Gazette of the United-States. (New-York [N.Y.]) 1789-1793, April 25, 1789, Image 1

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No. IV.
ttctr FTCH of the POLITICAL STATE oj
"IT T HEN a writer ventures to expose his fenti-
VV ments to the publick eye, upon lubjetfts which
ar ° not in their nature of local or partial import,
but in which the interest of the great v.liole is in
volved, he not only avoids flie force of invective
and party spleen, but is happy in reflecting that
ihe <*cod of the publick forms the main objed: of
his pursuit, and feels himfelf entitled to candour,
though he may have 110 just claim to applause.
At this all important moment, when America,
from aftate verging upqn anarchy and confufion,
can boall the poflefhon of a government, adequate
to every purpose of society—a government, not
the offspring of violence, but'the eft'eCtofcalm and
mature'deliberation— and established upon the good
sense of the community—lt may not be amiss to
comteniplate thole principles and causes which led
to th'is lurprizing revolution—and turn the mind
to a view of those great national objects, which must
form the basis of her future greatness.
So various and complicated are the causes, and
so intricate those fpiings which naturally tend to
rfTcft the publick mind, and produce revolutions
in the political situation of a people, it may be
found neceiiary to revert to that period, when we
firfl dared an opposition to the power of Great-
Britain : Which, while it affords a train of inci
dents, with their corresponding effects, in fuccel
fion, at the fame time forms an apology for Amer
ira in not having fconer agreed to those general
regulations, which would have enabled her more
fchy and fabftantially to have realized those bless
ings, which the attainment of her Independence
naturally pteferrted. I lhafl not however attempt
I review of those principles which fir ft gave rife to
the late contest with Great-Britain, and Anally pro
duced our separation—as they have been repeated
ly ltated, and accurately defined by men of abili
ti.-s much fuperiour to mine in such a dilquifition—
and who have been constant actors through the
■whole great scene : Of principles, the effects of
which have been fete in their full force by every
virtuous inhabitant of America, and led to exer
tions ur.parraTelled in history : Suffice it to fay,
that at'te/ Suffering every inl'ult and injury which
tyranny and despotism cculd alone invent, Ameri
ca, in that ever memorable epoch, the 4th of July,
1736, found it neceiiary, with a solemn appeal to
Heaven for the propriety of her condutft and the
jufhiefs of her cause, to renounce all allegiance to,
and diilblve all political connexion with that par
ent country, whose tender mercies were cruelties,
and surrounding nations at once fubferibed to licr
plea ofjulHficatiun, which was founded on that uni
versal polkical maxim, that as protection and alle
giance are reciprocal, when a government ceases
to afford the one, it becomes the indifpenfible duty
of the people governed, to renounce the other.—
111 addition tothiscaufe of their afient, we can also
attribute a growing jealousy among the nations of
Europe of the power of Great-Britain, while hold
ing such extenlive territory in this Western world,
which her insolent behaviour, 011 every occasion,
served not a little to confirm.
A native spirit of liberty, and love offreedonl,
Supported by a sense of common danger, gave union
to the councils of America, and fuccefstoher arms.
During the contest, and after an arduous conflict
of ten years, the haughty pride of Britain was cau
fed to bow at the shrine of Justice, and these States,
early in the year 1 78c;, were recognized by her as
free, sovereign and independent.
(To be continued.)
Mr. F-EfcKO,
AS many people in this State as well as other
parts of the Union, are preparing land for the
glowing of Hemp the ensuing season ; you will
F/f"1 re P u Mi". Read's (ofMa!lachufctts)
II euu observations on the culture of that article.
Yom "' s > ' A. B.
of raifirg HEMP, and fitting it for
> tovimimicatsd to the committee of the American
ea emy of Arts and Sciences for promoting Agr't
/■ii ' j lo'lllI o ' lll Read Esq. of Roxbury. andpub
'ijhed-iti their request. 1 J
THE « I chufe for railing Hemp, is a light
c ]„ IK - 1 mould, as free from fione, gravel and
thorm 3 P. '< care is taken to have the foil
fall nf ?i ' llla nured, and once ploughed in the
the fn r ' C .^? ar > if other business will admit; in
and as U'u P^ ou ghcd two or three times more,
row i,i° rrowe d with an iron toothed har
and'leav° r \ CI t0 e P arate the particles of earth,
c tilem as light ss poflible then a light
From WEDNESDAY April 22, to S A T U R D A Y, ArRiL 2J, 1789.
brufli harrow is drawn by one liorfe over the
ground, by which means it is levelled so as to re
ceive the feed equally, after which it is marked
out for lowing ih the fame manner that barley and
oats are generallyfown, calculating (if the loil is
very good) at three bulliels to an acre, if but mid
dling good, at two and an half bushels to an acie.
