The Somerset herald and farmers' and mechanics' register. (Somerset, Pa.) 183?-1852, December 15, 1846, Image 2

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rt!hi-ci;l2tr.t of tie Senate and ,
1 recm';.:g vojr laSor in the rvice
f ihc subject of C0ii-raiii!a-
jion lhat there has been no period i;t our
j-.jr: Littery wh?n !1 the elements of na
tional prosperity have bteii to tally Ju-vel-p!ri-
Since vtnir la?t ressica no afuiet
$ag disprrrsaiion has sisih! our country ;
jrarr J -gsjod cauh has pro ailed ; abua has crowned the toil of liie bus
Junius; and labor ia all its branchea i
receiving an aiaple regard, tvhde e ducj-li;m,seiejjcc,-RSIleai-isare
rapidly en
larging means of social hr.ppmer's.
Tlie -progress of our country in her career
of greatness, not only hi the vast cxlen
iou of our lcrrV.orial limit and the rap
id increase of our population, but in re
sources aud weiiliTi, ui)d in the happy con
dition of our people, is without example
in the history oi uatiors.
.As the wisdom, strength, and lnefi -
-ence of oar free institution:! tire utifu.ued
every day adds fresh motives to content
ment, and fresh incentives to patriotism.
Oar devout and sincere aekiiowled c-
7T.cntK nrc due to the gracious (ii'.'tr of all
:ood, fcr the nunihcr:e.-3 blcsn's which
our beloved country enjoys
Jtis a 5ource of h
! h sat; farthn to
lows of the Ui,!j
know that the rclat
tJtates v. ith all othr mt;"T. vlt a sinule
exception, are of the mi-t runic: !e c'ntr
jiiter. Sincerely aftacaed to the policy of
peace, early adapted and steadily pursued
lv the governmcot, I have anxiously dc
xiredto cuiavate and cherish frimdnhip
and commerce with every foreign Power.
The epirit and habits of the American
fcaple are favorable to the maintenance
of uch international' harmony. In ad
Jbering to the wise policy, a preliminary
2m3 paramount duty obviously consists in
xhe protftriioa of our national interests
from encroachment cr sacrifice, and our
natiunal honor from reproach. These
mu5the maintained at any hazard. They
admit of no compromise or neglect, and
must he scrupulously and constantly
guarded. In their vigdent vindication,
-collision and conflict rit!i forehjh Powers
ni3y Foax-timcs become luiavoida'dc.
Such ha beea our scrupulous adherence
Id ihe dictates of justice, in all our foreign
intercourse, tlut, though steadily and rap
idly advancing in prosperity and power,
we have given no just cause of complaint
t j any nation, and have enjoyed the bles
sings of peace for more than thirty years.
ProGi a policy so sacred 10 humanity, and
so saluUiry in its effect? upon our political
5-ysicm, wo should never bo induced vol
untarily to tlcpart.
The exiting war with Mexico was
neither desired nor provoked by the U
nited Stale?. On the contrary, ail hon
orable means were resorted to avert it.
Ahr years of endurance of aggravated
unrr drc?.cd wrongs cn our part, Mexico,
in violation of oiemn treaty stipulations,
end of every principle of justice rceog
c'tcd by civilized nations, commenced
hostilities; and thus, by her own act,
forced the war upon us. Long before the
ad vance of our army to the Icit bank of the
Hio Grande, wc had ample cause of war
jtgainst Mexico; and had the United
States resorted to this extremitv, we
ttnVbthave appcaiad to the whole civili
zed world for the justice of our can?1.
I deem it to be my duty to present to
yoa, on the present "occasion, a conden
sed review of the injuries we had sustain
ed, of the causes which led to the war,
and of its progress since its commence
ment. This is rendered the more neces
sary oecause of the misapprehensions
whieh have to some extent prevailed as to
its .orlm iu:d true charaete-. T!u$ war
has been represented as unjust and un
necessary, and as one of aggression on
our part upon a weak and injured enemy.
Such eroneous views, though entertained
by tmt few, have been widely nd exten
sively circulated not only at home, but
iiave been spread throughout Mexico and
ihe whole world. A more effectual
means could not have been devised to en
courage the enemy and protract the war
lhaa to advocste and adhere to their cause
and thus give tliCB "aid and comlbrt."
