The Somerset herald and farmers' and mechanics' register. (Somerset, Pa.) 183?-1852, January 20, 1846, Image 1

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" 'W Pi - w " "" : -" (TH (f- fpfi
: ASICS' R3S-I373S.
Vol. 4.-No. 10.
New Series.
Brown Muslins. (j?e.
1000 TDc!;
Brown Muslin;
uon 1 am; Cotton
Laps, Wadding, and
the bm Candla
"Wick, fur sle at the
twa three niR noons.
(successors lo II. Coulter &. Co.)
"$7 HOLES AS E Grocers. Commis
V V in and ForwarJiirg Merchants,
Dealers m Produce and Pittsburg Manu
facture?, ixih street, between Wood and
l.ihffv, Pittsburgh, Pa. jnl 5
Somerset County, ss.
i'iUSr JCS in 3?ijoHrned Orphans'
court hel l at Somerset
'a a"J ,3'J county on tie
VU 8:h Jar of Decerbber. A, D.
165. Before the IIo:iur-b!e
Jeremiah S B ack, sr:d his associate ji J
ges i f the sittr.e court.
On ir.u'.ion if Danifl Wryar.d, Ea,
the ci:rt confirm t!.e inquisition oti ti.e
re.l c-sNie of J!.n Garriian, dec!. and
grant rule on th i;irs and lecl rerre
ffr.!atiesof nid dcccascJ, to appear at
an a'j turned Orphans rou.t, lo be ht!J
at S -n.ersct on the 2d day of Mire!, next,
tn 1 accept or refi:e to take the rcsl es
tae of f-iJ J.'!i:i G.rrri.n, e'ee'd, at t!:e
.:a fed price.
Extract from the recorJs of said court,
certified this S;h lv f December. 1S45.
dec2fi45 Clerk.
Somerset County, ss.
IS45,. Before the lUnoralle
Judges thereof.
Oa motion of F. M. Kimmel, Esq.,
the court confirm the inquisition on the
real eelte of Elizabeth Poorba:gh, de
ce .se.l, and grant a rule on the heir? and
legal representatives of ssid iieceaed, to
appear at an adjourned Orphans Court,
l be lit Id at Somerset on Monday the
2d day of Marcli next, and accept or re
fuse to take the real estate sf said Eliza
beth Poorbaugh, dee'd, at the appraised
Extract from the record f said court
certified this Sth day of December, A.
D. 1843. WM l PICKING,
dgi?3 M5 Clerk.
Containin? s Choice ?e!crlior cf Pa'm nJ
HvmTj Tuar. Suited to the Tarjous .Vetrri
Dw in use among diSerfnt Keli
giou DcnoiniDatious in the Uni
ted State: JesijncJ for tie
uu of I'uhJic and Fni
ilj worship.
Corrected. Enlarged, and macli
"fOURTEENTII Stereotype edition.
JL: Wholesale price TDK EE DOL
LARS PEU DOZ. For sale W hole
tale and Re tail bv
Dooksellers, Printers & Hinders,
Pittsburgh, Pa.
J. & S. hare cn hand a large and ex
tensile assortment of SCHOOL AND
they will sell low for cash, or exchange
fnr rags at ca?h prices. j3n6"4G 3l .
F ;R 0 CI. AM AT I OX.
VT7HEREAS the honorable Jeremi-
T ah S. I'lack, President, and O.
Chorppnnii,5 and John M'Cnrty, Esqs ,
sssocia:e Judjes of the court c.f common
pleas, in sr.d for the county of Somerset,
nd assistant Justices of the courts of oyer
nd terminer and general jail delivery and
quarter sessions of the peace, in and for
taiJ county of Somerset, have issued
their precept to me directed, requiring
me amon other tilings to make public
proclamation throughout my bailiwick,
that a court of oyer and terminer and
general jail delivery: eIso, a court of gen
eral quarter cessions of the peace and
jail dclirery, will commence at the bor
ough of Somerset, in and for the county
of Somerset, in the commonwealth of
Pennsylvania, on the 2d Monday of
February next, (9;h day) in pursuance
of which precept
Public Xoticc is Iierebv jrir-
en. in the justices of the peace, the coro
ner, i,jvl constables of sVid roup.ty of
Si!eret, that 'hev be thru and there, in
their own proper persons, with their
roSli, records examinations, and inquisi
tions, and other remembrances, to do
those things which to their offices apper
tain in that behalf to be done and also all
those who prosecute sgainst the priso
ners that are, or then shall be, in the jil
of the said county of Somerset, are to be
then and there to prosecute against them
a sIi all be just.
