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THE TAJjL ET.
" Truth will ever be unpalatable to those, who deter
mine not to reiluquijb error."
i O deceive fools, and flatter knaves, is a line of
conduct, that the art or the indolence of men may
induce them to adopt. A crafty man may conceal
tle truth from finilter views ; an indolent man
ma} impof'e on himfelf as well as others, becaule
he does not wish the trouble of knowing or com
municating the truth. There lire various pretexts
and various forms, under which a profefled poli
tician pursues his obje<fl; while his real motive of
action is generally kept out of fight. But I know
oi no pretence, that is more commonly or more
plausibly urged by designing men, than that they
dehre to a«ft agreeably to the voice of the people.
It has been acknowleged, that to oppose the public
opinion, when right, is imprudent ; but it has
alio been aliened, that to cherifhit, when -wrong,
*s diflionelt. To afcettain the public opinion,
should be the firft aim of a legiilator ; to coincide
with it, as far as it is well grounded, is good policy ;
but to reform old abuses and to introduce new
lubjecls for public reflection, is a still greater du
ty and a conspicuous honor.
It is often asked by sensible and lioneft men,
whether government should controul the pub
lic opinion, or be controuled by it ? The truth
ib, they have a reciprocal influence upon each o
ther Many people will fay, that the formation
of the new Confhtution was directed, in some de
gree, by public opinion : This polition can hard
ly be admitted. It is w ell known, that while the
general Convention were in fellion, scarce any per
-I'on ventured to predict, what would be the rel'ult
of their deliberations. I mention this circumltance
to prove that there was no definite public opinion'
1 elativeto that object.— When the proceedings of
the Convention were publiibed, they were lather
unexpected by the public mind, than contrary to
it. 1 here was no general sentiment pre-conceived
in the matter The weight of characters, who
com poled the Convention ; tlie peculiar fitusuion
of the country, and fevcral other causes-, have re n
dered the new Conllitutioii generally acceptable.
But upon the supposition, that each article of it
had been previously recommended by town meet
ings, and that it was, literally speaking, framed
by the voice of the people, it would be no f'ufiici
eiii rcafon that its adminiltration should not atft
with wisdom and honefly ; and ltrive to promote
the prosperity, rather than confirm the prejudices
of the community.
The government of every country; when once
in operation, should produce a re-action upon the
public opinion. It should search for it, estimate
it, trace its origin, examine its effects, endeavor
to remove its errors ; but what is of more impor
tance, it should colled; the scattered fenthnents of
the public and form them into proper fhripes ; and
in some instances c.eate opinions and attachments
wholly anew. Ido not barely confine my remarks
of the re-aCtion of government upon the public
mind, to iis speculative principles, but would ex
tend uiy idea to a controul over the prejudices
the habits and the.manners of the people.
Men are or maybe, very much what the govern
ment pleases to make them. There is no fatality
in the cafe, why people cannot be made honed*,
indullrious and pacific ; as well as turbulent, floth
ful and knavilh. These different qualities may
dif'cover themselves, without presupposing any
change or improvement in the heart. ' They may
be the result of good political regulations. We
f.ftenobferve ainnn in some inftantes just and honor
able ; while in other respeCts, his conducft deserves
a revcrfe character. The fame causes, which made
him partially virtuous, had they been extended,
would have made him vikollj fb. Whenever we'
fee a profligate man, we mult conclude, either,
that he was educated in a wrong manner by his
parents and guardians, orthat there was fbmethin a
wrong in the government, under which he lived.
A man is not doomed, by natural necCffity, to be a
inave, any more than he is to be a conjurer I r e
may be taught both, or he may be restrained from
becoming either. We must therefore conclude that
a government falls ihort of perfection, in r-ropor
tion as its citizens are deficientin tliedifplay of a
miable and ufeful qualities. The tafk.ofi lerifla
tor, how much so ever he may have accomplished
is never finifhed, while his inflitutions have failed
of producing a. pretty perfect slate of society
'] his will not be practicable perhaps in a full de
gree, but with proper attempts, considerable im
provements will not be found inattainable.
The visionary projects of the ancient philoso
phers, who supposed they could subdue the paf
■'■ons of men,and render them subservient to rcafon
have beguiled many into a belief,that men always
must be, juifc as they have been. The passions of
men, it is true, can never be cxtinguifhed ; but
they may lie diverted from objects that are hurtful
to those that are beacflcial. No paflion, of the hu
man mind is uneflential to the well beihg offocie
ty ; and that any one is dangerous, h onlv because
it is not properly managed. Nature furnifhes
pafiions, but itis edtuai ion and government that
turn tliciii to mis or that particular object. The
common remark that legislators mufttair mankind
as they find them, does not make it excufeabie
that they ihould have men, as they find them.
From the Massachusetts Magazine.