it is a soursc of national pride and ex-
nltation, that the great body cf our people : sion, in a clear and disditct form ; and
have thrown no euch obstacles in the way the committee cannot doubt but tlij
f the government in prosecuting the war Uuch measures will be mimed bud v a
suecessfully, but have shown themselves hpted as may be ncsessarv to vindicate
lobe eminently patriotic, and ready to the honor of the' co.ntry, "and iiisurc am
vindicate their country's honor and inter- ! pie rrp-.rnti-m U, our injured citizens "
csls st any sacrifice. The alacrity and! The Committee on Foreign AlTYtrs or
promptness with which our volunteer for- j the Heme of lieprp-tml stives made a sim
ces nished to ihe field on their country's ilar recommendation. In their report,
call, prove not only their patriotism, but ' ibev sav tint they "fuMv concur with ihe
xheir uecp ccnviction that our cause is ; Pic?idont that aa-ple Vrm.n exi.ts for
Ut ' taking redress into our ovn heads, and
ihe wrongs wajch we here rnflered iiohvc that wc.siiou!d be ias-iilied in tlie
from Mexico almost ever since she has optnioa of other nations for taking uch
liecome an independent Power, and the step. Hut thev are v. ilihr !o try the cx-
paticnteaourraiee witn whtcn. we hnvc ,
oorne uiem.are wnnout a parr-iiei in the ;
jnsiory ol modern civilized nations.
There is reason to believe that if ihcxe
wrongs had been resented and resisted in
the first instance, the present wr-r mijht
haTe been avoided. One outrage, howev
cr permitted to pass with impunity, al
iuo6l Roccssarily encouraged the perpetra
tion of another, until ?;l last Mexico
Feemed to attribute to weakness md iu
tlecisionon cur pari a forhearsncs which
was the offspring of magnanimity, pnd of
? sincere desire to preserve friendly rela
tions with a sister republic.
S.mrce!y had Mexico achieved her in
dependence, which the United States
were the firtt among the nations to ac
knowledge, when the commenced the
tystcm of insult mi.l spoliation, which
she has ever fiucc pursued. Our citi
zns fng.igcl ia lawful commerce were
imprisoned, their vessels seized, and our
fug intuited in h r ports. If money was
wsE'itJ, the It? .'Oiziu- r.i cenfiica-
lion of onr merchant re aola'ar. J their car
gees was a ready resource; and if to ae
eomnhsh their purposes it became' neces
fftrv K imprhon the owners, eapiaius,
ard crews, it vse dmo." TCalers niper
eeded rulers in Mexico fn rapi.I ucees
tior.. but still there was im. change in this
system of depredation. The government
cf the United State made repeated on behalf of its citizens, but
these were subvert d by the perpctaM'imi
new mrzc9. Pro ibises of reih-essmudo
ov Mexico in 'he most srlcmn" forms
Were postponed or ei;:Jed. '1'hc Ie-3arsJ
records of the Icp'iTiiieMt cf Stale con
tain conclusive proofs of numerous law
less acts perpetrated upon the property
snd person of or. r citizens by Mcvc;:,
ttn-Vof wanton insults to our rational Hg.
The interposition cf cur government to
obtain redrew was Dg?iri rmd again invok
ed, under cireuinsianees which no natron
ooghl to disregard.
It ws hoped that I he outrages would, end tl i Lit Mexico would be rsstr:ti li
ed by the Jaws which regulate the con
duct of rivilizcd nations in- their inter
con rs a with each oilier after the treaty 'of
' thr amhy, nmimcrce, v mm
lion of the
ruh cf Wif. 3I -ns concluded betwfvn
two republics : but this hop" eoo:f proved
to he vain. The co jr. f sevj-.ire i-r.ii
contiic-iiion of the proprriy- of our c.ti-
zens die violation oi th'-tr persons
Gt 1
;he to' our flng pursat-d hy Mexico
nrviant? U that t'.'MC. wcro Pfi-irt-'clv -fc'is-
j pended far even a brief p?r:od, nhhough
j the trmty so clearly defines the rights and
duties of the respective parties Mat it is
j impossible to or mistake
Jtcrn. In Iers laan t-vcr. years niter tae
ronchisioa of that treaty oar grierences
had become so tuloJrr.ble t!)at, in the
opi:'ir,n e! Prc?idc!:i Juckson, they, should
no longer be emhired. In his message to
Congress in February, 18'iT, he presciit
ed them to the coas-iJerati;m of that body,
and dec-hied that The length of time
since f-ome of the mjuriers have b en
committed, th.e repeated and unavailing
applications for redress, the wanton char
acter of soma of the outrages upon the
property and pert-ens of our citizen?, up
on the mTeers nd f; ;g of the United
States, independent of recent insults to
this govenuacatend people hy ..the lato
extraordiiury .Mexican mir.i-ter, would
justify in the eyes of ali nations immedi v;::r." In a spirit of kindness tv.ul
forbearance, however, he recommended
reprisals as a milder nude of redress.