Given under my hand, at Somerset, this
Cth day of January, in the year of
our I-orl 1846.
trj, k T an adjourned Orphans'
TrV. j Court held at Somerset
"-"WJkIt n andjfor sai." county, on the
S i! day of December. A. 0.
Sweet be her dreams, the fair, the young!
Grace, beauty breathe upon her!
Music, haunt thou about her tongue!
Life, fill her path with honor I
All golden thoughts, all wedih of days.
Truth, Friendship, Love, surround her!
So may she smile till life be closed.
And angd hands have crowned her!
7i the Sencfe end IhfM of ReprtsenlcTites;
(EXTLEMr.N: I he general health of ;
the people, the rich rewards of husband-
ry, the quickening spirit that pervades j
trade and industry, the enlarged prosperi
ty c f our country, and its advuncc in mo
ral and intellectuU atainr;ents these,
under a just sense of our dependence,
swell our grateful acknowledgment, at
this time to 1 1 in from whose benificence
they ali proceed. Nothing has occurred
tn-e the adjournment of the legislature,
10 interrupt the harmony or check the
energies of our Commonwealth. On the
contrary, intelligent enterprise has been
every where crowned with success.
The exertions of our people to meet
the engagements of the State, have thus
fir letn successful. The payment, by a
number of counties, of the whole amount
of their taxes for 1645, several months
before the time at which they have here
tofore been collected, added more than
$300,000 to the effective revenues of the
vc-ir; end the last Legislature having ex
cluded certain classes of debts from the
thins to be immediately provided for by
the Treasury, we have ben cnabicu to
pay the interest which fell due on the
funded debt within the past fiscal year.
On the first day of the present Session,
the balance remaining in the 1 reasury
was about $025,000, which, with the ac
cruing revenues, will be applicable to the
demands of the first of next month. We
have thus the reasonable and gratifying
assurance, that the interest will then also
be punctually paid.
The Public debt of Pennsylvania, on
the 1st of December, 1845, as appears
from the report of the Auditor General,
was as follows:
Funded debt, $30,739,207 13
Relief Xctcs in circulation, 1,258,571 00
Interest Certificates out
standing with interest
thereon, 2,8SS.S03 30
Due to Domestic Creditors, 90,750 -13
$40,960,393 22
The interest upon which,
according to the Auditor
General s computation
for 184C, is
The balance in the Trea
sury on the 1st Decem
ber 1814, was
2,023,996 09
CG3.S51 88
The receipts into the same
during the year ending
on the 30th November
last, as appears in detail
by the reports of Audi
tor General and State
Treasurer, were 3,010,002 31
Makingan ?gf:rentcsumof3,673,9H 22
The payments from the
Treasury, during the
same period.were. accor
ding to the reports of the
same omccrs,
3,289,02S 13
Which being deducted from
the above, shows the ba
lance in the Treasury,
on the 1st December,
1845, 3S4.8S0 09
Being less by $278,905 79.
than it was on the 1st
December, 184 4.
The nett amount of araila
ble outstanding taxes on
real and personal estate,
after making allowances
for collections and exon
erations, on the 1st Dc- . -cember,
1844, was esti
mated by the late State
Treasurer at $SS7,30l
71. It appears, howev
er, from a subsequent es
timate, founded upon
more full returns and a
more accurate knowl
edge of the extent of ex
onerations, tliat the a- '
jnount actually outstan
ding on that day, was 1,009,778 03
The nett and available a-
mount outstanding on
the 1st December, 1845,
is estimated at
874,544 50
The amount of outstanding
taxes on the 1st Decern
ber, 1845, is, therefore,
less than it was on the
1st December, 1814, by
the sum of
Adding to this sum the dif
ference between the bal
ance in the Treasury on
the 1st December, 1844,
snd the 1st December,
135,233 53
1845, - - - 278,965 79
We have an aggregate n
- duction of die balance
in the Treasury and of
outstanding taxes on the -
1st dav of December,
1845, as compared with
the same items on the
1st Dec. 1811, of 414,199 32
From this statement it is apparent, that
the receipts into the Treasury, during the
year, derived from taxation on real and
personal estate, and oilier sources of reve
nue properly belonging to the year, were
less than the demands upon the Treasury
for the same period, by the amount above
stated. And it is also apparent, that if
the Legislature had not postponed the
pavment of the domestic creditors, and
the interest on the certificates issued for
interest, and if the cancellation of a por
tion of the relief notes required under ex
isting laws to be cancelled, had not been
deferred, the whole balance in the Trea
sury would have been exhausted on the
1st of December last.