On CHESTERFIELD'S LETTERS.
If judgment, wit, and knowledge of mankind ;
A polilh'd style, and manners moil refin'd,
Can make a letter, or a man complete,
All thefein Chefterfield united meet :
But if an upright heart, religious truth,
Morals and honor, form the perfect youth,
t rom purer lights catch thou the guiding ray,
And fpurnthe courtier, and his book away.
Extraflof a letter from a gentleman in Scotland, to his
Friend in Philadelphia, dated 7,d Nov. I 788.
" \V E have got a mill to go by water, forfpin
ning flax and hemp ; and lam informed, that a
mechanic here, has just invented a Jeanieor hand
mill, that will spin flax or hemp : It can be made
ot any number ot" heads or spindles, from forty to
one hundred : A woman and girl will be able to
spin twenty l'pinell of yarn on it, every week.
Mills to go by water, have 31fo been erected at
Glalgow, Derby, Nottingham, &c. Sfor lpinning
long-wool, commonly called combed--woot. The
cotton-mills, with a little alteration spin short or
uncombed wool. Mills have lately been eredted
in England for grinding, wheat, corn, &c. where
little or no water can be had, to 50 by steam en
gines : there is one of those mills, worked by
steam engines, that drives thirty-two mill
These improvements, would certainly be very
beneficial in a country thinly peopled, and where
wages are high. Models of all new and ul'eful im
provements in hujbandry, if kept at some town in
a central part of the State, where all might have
accels to lee them, might tend to accelerate im
provement in the cultivation of the ground ; this
certainly ought to be done at the expense of the
State. Brewing of malt liquors, will, I think, be
providing the best market for your farmers ; and
pro telling dut-es, on all articles imported from other
countries will enable your manufacturers to pro
ceed, with vigor, spirit and fyccefs : There cannot
be a more certain way of giving encouragement to
agriculture. than by providing, a fure,conftant and
steady marker, for the produce of the earth : And
undoubtedly manufallures at home, in this view, are
a more sure and steady market than any foreign
nation,who may cut of your market with them all
at once. It behoves you,therefore,to Encourage
Manufactures ; and the government ought,cer
tainly,to lay on heavy duties, and to give bounties
upon your home manufactures : But I hope your
new government will rectify all these things."
" Common consent, gives currency to many er
IT has been obfervtd, that a proper sense of the
7hrTZ Ce "f diffufed generally along
the people would prove a mojlpowerful _principle to per
petuatc their freedom and happiness.
The more this idea is revolved in 'the mind, the (Iron
gerw.lt be tat tmpreffion of its truth; a,id the wore ex
tensive its application to the cirCumfiances of human
nature the greater will be the convidion of its compe
tency to produce the moftfalutary effeds uponfbeiety
It ,! a given principle, that the firft Jlep towards the
acq,,,fit,on of any objed, is a feeling sense of its being
neceliary to our happiness : Government has been too
long considered as I he harbinger of human weaknefs,and
depravity rather than the refill of the bejl andm o /t ex
alted reafontng. Hence it is reflected upon, as "a ne
cellary evil/' when in fad, it is part of the divine
economy m the plan of human nature.—" Order is
eav:n s fir]l law. A deviation from this Economy
produces the great complaint of einls in thefyft em of mo
rals and of humanity.—Government then is of divine
origin—the divine government is absolute—is per fed ■
and for this reafon-becattfe it is founded in iL, it 'e
■wtfdom and all its operations are perfedly wife yill
and good : And for this reufon also human fiver
ments never should be absolute ; because the imperfec
tions of our natures render it impofflble, that a perfed
government should ever be founded and adminiftled
by imperfett beings. J
From tins idea las mankind been inspired to devift a
balance ,n Government, or mutual checks ■ by which
■n a gradual way,fuch a degree of predion may be^l
\ i t"' ie Z ,Jlut '°"> a " d that f"<rity in society, for
■whtchgoven-ment was originally intended by Heaven,
nefe o jtrvations may serve in fame degree to impress
he necefay and importance of government upon our
Z/nd7" r «s defig,,, will be
f l a n
G F T H E
GxVZETTE of the UNITED STATE 3
A NATIONAL PAPER.
To be publifked at the seat of the. federal government an d
compri/e, as fully a, pojjible, thefollowing ObjeHs, viz. ' "
I. 'C'ARLY and authentick Accounts of the P."OC£tni\r
-A—i ofCOXGRESS—its I-AW S, ACTS, and RESOLUTION''
communicated Co as to form an HISTORY of the TRAXSACTirivt
of the FEDERAL LEGISLATURI, under the NEW CONSTITUTION
11. UiPAjTiAt Sketches of the Debates of Conc»e ss
111. ESSAYS upon the great fubiefb of Government meeiienl
;nd the federal Legislature in fartUuUr- a!fo upon the MimdJ
tocal Rights ol the ..ierican c iti ujj, as found duponihcFc.
dcral or State Conitituticns; also upou every other Sub'eft
Ina V appear fuitablc for newspaper difcufiion.