He declared that war should not he need
as a remetiv by ju3t and cvn-Tous ra
tions, et.nadiag in their strength tor inju
ries committed, if it can be honorablv
avoided," and added, '
it !i:is occurred to
me that, considering
raised condiiion of
should act with Ijoili
the present rcmhar
that country, we
, i.-:dom and modera-
tit;::, by givii;g to Mexico cm
raore cp-
portanity to atone fir the past, oefore we
take redress into our hands. To avoid
all misconception on the part cf Mexico
as well as to protect our national charac
ter from reproach, this opportunity should
be given with the avowed !c?'2"n ant! full
preparation to hike immediate baihfy.ct'.on,
if it should be obtained on a repetition of
lis? demand for it. To this cad I recom
mend that an act he passed authorizing re
prisals, and ihc ue-e of the nav-l force of
the United Slates, by the Executive, ;
gain.'t Mexico, to enforce thsm hi the
event of a refusal by the Mexican govern
ment to come to an innicable adjustment
of ihe matters m controversy between as.
upon another d?nmnd thereof, imde from
on boat! one of oi;r vessels of war on the
coast of Mexico."' .
Committer's of both house? of Cnn
erc.s, to which th--j message cf tliis Pre.j
i lent whs refe el, fully s;itaiacd iiis
views of the character cf the wrong?
whirh we h;;d suffered from Mexico, r-nd
recommended that another demand for
redress .houIJ be made before authoriz
ing war or irprisais. . 'Th (.'onimittee on
Foreign lielatioa3 of ihe Senate, in thctr
report, says: "Alter fuch a demand,
shrill ! prompt justice be refused bv the
iPXvevi government, we any appeal to
r.U nations not only fr the equity, and
moderation with which we shall have
acted toward? a sister republic, but for
the necessity which will then compel us
to seek redress for cur wrongs, either by
actual war or by reprisals. The subject
will th'.n be presented before Congress,
at the commencement cf the next ses-
porinvnl rf another demand, made in the
most solemn
upon the justice of
the governmeat, bc!ore any fur
ther proceedings are adopted." ,
Na diftrrcacc of opini ju op?n the sub
ject is believed to have existed in Con
gress at that time; the executive sud Leg
islative departments concurred; and yet
such has been our forbearance, and de
sire to preseve peace w ith Mexico, that
the. wrongs of which wc then complain
ed, and which gave rise to these solemn
proceedings, not only remain unredressed
to this day, but additional causes of com
plaint, of an aggravated character, have
ever since been accumulating.
Shortly after these proceeding?, a spe
cial messenger was despatched to Mexi
i . .
co, to make a final demand for redress ; 1
and on the twentieth of July, 1837, the ;
demand v.'as made, The reply of the '
Mevican government bears date on the 1
twenty-niinh of the fame month, and con-
tains assurances of the "anxious wish"'
of the Mexican gtcrnmcnt unot to dllav i
the rncmcst f.. that final xrr.d rqnisihle '
idj.astmnt which is to tcTnmijite - the . x-l
isth: difficulties between the two ?ov-:
x;ro:sact3 ;" t.nai vJun-.f .shovml beleitj
ndcis wliich nay contribcti to the most
peedy and equitable delcririinatiw of
the attesticn of th A -uerican eov..T;i-'i
jnent;5' ihst' the "Mexican goveraxeat
would au)p as the -onlv . uide for is i
ccr. JucU the plainest p'iiiph'-s of public
ri-iiL thf sr.f.r.! lihllj-itsn-- itnnoscd 1'V?
it:ter?ut:cn;! law. sind ihc relisovs
O! tre;:t:r,'
VZ-X-ll case
will bo done." The tsMirancc was fur-
i thcr ;ive:i, that the decision vi the Mexi -
ran' .-vrrL meal upon ca;-a cairf e of com -
' p'au, fr wi:kV redrew had been de-
iniaidr-J, should !;:: eoa;tUTit'a'.cu .to trie; ico !;as so onj am;?e;i, r..u ..n
fovcraro?nt of tlse U:iu:d -i;atcs by the' promptly complied with her re p.ust. A
Mcxic;n minister at Wjishing'cii. ' second convetion wa? accordiny ccn
fhese ivUinu a5ur:.scci, in an ' en-: eluded between ihs iwo ovcrameat3 on.
swer to our- tli-atand for redress?, were " iha thirtieth of J-ntiary, iH-13,vhieh upon
di-re-arded. Bv mahing them, however its Ihce declares that -nhhs new arrtie
Merh'ro obtained farther delay. IVsm-J meat is entered into for the accomodation
rV7V..-t i!uri in bis fanuai mesi--a?e to; cf Mexico." ' IW the tenn.s of tiiis ,con-
Ccn-Tes.-? of the fifih of December, 183T,
Mates that "a!:ac?h t.he larcer number
of our H.'-nunda tor redress, uad. many
ol titeni - aggravated cases cl personal ;
wrou-'s. have S.-een now for voars - before!
