Gazette of the United-States. (New-York [N.Y.]) 1789-1793, May 02, 1789, Image 1

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No. VI.
AMONG the causes of a domeftie nature, to
v/hich we can attribute our late unhappy situa
tion may be placed thole ill-judged, impolitic com
mercial connections, and speculations in this coun
try consequent upon, the peace, and none perhaps _
may be esteemed more pernicious to us, than our
large importations of britilh luxuries, while we
were prohibited to pay for them in any staples of
cur country ; and little else than specie, which we
nioft wanted at home, was fullered to be taken in
return : For though the exportation of our To
bacco, in the firft initance, promifedagood freight,
vet this, si oni a variety of causes, was soon found
injurious, and in many instances, deffrudiive to
those who were largely concerned in it—to which
ihe difcoui agement, arifi.ig from the high duties
impofedby the. Britilh goverment, and the exorbi
tant coinmiffions charged by their merchants, may
be ascribed as efficient causes—while the narrow
channel, through which it could be introduced in
to France, has never helii out a fufficient induce
ment to the adventurer. Other evils which we
have expei ienced may be said to have arofc from
too licentious notions of liberty, which the early
policy of the day might have given life to, as it
would not have been prud; .it to inform the people
they we; e contending only so a change of rulers—
but ablolute freedom, without reltiaint, was held
out as the palm of virfkory : Thus the publick at
large were led to Confound the ideas of naturaj
and political, or civil liberty—and by experience
only,could be taught the efiential difference. The
fame policy as above referred to, carried into the
principles of taxation, may be viewed as another
ground of our mist'ortunes, as government with
holding for so long a time, in the early stage of the
war, to raise any revenue by taxes, the communi
ty were led to suppose all future impositions u the
kind -4s not arising from neceflity, and to answer
the exigencies of Government, but as the arbitrary
mandates of their rulers, for their own power and
aggrandizement—and even tliofe who knew it to
be the price of our liberty, were alinoft induced to
Telinquifh -m obje<ft so dear in its purcliafe.
Jhe floods of unfunded paper money, ill'ued as
a fubilkute fortaxat 011, gave every opportunity to
the knavilh andill-mihded part of the community,
to cheat and defraud their neighbours, and all un
der the fandtion of solemn adts of Legi(lat,ive an- 1
thority ; and eventually a greater part of this ideal
money funk worthless in the hands of those who '
were bell able to bear it—and without any profpedt
oPredrefs : But during its currency, many people
deferred\alling for those dues which they knew
no way ofjuftly obtaining ;• but after the channels
of justice were once more opened without any bar
rier, those of this clafj, foiiie froin raotives of re
sentment, and others from real nccefiitv, almoil
nniverfally commenced' their suits for those bal
lances, which were by this time grown more bur
thenfome by an accumulated interest ; and per
haps the effects of those habits upon our future in
tertourfe with each other, which were imprefled
by a long conversance in large sums, may not be
placed among the lead injurious confeqnences from
the use of paper money. I venture to rank them
among the greatest, as fixed habits are not readily
removed, and a certain aflociation of ideas will
frequently remain in the mind after the cause which
produced them has ceased to exifb
(To be continued-)
Further extracts from the " AMERICAN ESSAYS.'
u Z, er Marios cafus, per tot dif.rimina rerum
1 Tendimus." Virc.
MULTIFARIOUS have been the speeches and
pH lications upon the now viftonary schemes of a
'■giunational economy,and ripublicanvirtue. Ariiu
ihg pictures ! But where are the originals ! Pain
\v 1 ® Lro 'pc<il ! Blended—alas—with the diluvian
ec ! only serve to throw a melancholy
a "j 0 ? 1 ?y er a U future profpedts. The opinions,
taints of mankind,are perpetually changing,
ce p l . preclude all rational hopes of fuc
t''e en deavors to apply the molt approved
fenj manners of ancient times to the pre
rnifijS tru , e we are in OUI infant Rate, politically
. ' ei . et i ; but morally .confidertd, we are by no
A ■,? "'fants ; we are beyond that period'of
t i , e :' oci! ity ;we maybe said to be at lead ini
mel' , ,^ e no£ adepts,in airthe arts refine
ces aiii S ' laxuries > exirava .-ancics, ibllids, vi
na _' i ants, oftheolueTt and mofl corrupt mo
lClutS: Rome boafledher CINCINNATI. >,r.nd
From W E D N E«S DAY, April 29, to S A T U R D A Y,
America can boast her CINCINNATI, a society,
chiefly corupofed of military patiiots, who may,
with propiety,'be said to be Joliowers, tho' perhaps
not all scrupulous imitators of their ILLUS'I RIO US
Agriculture, arts} manufactures, and industry,
are promifuig prefaces of future greatness ; but
if these are not attainable, w itliout a rigid' adl:e:«-
ence to that fhnplicity of manners, which is said to
have charadterifed those great and virtuous patri
ots of Greece and who have been so often
held up as our great exemplers, I fear we may
never expeeffcto fee them flourifli in Ameiica.