I > A SERIES of PARAGRAPHS, calculated to catch th
livinc manners as they rise," and to point the publick
attention to Objefls that have an important reference to dmelri
facial, and publick happiness. '
V . The Interests of the United States as count cied with their li
terary Inilitutions—religious and moral Objefts—lmprovements in
Science, Arts, EDUCATION and HUMANITY—their forei™
Treaties, Alliances, Connections, &c.
VI. Every species of INTELLIGENCE, which may affect t h»
ommeraal, agricultural, manufaßuring, or political INTERESTS of
-he AMERICAN REPUBLiCK.
VII. A CHAIN of DOMESTICK OCCURRENCES, coMcd
through the Medium of an extensive Correspondence with the ret
VIII. A SERIES of FOREIGN ARTICLES of INTEUI
GENCE, so conneflcd, as to form a general Idea of publick Again i,
the cajtcrn Hcmifphcrc.
IX The STATE of the NATIONAL FUNDS ; also of the IN
DIVIDUAL GOVERNMENTS— Courses of Exchange—P, IM ,
. "£ Ga zett e of the Uni tid St ate s Jhallbe printed with tk
J- 1 me Letter, and on the fume Paper as this publicat;cn.
_ It Jhallbe pull filed every WEDNESDAY and SATURDAY, ml
e ivered, as may be dirked, to every Subscriber in the city, on thole it\s
r li'J"'" Sui f cril " r * (exclusive of pottage) will be THREE DOL
1 ll 'f'J^f rm '-'""iualpayment to be made in three monthsfromthett
pctrance of thejirfl number.
lV 'ni' " ll the "P' l ' tws upon the Continent-, also at tie
City-Coffee-Houfc, at No. 86, William-Street, and at the
Printing-Office, Ko. g, Maiden-Lane, near the Ofwe ? o-
A. I. Jiy a new Arrangement made in the Stages, Subscribers at a
distance jvill be duly furnifhed with papers.
PO */- S i* 1 V;7~7 A * ar £ e "*P Te ll lon "f ery number nil/ be find cjf—
Jo tiat oubfribers may always be accomnodatcd with complete Sett.
To the PUBLIC K.
AT tliis important Crisis, the ideas that fill the
mind, are pregnant with Events of the greatest
magnitude—to ilrengthen and complete the UNl
rmmrnrT? 1816 ! — to exter, d and protetft their
COMMERCE, under yet to be form
trT~xT 0 ,^ Xp re 3, nd arran g e the NATIONAL
rr> JItJ; t0 I rritore and establish the PUBLICK
•jo /1~~ anc L dLL under the auspices of an un
rDri/o ? Government, will require the EN
r, or the Patriots and Sages of our Country—
Hence the propriety of encreafmg tbeMtdimns of Km*
ledge and Information.
AMERICA, from this period, beoins i new Era
in her national existence— << the world is all
BitoßE her"—The wisdom and folly—the miferv
° f the EMPIRES, STATES, and
KINGDOMS, winch have had their dav upon the
great J heatre of Time, and are now no more,
iuggeft themoft important Mementos—These, with
the rapid series of Events, in which our ownCoun
trj tas en io deeply interested, have taught the
0 iTnnM Citizens of the United States, that
r wc Gov ERNMENT—LIBERTY and
LA\* S, are inseparable.
This ConviAion has led to the adop tion of the
j-.ev Conlhtution ; for however various the Sen
timents, refpedting the MERITS of this Syftein, all
C f°° Vt!4iV>rr- e xf^ reecl 111 the 3lece ffity that exists,
of .in Er 1- ICLENI 1 EDERAL GO VEPJSfMENT.
Al ivrw'Drxm fore ' eftabliihed upon NATION-'
pt £■« v- INDENT, and IMPARTIAL PRINCI
-1 w Inch /hall take up the premised Articles,
upon a comretent p lan, it is presumed, will be
iga y mterefting, and meet with publick appro
bation and patronage.
1 he Editor of this Publication is determined to
Ci S-j '. u , a 1 z f nce of Persons of leisure and abili
rillT' rir u ™ ted with disown assiduity, he flat
ters himfelf will render the Gazette of the United
" ot , m r vonh y general encouragement
andis, Vith due respect, the publick's humble fer-
C ' JOHN F E NN 0.
Aeu-Yori, Aprih 5 , i 7 Sq.
A nr, TW ? Y °UNG SPRIGHTLY LADS
A f p ted > as APPRENTICES to the Business
luWhedby JOHN FENNO, No. 9, Maiden
<NE ' the Oswego-Mjrist,