The feed is always harrowed ill immediately af
ter sowing, with a fine iron toothed harrow, and
nothing is fuffered to pal's over it afterwards, leli
by treading or otherways it might be injured.
The feed mull be of the lall year's growth, and
will be benefited by lying ill ihe cellar a few weeks
previous to its being sown. In general I low my
feed about the middle of May (being governed by
thefeafon) a little l'ooner or later will do ; my
hemp is commonly fit to pull by the Bth or ioth 01
August, which is known by the male hemp turn
ing whiriih just at the time when the farina palles
off; this is ealily discovered by its (making when
agitated by the wind or jarred with a stick.
When the hemp is pulled, it is spread on the
ground where it grew, about an inch thick, and
what that will not receive is carried off to other
ground, and after laying two or three days mi ll
ed with a pole about lix feet long ; then receiving
one or two days more foil, it is bound into bundles
of about i J or 18 inches in circumference, and
immediately lioufed from wet until convenient
rime offers to put it into water for rotting, which
is done as soon as other business will admit. There
being a small lh eam of water that runs through my
farm, 1 have erected a dam which enables me to
flow a pond about five or fix feet high, wherein
the hemp is laid (much in the fame manner that
flax is laid for rotting) and after covering it with
straw to keep it clean, the plank and ftciies be
ing placed thereon, the dam gate is shut down,
and the hemp being over flowed, remains until it
is properly rotted, which is done in fix or fevCn
days, if put in as soon as the latter end of August
or begining of September, the weather being ge
nerally warm at that I'eafen of the year ; if putin
ro water the latter end of September, or the be
ginning of October, I have let it lay twelve days ;
if the latter end of o<flober or beginning of No
vember, twenty days, unless the weather has been
uncommonly warm for the fealon, in that cafe I
have found itnecellary to be removed sooner, but
have made it a point of attending to the heat or
cold of the weather, as when the water is warm,
the hemp will get a proper rot much sooner than
when it is otherwise.
My practice has been to draw the water from
the hemp 24 hours before tlietrking it up, leaving
the weight thereon in order that it may be well
drained, as in that cafe it is much better handled :
Then it is removed to a dry piece of ground and
spread about two inches thick, and after remain
ing a week or ten days in that situation is turned,
and in eight or ten days after, it is taken up, tied
in bundles and removed into the barn, where it
remains until I have leisure time to break and
swingle it out ; when barn room cannot be
I have placed it up against a rail fence, running
the top ends between the two uppermost rails,
letting it remain there until proper time for break
ing ; for which purpose I have always found clear
cold weather to be the belt.
My hemp is broke and swingled much in the
fame manner that flax is done, excepting that the
firll breaking is done in a course break, the teeth
or flats being nearly four inches apart,then a com
-111011 flax break answers well, and being carefully
swingled is fit for use.
My practice for raising feed hath been to set a
part in the field some of my belt grown hemp for
that purpose, pulling up the male and female
hemp for about 18 inches in width, so that a man
may pass through ; leaving the other in beds a
boutnx feet ill width, in order that two men, (one
oil each fide) may reach in their hands and pull up
all the male, without injuring the feed bearing
This process is performed when the general
pulling is done in Augufl ; the female hemp mult
Hand until the feed is fully ripe, which is known
by its turning brown ; in wet weather I have been
obliged to let it Hand until the middle ofOd:ober
before it was fit to pull ; after which it mull: be ti
ed in bundles like other hemp, and carefully set
up agaift a fence to dry, or that is not conveni
ent it may be laid on the ground, and after one or
two days fun, beat out in the fame manner that
flax feed is beat out, si nking lightly ; then expose
the other fide to the fun one or two days, after
which give it a thorough beating and spread the
feed with all the leaves, &c. in a dry place for
some days, then threfli it with a light flail or rub
it by hand, either w-ay until the feed is all out, and
* If is to be observed tliat a muddy bottom will require draw
I previous tothe hemp fceijig laid thereon.
after winnowing but it into a dry place fcrfcwir o
the next yesr.
The feed bearing hemp, requires afcwdayslcn
ger to rot than the other, cwirgto the thickness
otthe tark cr hmle, and the gi eater quantity of
glutinous fubilanee cccaficned L y its longfiamiirg.
I have always preferred old lr.anuie to new,
more especially ii lioife or cow citing, but new,
will c!o, and it is much theletttrto ha\ e it plcunh
ed in, in the fall.
\\ ith rcfpec't to the quantity of hemp, jailed on
an acre of ground, it varies from fix to twelve hrn
dred weight, much depending 011 the quality of
the foil and the manner of preparing it.