tin: Mexican govciianvnt, and cocas oft
tae cmitTft o! nattonat eornplainl, ana
those of ihc me.-t oC'Vn-ive cii iracter, ad -
j milieu ol immediate, simple, and catisfac
i toiy replies, it is only within a few days
pus, la at any . spcciue conunuracanon in
iinswer to our la.U demand, inade live
mouths ago, has been received from the
Mexican minister-," and that " for not
one of our public complaints hss satisfac
tion been given or ofji-red ; that hut one of
the cases of personal wrong has been
favorably considered, and that bat four
cases of bath descriptions, out cf all those
foniially presented, sud earnestly pressed,
have as yci bsca decided upon by the
Mexican lovoramer.i."' president Van
liurcn. behoving iiut i: vrouhl ha vain' io
mak any farther atLempi to obtain redress
by the ordinary means wil'iia ih.e power
of the Executive, communicated this c
pion to Congress, in th? message refer
red to, in whio'i he read, "On a careful
an-ldeliheralc exnuiinatioa of the con
tents," (cf the correspca.Itace with tlie
Mexican govcrpaaen!,) " considering
ti! spirit manifested lv t!.e Mexican gov
ernment, it has hocciae my jiainfal duty
to return the- subjeel as it now stands, to
Congres.7, to whom it belongs, to decide .
up;m the time, tl.e mode, and the measure
of redress. ' Had the United States at
thfct tima adopted compulsory- measaes,
and taken redress into tlieir own h.and3, all
car difficulties, wii'a Mexico would prob
ably have been long since adjusted, and
tlie existing war l;ac been averted.
Maninimity and ;ao leraiion oa our pert
only had the effect to complicate these
difhem1 ties, ana render an amicable set
tlement cf them the mere embarrassing.
That such res of redress under
similar provocations, committed hy any
of the powerful nations of Europe, would
have been promptly resorted to by the
United Sfates, cannot be ;-doplel. The
national honor, and die preservation of the
national character throughout the .world,
as well as own gt-If-resnect, and the pro
tection uae to our own citizens, .woum
have rendered such a resort indispeasihlev
The hiitory of no ci vilized nation in modr
cm times has presented within so brief a
period so many waalon attacks upon the
honor of its i!a', end upon the properly
and persons of its citizens, as had at 'thy I
time been borne by the United Stales
from iho .Mexican authorities and people.
Ihit Mexico was a j ts:-r repum;-, on :::a
Norih American centi leal, occapying a
territory continuous to our own, and wa3
in a feeble and - distracted condition; and
these considerations, it h presumed, in
duced Congress Io forbear still longer.
Instead of taking redress into our own
hands, a now negry.i ittoa was eatnrod up
on with fair promises tin the part cf .Mex
ico, but with ihc real purpose, as the event
has proved, of indeaaiteiy p-eV.poaing the
reparation which we demanded, and
which was so justly due. This negotia
tion, after more than a year's delay, re
sulted ia the convention of the eleventh of
April, I Q'i'J, "far the adjustment of claims
of citizens of the United Slates of Ameri
ca upon the government of the Mexican
republic." Tlie joint board of commis
sioners created by this convention to ex
amine and decide upon these claims was
not organized until ihe month of August,
IS 10, and under the terms of tlie conven
tion they were to terminate their -duties
w ithin eighteen months from thai time.
Four of the eighteen months were con
sumed su preliminary discussions on friv
olous and dilatory points raised by the
Mexican commissioners ; snd it was not
until the month of.December, 1810, that
they commenced the examination of the
ebims cf our ci izeas upon Mexico.
