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bushel was dutied 6 cents—Liinejpr. lid. ioo ccnts.
Nails Spikes, Tack and Brads, were the next
nicies. These Mr. Lle propol'ed, should be
ft ruck out—and was seconded by Mr. Maddifon,
and Mr. Bland : The latter gentleman observed,
that it would operate as an intolerable burthen
upon the Southej n States, especially as the quan
tities which are manufactured in some of the States,
are not adequate to the demand of those States.
Mr. Gcodhc. fuppcfed, that the quantity which
•now was, or easily might be made in the Common
wealth of Maflacliufetts w as equal to the demands
of the Uiiion.
Mr. Ames —Sir, I am in favour of the articles
being retained in the Refohe ; to strike them out
would be to strike at one of the belt and molt ac
commodating manufactures that could poflibly be
eftabliflied. It is now usual in Maflacliufetts, for
house keepers in the country towns, to erect a fin all
force in their chimney corners, and in winter,and
on evenings, when no other work could be done, it
is alinoft incredible, what quantities of Nails are
made, even by children. These Nails are produced
in fach quantities that the exportation of them is
become a very considerable branch of Commerce.
And fhsll we discourage so ufeful, so extensive a
manufacture : Every principle of policy forbids
ir. Manufactures in Europe and America are upon
quite different foundations : In Europe, necejpty is
a competent ftimulous ; but with us, every en
couragement is neceflary, to prop and cheiifh our
infant attempts —he was therefore against the mo
Mr. Sherman observed, that as our country a
bound.ed in iron, the manufacture under debate,
was profecnted with perhaps greater advantage,
th2R almolt any other—that it promoted an inter
course with the neighbouring States-—Connecti
cut for instance, which manulaiflured this article
to a large amount, bartered the nails for nail
rods, with their neighbours in the State of New-
York, he was therefore opposed to the motion.
Mr. Tucker, Mr. Part idge Mr. Fitzfimons, and
Mr. Carrol, Severally froke upon the motion—
which was finally withdrawn.—Tacks and brads
were then struck out, and one cent per pound
duty, wasiinpofed upon nails andfpikes.
Salt was the next article read, to which Mr.
Burke and Mr. Hue fr were Severally opposed to
afleffng any duty, as it would opeiate ve»y une
qually upon the Southern Governments, where
the price was greatly enhanced by very extenlive
Mr. Lav/rancf observed that a tax upon fait,
would be equal through the States, and as it was
an article on which a certain revenue could be
realized—he was of opinion that a duly of fix
cents per bushel would not be buithenfome, he
therefore proposed that Sum.
Mr. Tucker expatiated upon the unequal ope
ration of this duty—and the extreme injury it
would produce to the poorer part of the people in
the Sou Jiernftates, whoSe fate would be extremely se
vere, deprived of this neceflary article—already
so high with them that it was Scarcely attainable.
—Kc was decidedly opposed to any duty what
Mr. Scot, —the article of fait, Sir, is transported
to adiftance of 500 miles from the atlantic Ocean,
and cannot be procured nearer—chief of the way
or. horseback, two baflsets to a load. Four dollars
a bushel is the price of this article where I live.—
Sir, to add to this exorbitant price by a tax, would
111 my opinion be imrolitick at this early period
of the national Government, it may be our wif
dem to make the the molt: favorable impressions
upon the minds of the back country people 1
do not pretend to the gift of prophecy, but the
effects ofa measure of this kind would certainly
be unfavorable upon the minds cf t'.iofe people—
nature it Should fetfin had fufficiently taxed this
article by the difficulties she threw in the way of
obtaining it by a great proportion of mankind.—
Mr Moore laid some thing upon the fubjedt, but
could not diftincftly hear him.
Mr. Smith of (South Carolina) was opposed to
the duty—and combated it by a v ariety of obfer
'-atior.s v. hich had referrence principallyto the local
nrcumftances of South Carolina—its attachment
to the Conflitution—the expensive land carriage,
tfc. &c. but as the time had elnpfed and no pros
pect appearing of bringing the Subject to an im
mediate decision, Mr. Lawrence moved that the
counnitte should riSe.
the further consideration was therefore paflpo
1 he committe arose and the Koufe adjourned.
Thursday, April 17.
!■ ct agreeable to adjournment.
-Mr. Sh f p.mai\ moved fertile order of the day.
) In committee of the whole—resumed theconfi
(■eiation of the import: proper to be laid on Saltl
Mr.. Burke moved that the article be fttuck out
or the enumeration.