The expense of cultivating, iU. an acre of hemp,
is not at present in my power to ascertain, great
part of the bufmefs being done at leisure, and
when the time could belt be fpaiecl ; I would just
observe, that 1 can laifetw o or three acres yearly
on my small faim, without interfering much with
my oilier bufmefs. -j-
The present price of liemp, together' with the
bounty by the State, to encourage the culture of
thisuleftil plant, amounts to about 220 dollais per
ton, which bid fair to establish its growth here,and
1 am fully i'atisi.ed, from my own experience, that
at the present day no branch of agriculture (where
land is found suitable) canbe carried 011 to lo great
acUantage as that of railing hemp, and 1 have no
doubt that bur fanners will soon be convinced of
the truth of this observation. It having been
found by experience, both in Europe and America,
that lienip may be grown on the lame ground for
twenty 01; thirty yeais in fuccclfion,without lefloip
ing the crcp or empoverifhing the foil ; this alio
ti'ill have its weight.
The last year 1 tried the experiment of raising
hemp 011 a piece diked marih, the fait water
having been !:ept off better than cne year ; after
being ditched, I had a small part near the upland
carefully dug and manured \vitli old dung mixed
withfand, the hemp grewto full height, anclpro
ved to be of the belt kind ; this encouragement has
oecafioncd my preparing a larger piece for further
trial the next fealon, when I mean to make seve
ral experiments on the cultivation and clearing of
hemp, and if any advantage shall accrue there
from, I shall do myfclf the houor of communicat
ing it to the committee as early as pofF.ble.
+ A man that understands the breaking and fwinglinz Kemp
wall, wfll clcan from 40 toso wt. per day.
N E W-Y O R K.
Tuesday, April 21, 17,89.
TH E proposed duty of 6 cents, pr. ton, 011 vefTcls built in t ! ie
United States, aria belonging to the citizens thereof, was ob
jected to by fcveral membns : It was urged, that it wou'd tend to
the diftourag ng ftup building, that it was like taxing the imple
ments of hulbandi y, and was an improper Article ol taxation. To
these obje&ions, it was replied, that the def:,>n of this tax was not
for the purpofeof revenue ; but to defray the cxpenccs of light
houfts, and incidental charges of commcroc ; erecting>, so*
dilablcd seamen, &t. for which p'.rpofes, a tax of tlie kmd now
proposed was themoft convenient ar.d natural revenue#
Upon the paragraph which related to vefTels owned by the fub
jctts of foreign powers in alliance with the United States—many
observations occurred upon Mr. Goodhue's propoling a duty of
sixty cents per ton. This tonnage,the gentleman observed, accord
ing to a calculation he had made, would amount to about live per
cent, on the freight of veflels of tons.
Mr. Boudi not proposed thirty cents peV ton.
Mr. Goodhue observed, that the duty on foreign (hips was ren
dered nectfTary, in conference of the heavy burthens American
bottoms were liable to in foreign ports —that therefore, the duty to
be laid, ought to bear some proportion to thole impositions. Thir
ty cents, he conceived, would not cftablifti the preference', in FavonV
of our own (hipping.
Mr. Lawrence was opposed to sixty cents, as much too high,
the present state of our {hipping, which the gentleman
laid, was inefficient for the exportation of our produce ; this
would be found so heavy a duty, as to discourage the ftiipments of
our produce ; which it was well known would not bear a duty in
foreign markets ; it would operate as a tax on ourselves * for
freight in foreign veflels would be enhanced to an intolerable de
gree ; which would einbarrafs, or prevent exportafions, to the dif
couragemcnt of agricu'ttre industry of every kind. Mr. Law
rence concluded, by seconding die motion for thirty cents.
Mr. Hartley propole'd 33 cents.
Mr. Goodhue said, that he was again!! a duty that would be
so as to operate to the discouragement of exporting our own
produce; but he thought, that five percent, was as little as could
be mentioned, to give .American YtfTels proper encouragement.
Mr. Fitzsimons observed, that it had been the policy of msr
ritime, and commercial nations, to encourage their own ifiippin ' ;
and to give it, if poflibje, a decided superiority, ever that of their
neighbors and rivals—Hence the proprn*y of cur giving our own
navigation peculiar advantage •, and there wasno doubt but in time,
our own ships might and would carry our own produce to market,
at a lower freight, than any. foreigners could—for many obvious
reasons : ButJitthe present scarcity of velFels, he did not conceive
it good policy, to discourage' foreigners from coming to our ports.
The {hiping at present employed in transporting the prodifce of the
United States to market, was two thirds foreign property—lt
would require time to bring our shipping upon a par with foreign
flipping ; but a decided preference to American bottoms, would
induce the merchants to increzlc the aciount of then capitals; in