I'oartecn months oaiv remained to exam
ine and decide upon these numerous and
complicated cases. In the month of Feb-
ruarv. 1842: i?r irrm nf ihn rnn-.m-l.i.irtii 1
expired, leading many claims undisposed ing of the insults to our flag which have
cf fur want of lime. '"The claims which occurred ia tlie ports of Mexico, taken
were allowed by ihc Umrd, and hy the place on the high seas, they would them
umpire authorized bv the convention lo selves long since have constituted a etate
decide in case of disagreement between of actual war between the two countries,
the Mexican and American commission- la so long suffering Mexico io violate her
ers, amoanted to two million twenty-six most solemn treat obligations, plunder
thousand one hundred and thirty-nine dol-i our citizen? of their property, and impm
lars and sixty-eight cents. There were on their persons without affording them
pending before the umpire when the com- any redress, wc have failed to perform
mission expired additional claims which one of the first and highest ditties which
had been examined and awarded by the every government owes to its citizens;
American commissioners, and had not and the consequence has been, that many
been allowed by the Mexican commission-! of them have been rcdored from a state of
crs, amounting to nine hundred and twen
ty-eight thousand fix hundred and twenty
seven dollars and eighty-eight cents, upon
which" he did not decide, alleging that'his
authority had ceased with the termination
of the joint commisfcion. Ilesides these
claims, there were others ol American
citizens nmotiniing to three million three
hundred and thirty-fix thousand eight
hundred and thirty-seven tlollars and fire
renW-'htck had been submitted to the
lx)rd, and upon which tliev had not time
to-Cwtuc colore uieir uaai aojouinaeuw
The e;n of two iuii;i'.a tv.ei-:y-?ir
tnnusnndone hundred snd iiiirty-nino Jol-
Urs and sixtv-eight cents, which had t)nc;i
awarded to the rlaimaaw, was a ucja.-uuicu
and ascertained ilehldae by Mexico, ahoot
which there coitid be no dispute, ami
which s!ie w?.3 bound to pay according l
the terms cf the convention. t?ooa after
Biade, the Mexican Overnnca: aked for
ai postponenieat cf the time of tasking pv
n:eaC ailet!: that it would bo inconveni
ent to make the pavment at the time s tip--
; eat
i nlat
. ac?i
ated. In the ? pint ol iorJ?-iring kiuu-
ac?s towards ; biiier rt-puhii-. witlt Mex-
vention,all the interests due ou the awards
which had heen m uij in favor ol the
claimants under the convention of the e-
I ! I . f ' 1 -. r. . 1 "la"
teventti c: iprii, lo-j, was to oe pa.u io
them on the thirtieth of Apr;!, 18-13, and
"the jrincip:d of the said awards, and the
j in'ert accniHig tfieic-on, w.i.s sttputatea
j to "he paid in live yearr; in equal instul-
meats every tnrea , ntcniirs. . aotwiui
standing this new convention was entered
into at ihe request of Mexico, and for the
purpose of relieving her from embarrass
ment, the claimants have only received
the interests due on the thiriieth of April,
1313, and three of the twenty instalments.
Although the payment of tlie sum thus li
q it: i dated, and confessedly due by ?Iexico
to our citizens as indemnity for acknowl
edged nets of outrage and wrong, was se
cured by treaty, the obligations of w hich
are ever .held sacred by all jnst nations,
yet Mexico has violated this solemn en
gagement by failing ana refusing io make
the payment. The two instalments due
in April and Jury, 1S14, under the pecu
liar circumstances connected with them,
have been cssamed by the United States
and discharged to the c'jimnnts, but they
are stiil ihie by .Mexico. Hut this is not
ai! of which wc have just cause of 'com
plain.. To -provide a 'remedy for the
claimants whose cases were not decided
by the. joint commission antler the con
vention of April tiic eleventh. 1339, it was
expressly btipVdated by ihe sixth article cf
th? coineii'.ion of ihe thirtieth of January,
18-13, thai "a new convention shall be en
tered into for tlie settlement of ail claims
of.ihc government and citizens of the Uni
ted States against the republic of Mexico
which were not finally decided by tlie late
commission, which met in the city of
Washington, and of all chains of the gov
ernmeat and citizens of Mexico against the
United Slates."
In conformity with this stipulation, a
third convention was concluded and sign
ed at the city of Mexico on the twentieth
of ?f.')vember, 1843, by the plenipotentia
ries of the two governments, by which
provision was made for ascertaining and
"paying these claims. In January, 184 i.
this convention was ratified hy the Senate
of the United States with two amendments
which were manifestly reasonable in their
character. ' Upon a reference of the a
amendments proposed lo the government
of Mexico, the, same evasions, difficulties,
and delays were interposed which have so
loeg marked the policy of that govern
ment towards the United States. It ins
not even yet decided whether it . would
not accedj to them, although the subject
lias been repeatedly pressed upon its con
sideration. Mexico has thus violated a second time
the faith c! treaties, by failing or refusing
to carrv into effect the sixth article of dm
convention of January, 1 843.
Such is trie history of the wrongs which
we have suffered and patiently endured ,
from Mexi'-o through n long scries of
veers. So far from affording reasonable
satisfaction for the injuries aadiasttits wc
iiad borne, a great aggravation of them
consists in the fact, that while the United
States anxious io preserve a good under
standing with .Mexico, havebeca constant
ly, hat vainly, employed in seeking re
dress for past wrongs, new outrages were
constantly occurring, which have contin
ued to increase our causes of complaint
and to swell dm amount of our demands.