When the grteat and important question of na
tional revenue is agitating m the grand councils of
the nation, it will be found neceflary to recur to
every probable source, and to contrive to give all
poflible encouragement and etliciency to each ;
tjiis will naturally lead to the confide! ation of the
importance of a free, well regulated, and extenjivt
commerce, which upon the most accurate and pi o
found investigation, of its various productive in
fluence, and eiletfis, will Jif. oer, what at this day,
chiefly gives vigor, life, and energy'to the liuf
bandman, mechanic, manufacturer, and laborec ;
and from whence modern states principally derive
the neceflary resources for the support of govern
ment la the solemn, national deliberations, up
on this deep, this wide, this inn reaf-arable fubjeJt,
it will probably be found neceflary, with our po
litical, to unite the belt commercial knowledge,
and experience, that can be collected in America.
44 EH, qui per f? cun&a ridebit
4< fced la-dandus et Is, qui paitt re£la monenti."
Tlieprcfent exhausted state of our public and pri
vate finances, and the consequent want of mefins
to supply the exigencies, and h-.pport the credit
and dignity of government,are universally bruited,
acknowledged, felt and deplored ; 'I lie general
decay of trade may doubtleis be confldered one of
the principal causes, as also of the ruinous migra
tion ofour citizens from the sea ports into the re
mote interior country, and even into the Britijh, and
other foreign dominions.
The French merchants have made several at
tempts to carry on the \\ liaLc (ifliery from Dunkirk,
and although the King cf ; France had furnifhed
them with large funis of miney uponthe very ad
vantageous terms of giving all the profits of, that
trade, to the merchants, with the ufe'of the money
without interest, and l'uftaining a'ltlie loss bf un
fuccefsful voyages, yet tljeirfifhery never fucceed
qj, until Americans, principally from the State of
Maflachufetts, were induced by the very great tr.-
couragement offered by the merchants in Dunkirk,
and the want of employ at home, to enter into
their service, lince which, the French government
has prohibited the free importation of whale oil
from foreign dominions. The English owe also
their fticccfs in the whale fifhery chiefly to Ameri
can".; for notwi:ftanding the iminenfe bounties
p.ud by the Bri;i!h government for its encourage
ment,they could never l'ucceed until they employ
ed Americans, who are also very well paid and
greatly encouraged in their service.
The deflru live influence of a declining com
merce adts like a gangrene, which unless timely
checked will soon fyread over the whole body,and
become incurable : Every lover of his country
will therefore befolicitous to find out foinc speedy
remedy for this alarming evil: There are no poffi
bl; adequate fubjlittftes for th: loss of commerce : Our
firft grand objecfttherefore is its rejlcrat.ort. Ipre
fume notto dictate or direcit, it is a fubjecl that
will require the deepest deliberations and re
fearclics of the wisest and most experienced men
in America fully to comprehend : It probably be
longs to no one man exifting,to poflefs all the qua
lifications requisite to trace the course of American
commerce through ail her numerous, intricate and
yet untroden paths ; and to point out those, and
only those, that fliall lead the United States to fu
ture glory and prosperity. lam sanguine in the
belief of the poifibiiity, that; we may one day be
come a great, commercial, and flourifliingnation ,
but ifin pursuit of the means, we lhould unfor
tunately stumble again on unfunded paper money, or
any fimilaf species offraud,we fliall aff'uredly give
a fatal stab to our .national credit in its infancy,
and blast the success of the best concerted plans :
Palliatives at best at e poor pitiful expedients, and"
never to be applied, but in the most desperate, or
incurable causes. Paper money will invariably ope
rate in the body politic, as fpiritous liquors on the
human body, which often produce a momentary
relief, or giddy joy, the ejfeßs of a delirium,-, but
while they intoxicate the brain, and lull the sen
ses, they prey upon the vitals, and ultimately def
troy the conjlitution : " But while a nation can pre
" fcrve its credit at home, and abroad, there are
" no difficulties to be deemed infurmountaMe."