Lawraj.'Ci —lam not convinced, Sir, by
ail that has been urged upon the subjeCt, of the
iiexp diency of a duty upon this article—Upon
1 iC general principle, this article, it is true, will
con e in, but when it is ccnfidered that it is our
Udt " avßi ' ourselves of the 1110 ft productive four
'l . I , c "' ei> ue. When it is considered that this
will operate more equally than some ctlieis,
by reason of the greater consumption for the pur
poses ol luxury than will be consumed by die
poor—cOnsidering alio, the low price at Which
-/alt is imported, it mull: be confefled a very e
ligible source of revenue. It has been laid that
it was opprellive, and would be as a poll
tax. As to its being opprellive, he could not con
ceive of it, as the quantity consumed by families
upon an average, did not exceed, perhaps, three
bulhels per annum ; which, ax fix cents was little
more than one-fixtli of a dollar a year; and it was
very well known, that a poll-tax was common in
(ome of the States, and had been so, time imme
morial, and no greater complaint exilted as tc
that denomination of taxes, than again!! others—
The truth was, all taxes were odious, and' were
submitted to from principle and necelhty. In the
Southern governments, it has been (aid, that the
heavy land carriage of this article, would inhance
its value beyond all toleration—To this, it might
be replied, that whatever the price of Salt might
be, the impost would be uniform, and not in pro
portion to the price of the article, let Salt be
cheap or dear, still fix cents only was thepropofed
duty; and if from local circumitances, some parts
of the Union paid an excellive price for a particu
lar article, Itill it lay with them very much to
lefien the price and diminish the amount of the
duty by retrenchingthe consumption of such article.
At any rate, it was morally certain, that a balance
would be produced upon the whole, when the
system Ihould be completed ; by the States upon
the lhores of the Atlantic consuming many arti
cles on which heavy duties would be aflefled, and
which were not, and would not be made ule of,
in the inland parts of the country—A tax upon
this article had existed for some time in this State,
and was collected with the fame ease with other
duties : 7 here were other objections anlwered by
Mr. Lawrance ; his replies were to the point, and
he concluded by wishing that the article might
not be erased.
Mr. M.iddison was in favor of the duty; he
considered the subjeCt upon the principles of jus
tice &nd policy, and from both determined that
the proposed duty was eligible ; he was howe-se
in favor of a fntall one, but could by no means
think of leaving the article out.
Mr. Hun tin odo n adverted to the facility and
punctuality with which a great revenue was rais
ed from this article in European countries—the
duty proposed was low, and in a great majority ol
inltances, would be borne by thole who were belt
able to pay.
Mr. White opposed the article's beiug conti
nued in the resolve, or a duty's being imposed on
it—His coftllituents expected relief from the ope
ration of the New Government, this would be
considered as a great burthen, and have a very
iiraufpiiious influence, five per cent he was in
favor of ; but the proposed sum amounted to al
most 33-3 per cent.
Mr. Scot was in opposition to the continuance
of the article in the lilt, and observed, upon the
aflertion that had been made refpeifling the peo
ple in the Western country, not consuming many
articles which the sea ports paid a heavy duty up
on, that every article of luxury, both of Europe,
the Ealt and Welt Indies had found their way 500
miles inland ; and that according to their proper
ty, the people in those regions, consumed their
4ull proportion of luxuries : He was therefore for
expunging the article, as he dreaded the conse
quences, which, in his opinion, would result from
an inipolt that would be considered in so odious a
Mr.Fitzsimons observed, that jultice was the
greatprinciple thatlhould influence the decisions of
that House ; that it would be a poor compliment to
the judgment andpatriotifm of their constituents,
to suppose that their attachment to good govern
ment and the Conltitution, depended upon a cir
cumstance cf this nature : He did not think it was
in human jultice to adopt a tax less injurious to
the^poor; he conceived that no people upon earth
had higher lentiments of jultice than the people
of thele States ; and as so great a sum as nearly
ioooco dollars might,according to a calculation he
had made, be railed with ease upon this article ;
he was opposed to expunging it, and hoped the
duty of fix cents would obtain.
1 lie queltion being taken, it was voted not to
expunge the article.
Mr. Goodhue then moved that a draw back
Ihould be allowed on fait used for the Fillieries,
n-.l provisions—this palled in the affirmative.
It was then voted that the duty on /a//Ihould be
fix cents per bushel ; on manufactured Tobacco,
fix cents per lb. on Snliff, ten cents per lb.
Mr. Carrol then proposed that window and o
ther Glass, lliould be added to the general lilt of
articles: This, after some debate, was acceded
to, and ten per cent advalorem was voted upon
window and all other glass. After conliderable
further debate, the committee that a duty
of seven and half per cent advalorem, Ihould be
laid upon all "writing, printing and -wrapping Paper
and pajle-board, walking flicks and horse-whips,
clothes ready made, and gold and silver, and
plated ware, jewellery and pafle work, and upon
all coaches, chariots, and other four wheeled car
riages, duty of fifteen per stent advalorem.
Upon moiion tlic committee then role, anil the
jpeaker resumed the chair. A letter was thru
read from the Hon. tenate enclofmg two orders.