While the citizens of the United States
were conducting a lawful commerce with
Mexico under the guaranty of a treaty ol
"amity, commerce, and navigation," ma
ny cd' them have Buffered all the injuries
which would have resulted from open
war. This treaty,, instead of-affording
protection to our citizens, has been the
means of inviting them into the ports of
Mexicw, that they might be, as they have
been in numerous instances, plundered of
their property and deprived of. their per
sonal liberty if they dared insht on their
ri-'hts. ILa! the unlawful seizures of A-
rn cram ri property, ana the violation oi per-
s'nmil liberty of our citizen-, to say not;i-
affluence to kankniptey. Tiic proud name
of American citizen, which ought to pro-!
tect all who bear tl from insult and inju
ry throughout the world, has afforded no
such protection lo our citizens in Mexico, !
We had ample cause of war against Mcx- :
ico long before the breaking out cf hostil
ities. . TJut even then we forbore totalis!
redress into our owu h-ins, until Mexico
; her!f neccme the ?ressor by ruadir.? :
Souril in Ijostile rrray and shedding the ;
!l!ooJ of oortriuzens. j
tiuch arc the'grave cacscs of complaint;
on the part of the iVitwl States saiust ,
i'.Moxieo causes - with-' eiied ion b.- .
fore the annexation of Texas to llic A-.
mcrirnR Union ; and yet, animated by the :
' love of peace, and a magnanimous mod or-;
stion, we did not adopt those measures of,
redress whirJi.r.nder'sach circcnistanccs
;are thejus-ificd report of injured nations.'
j The annexation of Texas to the Unite! j
Urates eenstitntod no just cause cf oflVnee ;
I to Mexico. Thi pretext that it did so is
wholly inco:is:?it".i!, and irreconcilable j
with well aaihent-ev.ed fact3 connected
with the revolution hv which Texas bc-
Icarue independent of Mexico. Thai tms Mexico her$?!f rclr-i.-itn-r for ti that pe
'may he the more rr.anik-st, it may be pro- i-i f'o:a a4iy fnriber aitrmpt t-j rc csiih.
I por to avert fo tiic cause and to the history j hh hr own at;th.-'rtty over ;bv. frnitorv
: of the principal events of tliat revolution. it cannot tut tc ur--rs:::j t find Mr. if.
j Texas constituted a portion of t!;c an- j UiM-ancgra" (die Hecrcury vi Korei-jn
cient province of Louisiana, ceded to the j A if-or of Mtxiej,) ,c,4.i:p!jtHtn f;at
United States hy France in ihi year 1303. ! f'- shat wii .le ?rriod caizeiis vf'be Vni
; la hjycar 1811), the United States, by ! ed Stales, or rs govcnintfnt. hare Urti
j the Florida treaty, ceded to Spain all that ! honn t!i rebels of Txas, and supry
! part of Louisiana with the present limits them widi ' rrse!?; amuniiinu, -j
of Texas ; and Mexico, by the revolution
which separ.'.d iier from Spain, and rt-n-d?rad
her an independent nation, sacceed-
cd to the risfhts of the mother country over
this territory. In ihe year ISZ1, Mexico!
established a federal constitution, under
which the Mexican republic was compos
ed ol a number of sovereign States, con
fcde.a'ed together in a federal Union sirn
i!rr to cur own. Each of these States
had its own Executive legislature, and;
judiciary, and, for except federal pur-;
poses, was as icdepcn.lent of the general
government, md that of tlie other States,
as is Pennsylvania cr Virginia under oar;
constitution. 1 exes and v oahmla united
and formed one of these Mexican States.
The State constitution which they adopt
ed, and which was approved by the .Mex
ican confederacy, asserted that they were
"free and independent of the other Mexi
can United States, and of every other
power and dominion whatsoever ;" and
proclaimed the great principle of human
liberty, that "the sovereignty of the Sta!
resides originally and essentially in the
general mas of the individuals who com
pose it." To dm government under this
constitution, as well as to thai unde the
federal constitution, the people of Texas
owed allegiance.
Emigrants hem foreign countries, in
cltid;r.T the United JSutes were invited
I jv the rolunizaihot hws f ihe Stdie and
oi list federal government to f-e air in
Tex -is. Advantageous terms were offer
ed to induce them to leave their ov;
C'M.'ii.ry tud become Mexican citizens.
