uliar fatista&ion the credit and renown our
new govcrnmc nt will acquire, even in d'.ft-int nations, by its com
mencement under the glorious aulp c.s- of your distinguished
ab... ics and celebrated name.
We are conscious of our obligation to Providence
for the preservation of ybur invaluable life to a period so impor
tant, and oXir most fervent withes will be unceasing that your
excellency may lono- preiide in the council of America, with un
interrupted harmony and the superior delight of promoting the
happiness and prosperity of a rising empire.
being fully convinced of your Excellency's indulgent attention
to whatever isdefigned to be of public utility, we flatter ourselves,
the Society who have the honor to present this addrels, having af
tociatcd under an engagement to clothe themfelvcs in complete Suits
of domeflic manufactures, and encourage every branch of the fame
in Ant erica, will meet your Excellency's approbation, and be fa-
Kprabiy confuler d as an additional inlbnceof the federal and pa
triQiic Liniments of the citizens of Delaware.
In behalf oj the Society,
THOMAS MAY, Vice-President.
To the Delaware Society for promoting Domcjlic Manvfaftures.
I return you my fmcere thanks for your congratulations and
frood wishes on my appointment to the presidency of the United
State c . f j
Convinced that the happy effefis which may fce~erivcd from
ov: 1 ovrrrimcnt; must depend, in a confideraßle degree, on the
determination of the people to support the person entrusted with
the administration, I fluli rejoice to find that my acceptance :
has met with their approbation.
The promotion of domestic manufa&ures, will, ir. my con
ception, be among the firft confequencCs, which may naturally be
expected to rcfult from an energetic government.—For my fell",
having* equal regard for the prosperity ol the farming, trading,
and maiiufa&uring interests, I will only observe, that 1 cannot
conceive theextenfion of the latter (so far as it m ay afford employ,
ment to a great number of hands which would be otherwise
idle) can be detrimental to the former. On the contrary, the
concurrence of virtuous individuals, and the combination of.
economical societies to rely as much as poflible on the resources.
of our own country, may be produ&ive of great national ad
vantages, by establishing the habits of industry and economy,
The objects, thercfofe, of your institution are, in my opinion,
highly Commendable; ana you will permit me to add, gentle
men, that I propose to demonstrate the sincerity of my opinion,
on this fubjeft, by ths'uniformity of my pra£bc(,' in giving a deci
ded preference to the produce and fabrics of AmertC2, whensoe
ver it may be done without involving unreasonable cxpentts, or
very great inconveniences.
A correspondent informs us that at the late court held for Ches
ter-county, the grand jury, from principles of patriotism, con
fined themfclves to Federal liquors, so that their expences du
ring the fitting of the court for two days, amounted fix.
fhillingg each man ; whereas former grand juries used to
from 18 to 225. 6d.—An example highly worthy o [imitation !
THE practice of beginning works on a large and expensive plan
is attended with two verygreatevils. It preve nts prudent people
and people of small flocks, engaging in them. It renders such
works very hazardous adventures, for all new works are liable to
losses from want of experience in the owners and workmen ; and
an error committed in large works may prove fatal to a moderate
cap-tal, which would scarcely be perceived in similar works on a
small plan. In works not well understood, the losses which arise
from doing the business in a less perfett manner on a small scale,
arc small compared with those which attend committing errors in
woiks on a large stale ; and in all new works errors will
In this country where the value of money is high, it is almost im
poflible any profit ihou\A be a compensation for having so
sums out as ■ must be put into the expefelive proje&s. Most new
works have beeu begun too large in this country. If we built a
Slitting Mill, it was made fufficient to flit as much Iron in a weeH
as would fell in half a If we built a Glass Hou&, it was at
the expcnce of thousands, and calculated to cov*r all that part of
the country with glass, which was not covered by the house, Thrf
history of Potash works in New-Eugland ought to be a lesson to
every mannfafluring projector—The firft potash work in this
country is said to have been ere&ed at, or :v?ar what is now called
Belchertown in MaflachufettsT The proprietor began with build
ing an enormous sreat House, somewhat like a large New-England
Meeting-House, this building hefurmlh:d with as many larg~tubs
full bound with strong Iron hoops as could be conveniently placed
round the inside of the house, each tub so high and that a
person might as well clean the Augean stable as clean it out, fre.m
these his ley was to be drawn. In the meqn time people were
employed to cut out and burn the wood of the funoundingforeft*
to supply alhes, which indeed were procured in considerable
quantities, but as is usual in such attempts not proportioned to the
expence. By the time his allies were ready he had built in the
centre of his house, four furnacts, the fires of which were made
to meet at a point in one chimney which was to carry up the
Smoke, with an idea that he could make a more intense heat by
the meeting of the fires of four furnaces than by any single furnace.
The intention was, that the strong ley should be made to run in
small ftreamsfrom the surrounding vats into the place where the
fires of his four furnaces met, which were to form so intense a heat
as to constantly evaporate all the moisture and let the dry salts fall
into a bed or pan which was provided below to receive them.
These furnaces being duly dried and made hot, the fires were urged,
and the ley fuffered to run in small streams to'the place where it
was to be evaporated, but the instant the ley csme into this violent
heat the chimney blew up, and every thing near it fuffered by the
explosion* This taught the proprietor that he must boil his Icy,
and for that purpose he procured pans and went on to make more
potash which wasfent to market, but what with expences altogether
difproportioned to the business, and what with the errors he made
in prosecuting the proje&, the man broke and his potash works
went to ruin.
After this some gentlemen from Scotland set up the works in
SufHeld in Conne&icut, they brought out from Scotland every
utcnfil even to the tubs and erected a work some what in the
Meeting house ftilc', but being men of business and prudence they
continued their works perhaps without great loss, or great profit.
From that time to this theprojefts for making potaih have become
less and less expensive, till now some of the most profitable potash
works we have, were cre&ed at less than twenty dollars expence
exclusive of the Iron Kettles.
Begin manufacturing projects with small works and add what
by experience is found necessary.
LONDON, March 5.
This morning some dispatches were received
from Gibraltar, which were brought over in a
brig arrived at one of the western ports. A few
letters were also brought over, which contain
advices that the Emperor of Morocco is fitting
out his whole naval force; and that provifxon
veflels are failing almost daily for Constantino
ple to the relief of the Turks, who do not find
their supplies out of Asia so regular as formerly.
It is thought that Joseph will overturn the
third estate, or commons of Brabant, which per
sists in refuting him any supplies. The firft
estates have been fummoncd on particular busi
ness, and it is supposed that this is the objedl of
their convocation. This aflembly is fwprn to the
-most fcrypulous silence.
May 9. The King of Sweden has publiflied an
Ordinance, ordering four fact days to be held
during the present year. The critical situation
of affairs has induced his Majesty to judge if ne
ceflary. It concludes with the following words,
defervjng of being handed down to posterity,
rp.i cj: si v r z xci.