A report from the joint committee appointed to
determine upon the mode of conducting confer
ences ; also re'.'peering the election of Chaplains.
This report was accepted on the part of the
House And an order of the Senate appointing
Mr. strong, Ivlr. Izarcl and Mr. Lee, to join a com
mittee of tlie House, to consider the most eligible
mode of communicating papers, bills and meila
ges. Mr. Lee, Mr. Burke and Mr. ieney w«re
(To be continued.)
On the Establishment of the CONSTITUTION,
And the Election of GEORGE our Prefideiit.
OD of our fathers! need we trace
The mis'ries of ? former race,
To learn true conduct from recorded woes?
Eut now our errors, and our crimes,
Drew down thy judgments on the times.
Back o'er our heads a temped rose,
Scon all the licav'ns were in a flame,
Pointing to blast our peace and fame:
Bat, oh I thy mercy turn'd the storm aside,
Deign'd to becalm the raging seas,
Deign'd to dilfufc the swelling breeze,
And to the port of peace our vefirl guide.—
Our pilot fav'd thro' such a wat'ry war,
Sits at the helm, and points to Hope's bright star;
And, God his guide, he bids us boldly go,
Whatever rocks oppoofe, whatever tempests blow.''
ExtraEl of a letter jrom a neighbouring State.
" I AM really happy to be informed that the General Go
vernment is.beginning its operations—Human natur is caprici
ous ; would you believe it—there was like the appi.ar
•ince of an ahatetnent of that ardour in the national cause, which
has so strongly marked the condu& ot the majority of the people
111 this quaitrr—" thare is a tide in the affairs of men"—and so
here is in their sentiments too—" taken at the flood it leads"
:e Empire Government, and Peace—but it neglitled 1 forbear
the ri it May the Legislature of the United States be wife to di(-
ccin, and Ipiriu dto proftcut-the best intcrclts—" Wherefreedom
dwells, there is my Country, 1 ' laid on and where is hr ruidence
to be tound lut vv cie the security of person and property exiils
undir a jull, a rigl.unus, and energetick Government ?—luch as I
trull is in reserve for this riling—tliis independent Empire."
PRIZE OF VIRTUE~
ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY of PERPIC
January 2, 1788.
THE prize of Virtue proposed for the country
man, who should most deserve it, by a long
irreproachable conduct, or some remarkable in
stance of courage and humanity, was this day a
warded to the following persons.
Nicholas BRUssF.,of the -village of Toulonp-e,
who, throughout a life of llxty years, has
rlie conltant exercise of virtuous acftions, notwith
standing the many misfortunes he has experienced.
Ebdon Claret of 40, and Villenoval, of 20,
inhabitants of St. Laurent de Cerda, whose em
ployment was to carry ore, on mules, ft om the
mountain of Batere to the forges at St. Laurent.
These muleteers, returning from Batere, find the
molt dangerous torrents in the province extremely
swelled. The youngest takes upon liimfelf to
found the pafiage. He gets upon his mule, laden
with ore, and enters the water. The mule is soon
carried away by the stream, and VillekoVal lo
ses his feat. His comrade, feeing him on the point
of being drowned, ruflies into the river, seizes Vil
lenoval, and drags him to the opposite fide. Per
ceiving the m ule of his young friend,and this mule
was his all, ready to perifli, he again plunges in,
comes up to the mule, cuts the girths to disengage
the load, but the animal in struggling strikes him
on the head, and Claret is carried away fenfelcfs
by the torrent. Villenoval cannot bear to fee
liis preserver perish, rulhes into the water, and after
several efforts has the good fortune to bring Cla
ret to the shore.
The society gave 200 livres to Brusse, and 100
ivres to each of the others.
NEWYORK, APRIL 18.
It would be a pcor compliment to the good sense of the Citizens
of the United States, to suppose, that after their unparelleled exer
tions to obtain the bleflings ot freedom and independence, that
' hey should not with ardour adopt a firm and efficient Govern
ment, and enter into spirited adminißration of such a Go
vernment too, as the only method to realize, secure and perpetu
ate the great obje&s for which they fought and conquered.
Accordingly we find, that the more that Government is
studied, understood and enjoyed, like other bleflijigs of a propiti
ous providence, the more it is prized ; and there is no doubt but
ps the prejudices of mankind subside, and their understanding*
have fair play, they will confidcr tlie restraints of Law and good
Government, as the only barriers of freedom and happiness.
OF THE FEDERAL STATE-HOUSE.
This fbperb edifice is upon the w! ok*, fnpe >or to any buiMing in
America—and for its competency to the £reat design for which it
is conftruftcd, does honour to the architect.—The citizens of this
metropolis, always diftinguiftied for their public spirit—have by
their exertions in this inltance, added greatly to the lufire of their
vftabhfhed FEDERAL CHARACTER.