This invitation '.a.s r.cceptsd by many of
our citizens. iu the full bath ihat ni their
new home ihey would be governed by
laws enacted by represee.U'ive 'etM. I
by thciHseh es; an J that ihcir iives, liber
ty, and property would be prutecied by
constitutional guarantees similar to those
which t-xistcd in the republic Ihey had
left. Uadcr a government thus organized
ihey continued until ihe y?.tr 15i5, when
a nit iiary revvltilion broke out in the city
of Mexico, which entire! subverted the
federal and Slate constitutions, ami pla
ced a military dictator at the head f the
Bv a sweeping decree of a Congress
ubserient to the wi!! of the dictator, ihe
scvvral State consntuiians were abolish
ed, and ihe Slates themselves convened
into mere departments of the Central
Government. The people of Texas
were unwilling to submit lo this usurpa
tion. Resistance to such tyranny htcarne
a fiijii duty. Texs was felly absolved
from all allegiance U tlie Central Gov
ernment of Mexico fr.Mii the moment lhat
government had abolished her Stai con
stitution, and ia its place suhali'.nted an t
arbitrary and despotic Central Govern
ment. Such were the 'principal causes of the
Texan revolution, The people of 'I ex
as once determined upon resistance, and
fidW to arms. In ihe ii;idil of these im
portant and exciting events, however,
they did not omit ty place their liberties
upon a secure and permanent foundation.
They elected members to a convention,
whn, in the month uf March, IS36, is
sued a formal decbiraiiou lhat their "po
litical connexion n iih the Mexican na
tion has forever ended, and that the peo
ple of Texas do now constitute a fkei;,
and arc fully invested with ali the rights
and attributes which properly belong u
independent nations." They also adopt
ed for their government a liberal republi
can constitution. About the same tune
Santa Anna, then the did iter uf Mexico,
invaded Texas with a numerous anoy
for the purpose of subduing her people.
a;.d enforcing obedience U his arbitrary
and despmbr giverum!!!. On the twen?
ty-firsi of April, 130, be was. met fv
ihe Texan cuizen-sohliers, and on th.-.t
d.y was achieved by tiiem the memora- j
hie tieiory of Sin Jacint, !y which J
they conquered their . iiidepehdence.
Considering the nttmbrrs ecg.'ged on the !
respective sides, history does not record
a more urimoii achievement. cat'.a
Anna himself was ameng the r.pive.
In die month cf .May, 1 830, Sunt i An
mi acknowledge, by'a treaty wish the;
Texan authorities, in" the most solemn !
form, ihe full," entire, and imfe-! sg.ia.'i ifs Ueited Slats, that Ttxas ii
pendenre of the republic of" It 3 of her teriitorr.
is true he was ihen a prisoner of war. bui Pat tbrre are those wh, ccncedlnj
it hs equally true that be failed to recon- j all litis t.i be true, asurr,e the grenid
qtter Texas, a-d hnd met with signal de- j th,u th trne western boundary of Tcxrs
feat ; tliat his authority had not ben ic- is the Ntv-rvs, instead of the Pin
v'ofced, and tint by virtue of thi3 treaty : Grande : ard that liierfore. i:t mnrrbicg
mj ohtonetl Ids personrd release. Hy iij onr army to tb-e:;l bntik -f the lafer
liosiilities were suspended, and the army J river, we passed he Texan lin, and irv
-hich had invaiied Texas under his com-j vadtd ihe terrimrv of Mexico. A rim
mind returned in persuaace of .this ai , yle st tlemcnl of facts, known to exist,
rsngerrcni, anm hteit. to Mexico. j will concluaivrlv refute such an sssamp
From ihe day thhl the battle of San ti oi. Tex;'.;. :t ceded to the United
Jacinto was fought until the prpenl hour : States by Frnner. in 1803. hs been -Mexico
has iiever possessed th(r power ' .ways clair-cil as exu m'ing wrst in ilt
to conqttpr Texa.. In ihe tangr.e ofj Iiio Gramfe. or Ri lira'o. Thu hici
Hie Secretary of State of tiic Uttited Stales is estllishtd by ihc auihoriiy ( tm?
in a i!vpntrti to ir.;cisrT in Mtis
chrr i:;e of lb ei;hit of July, s j
"Mfiicn my biio e c..,5..jfr"
ru ny fall i-hoose !: rmi-J-r Txi,
as h;i.'g bten t -'.1 ti.5 1SJ5. a.;,l
a3 su.l cninun'-j a rc'-cian pr.i:ir0 ;
but wrhl lis brr-i ob:i:-.t t. tAc
ry thereat tir-.v cf Forj
the xuv.e ? the baii.'e l tjn Jacit.iu. .
Apr.', IS'S'o, to picjent m. i.t-n!, Tex-
as h;.s exhibited i!;e saai cxtemai sir.
cf national iadep.cntlt'r.ce as Mfxir- .tl.