" Loaded with an enormous deb*; beyond the pof-
Übility of payment, and which would annihilate
the credit of any other nation cn the globe, and
burthen ed v. ith taxes which her commerce alone
enables her to support ; C at Britain,' frcm her
ui uform sacred regard to all her pecuniary "Dbli
gations, and tiar.laCtions, foreign and domeltic ;
and her coritant punduial discharge o.f tke inter
est of all loans ; though juit emerged from along,
expensive, unl'uceefsf ul war, now it and?, commer
cially confuiered, the unrivalled miftveis of the
world : Her revenues are immeuie ; her credit at
home and abroad unbounded ; her funds the great
reservoir of the treasures of the globe ; the bank,
of England' full and runing over ; fhip> openly,
or difguifedly.buKrcally ov :;edby Blitiii l.i'.jedti,,
fwanning aad evidef.tly taking the lead in com
merce of every other nation in all the parts of Eu
ro/ , Aju:, Africa, end even in America ; openly
monopolizing the trade in the few lea ports of Au
flrian Flanders, secretly poiteffing a iarge in
every lucrative branch of the French trade,p:vticu
larly their African trade ; draining Partial and
her Colonies in the east and weft ; leaving Spai.t
but little to boast of all those precious Mexican and
Peruvian liarVcfts drawn from the bowels, or the
bosom of her prolific earth ; profiting greatly in
her commercial intercourse with almost every o
ther nation y and wifely jealous and tenacious cf
the exclusive pofiefiion cf all the benefits arriling
from the trade with her own colonies.
r i lius, the little ijland of Britain, maintains the
right and glory of being considered, and acknow
ledged the great Emporia,,: of the won . . Yet such.
is the prelent state of corruption, diflipation, ex
travagance,and immense expence of that nation in
every department, there are only wanted the
united,well directed exertions of theAmericanStates;
with indrftry, and their v onted activity and «» ■
teprize, soon to lop off many of the iiu.?l valuable
b: anclies of their trade ; it is well known that
" the difference of tliree or four per cent, will
carry the trade of the world." Ei C.
N E W-Y O R K.
Tuesday, 28th Apxil, 1739.
Mr. Madison, after an exordium, observed, Thi*
duty, it is said, will operate against a beneficial
branch of commerce, carried on with our allies ;
but what was the state offaifts previous to tiie re
volution ! This trade supported itl'clf, notwkh
ftandingthe article ofmolafiis was then fubjeeu to
a duty, and foreign rum was imported duty free :
Now, there is a heavy duty 011 rum, and yet thi9
article, it is contended can not bear a rax—if the
manufacture of rn.ll was in aflourifliing condition,
when it had to combat a duty, and tjie influx cf
foreign spirits, it appears absurd to fa "pole,
that the proposed duty, will annihilate the tiade.
There is a auty upon country rum, through the
States, yet the trade is not deltroyed; and if this
duty is afl'efl'ed on molafles,it is evident from tliefe
fadts that the importation will not be diminished.
It is considered by gent, " men as ane,ceflary article
of life—if this is granted, it must alfobe allowed,
that a great proportion is consumed through the
States—and where mollifies is not used, it is more
than balanced, by Sugar —as that pays a higher
It has been said, that this duty will be burthen
fome, as it will oblige the merchants to encreafe
their capitals—but this obje<slion applies to other
branches, and must be fubraitted to, or we must
relinquish the idea of a revenue. The complaint
refpedting the fifhermen appears ill feiunded, as no
draw back is now allowed on the duty paid oh rum
confmned by them. The objedlion urged against
the tax on account of smuggling (from the bulk
-•nd weight of this article), cannot be considered
a. irmidable. Mr. Madifou was opposed to the
fubffitute mentioned, anexcifeat the diltill head,
at prefetit.
There was, fte observed, an excise already upon
rum in the States ; but molafies, he believed, was
free—and if a duty was now laid upon the latter,
he had 110 doubt of an encreafe intlie fhle of run}.
Should this article be struck cut of the report,
it would be facrificing the interest of three millions
of people to support the interest of the distillers.
This duty will not bear harder on the eastern
than other exacftions will on the southern States—
he was therefore against a diminution of the fix
cents, or striking out the article.
Mr. Ames observed, that the Constitution under
which this Hpufe was now deliberating was the
result of commercial necelHty—that from the opi
nion he hid formed, and from the evidence he