'. -lS ,v i1'- qua? s eii:rn stabihty . f
tt erntnen:. rrncth-atJy free s-d inde.
pendent. a.-lirwU-dcd as a political
ertignty by the -ri-ieip d Tuwecs ii 9
; woriil, r.t ho5.s :oot tt;:Ji.:: rest v.-iu
bcr terri'ofy fir six r yen?, aul
iujuvv, as if the wr fur tat: redoctien cf
the prjinc of Tex is ha.! be. n tsrt v i
ly jysecuted by kexieo. a:id iier ?t:c
ce3 prevented by these influctices frori
ro..d." In thr sin.e despatch l! - Se
crfi-ry tf State affirms thai "tince ISL-T
the Unite J States have reg.udcd Trxj
as an in jt jieac'c'it suvcr-i my, as much
much ns Mexico ; arvl that :ru:! rod com
mence with chizens of a rovcnmin'. 21
war with Mexi o cannot o;i that arc. -.j.t
be regarded as an intercotjr-e bv which
assistance and succor are given t Mexi.
can rebels
The whole current t f Mr.
'e Ibicmsra's retnrKs iuus ia i'iessn
direction as if the independence t f Tr s
had not been acknowledge J. It" b ,i
acknowledged it was hckn-jwlred ia
1 S3." against the re muDSirance a:. a pro
test of Mexico; and m5t of the c's of
any importance, of whn h Mr. de Iducim
egru complains, flow necessa: ily from
that recognition, lie epca'is of Texas
ss still heiiig in intregai p.irtoft.'ic terri
tory of the Mexican republic, fmi r;e can
not but understand that the United Stales
d' pt so regard it. The real comphdut
of Mexico, therefore, is, ia mbsiancet
neither more nor !es3 than a complain,
against the recognition cf Texan inde
pendence. It may fee. thought rathir
.late to repeat thai eoiujdai.ti, 211 J not
quite just to renfnie it to the United States
to tin exemption of England, France,
Ueliiim, unless the United St.tys, hav
ing !iee;i the: first to acknowledge the in
dependence of Mexico hrrstlf, sre to bj
blameJ for setting an exi tip1? far thy
recognition of that cf Texas." Ami la
added, that 'ahe consiimtion, public trea
ties, and the laws oblige the Presided 10
reg.r l Tex;is ys an iad . endent Stnt,
and its territory as m part of the territo
ry of Mexico." T x s h;;d been an in
dependent Sta'e, with Lit r.rgnnized gov
eir.ment, t!e!yin the power of Mexico
lo overthrow or reeomjner her for muro
than leu yer before Mrxk-i coianjen
ced the piaiieni wr cgaiast the United
IVxis had given such evidence to the
world cf her ability 10 maintain Iier sep
arate existence i an i-'dpcmleat naiwa
titat she had been formally rteognized aa
such. tiOt only by lite United Slates, but
!y several of the piineipal powers pf Eu
rope. These power hid enteTd into
treaties of aail'.j, connierce, and naviga
tion wiih f:er. Tl.ey had received and
accredited iier ninistcs and other diplo-nr-itic
agents at their respective courts,
ami they b :d troui&isicnc J a;ir:iter ane!
dipi 'nutie en ihvir r-n In the
gojrerninen; of 'IVxas. If .Mrxii o, ikh
withstanding all this, and her titter i"a-
biiity to subd.j? or recwn-rpier Texas, Mill
stubbornly re-fu-cd !a irot-nizs hrr as un
iadepci.ilfui sialioii, d.e was nonathi bss
so cm th-t arcoutu. Mexico I. erelflud
Lecn recv:gszd as aa independant na
lin by the United Elates, and by o.her
powers, maoy years btl to Spai i. of
wlaeb, before her revolution, she h:d
been a colony, would agree to recogr. ;zs
bcr as such ; and yet Mex'fo was ai lh..t
time, in ihe estimation of the civi'ized
ri?r!d, am! in fact, none tlie less sin inde
pendent power because Spain still claim
ed her as a colony. If Spain find con
tinued tiiiii! the piesent period lo assert
that Mexico v.a? one of her colonic? ia
te'ecUmn -gainst her. this would net h ive
aade hsr so, or changed the fact cf her
independent, existence. Texa. at the
period of her annexation to the United
States, core the same relation to Mexico Mexico had borne loSp:,i; fur many
years before Spain acknowledged her in
dependence, with this import;. tit differ
ence tht. before the annexation of
Texas to tlie United Statas was consum-e-:te:I,
.Mexico herself, by i formal art
of bcr govern:r:e:it, b id acknow ledg? !
ir.e iudepeiiJence of Texas as a nation.
It is Tee. that in ihe act of recognition
he prescribed a romiiiion h liich she bad
no power nr authority to impose, that
Texas ?hou!J not annex herself to miy
ether Power; but thia could not deirnct
iJ 3,l !' c B !1 1 ,; ,l k - o""" -t IJil
Mexico then made of her actual inaepea Upon thi plain statement of
f""'s. l ' absurd for Mexico ,i l!r2e,
r.s a pretext for commencing hostihiic