For the purpose of convenient refer
ence I hare appended to this communica
tion, a summary statement (marked A.)
of the receipts and expenditures of the
past year, with an estimate, prepared with
much care and deliberation, for the cur
rent year endinr on the 30th November,
According to this, the re
ceipts of the year from
all sources, including 81,
300,000, from Lnxes on
real and personal eslats,
will be $3,2 17,700 00
Which added to the balance
in the Treasury on the
1st December, 1815, S81,8S0 09
Makes an aggregate of $3,002,580 09
Deducting from which, the
estimated payments du
ring the same period, $3,513,990 09
We arrive at an estimated
balance in th Treasury
on the 1st day of Dee.
1816, of " 88,590 00
Which is less by $290,290
09, than it was on Lhe
1st of Deeem!er, 1815.
The amount of outstanding
taxes on real and perso
nal estate, considered a
railable, on the 1st De
cember, 1845. was $874,511 50
To this is to be added the
assessment for 1816,
which, according to tho
best estimates, will yield
a nett revenue, after de
ducting allowances for
expenses of collections
and exonerations, of $1,180,000 00
Making an aggregate of $2,051,544 50
If from this aggregate we
deduct the estimated col
lections from these sour
ces, during the year, 18
40, $1,300,000 00
The difference, $751,544 50
Will be the estimated amount of taxes,
which, on the 1st December, 1816,
will remain outstanding being $120,
000 00 less than was outstanding on
the 1st day of December, 1845.
When to the reductions, thus to take
place, in the outstanding taxes within
the current year, $120,000,00
We add the difference be
tween the balance in the
Treasury, on the 1st day
of December, 1845, and .
the estimated balance in
the Treasury on the 1st
of Dec. 1810, $296,290.09
We arrive at
an aggregate
reduction of these
items, within the fiscal
vear, ending 30th Nov.
1646 of C-4 16,296,09
From this view of the subject it is ap
parent, that the assessment of the year
1846, on real and personal estates, and
the revenues of the year proper, deriva
ble from all other sources, taken together,
will be insufficient to meet the demands
upon the Treasury, during the same pe
riod, by the sum of $416,296 09; and
that in supplying the deficiency the bal
ance in the Treasury, on the 1st of De
cember, 1846, will have been reduced to
$88,590 00, and the arrears of outstan
ding taxes to the sura of $754,544 50.
It is plain, therefore, that our present fi
nancial system is inadequate to supply
the means of meeting all the demands o'ni
. .... . 'f
the Treasury, except when aided from the
balance which had accumulated before
the payment of interest was resumed, and
by collections from the arrearages of taxes
of former years both of which will
soon be exhausted.
I ara constrained to add, that all these
calculations and estimates, pre-suppose
diat the demands on the Treasury will
not be permitted to transcend their ordi
nary limits, and diat no appropriauons
will be made by the Legislature to new
objects. These are not anticipated, be
cause in the present slate of the finances,
every new appropriation may well be re
garded, not as a grant of money uninccm-
1 bered in the Treasury, but xather a an
aulraction-4ir. funds, specifically appro-
priated already, and rightfully belonging
to the public creditors.
The deficit in our means, under exis
ting laws, presents for the deliberations
of the General Assembly, a topic of para
mount importance. It may be remem
bered, that, in the month of January last, ?
I expressed the opinion, in an Executive
message, that our finances had not then
reached a condition to enable us, perma
nently, ?nd rt once, to resume payment
of the full interest on our public debt.- I
regret that subsequent examinations and
reilttrtions, have not permitted me lo be
lieve that I was' then in error. But the
legislative action on the question has
changed the entire aspect of our duties,
and rendered it useless to revert to former
views of policy. The payment of in
terest on the funded debt of the Common
wealth, was, in fact, resumed on die first
of February, 1845. By that act, the;
State asserted her present ability to meet
her engagements; and it must bs our care
that the pledge, thus renewed, be not a
gain violated. The credit, fidelity and
honor of Pennsylvania, all demand, that,
henceforward the interest on her public
dbt shall be punctually and fully paid. t
Heretofore, we might have pleaded the
unexpected failure of the Deposilory
Bank of the State, a few days before the
interest was payable and when the mo-
neys appropriated to its discharge were ,
accumulated in her vaults, the sudden I
destruction in value of nearly the entire
currency in general use the prostration ;
of individual credit, and the deep and uni- !
versal pecuniary embarrassments of the j
people. But now, all are prospering, !
the currency is restored to a good degree
of soundness our revenue system, though
still imperfect, has greatly increased in
cflcctivcness and certainty enterprize is
renewed, and the people, happy in their
institutions, and confident in themselves,
look to the appropriate action of the Le
gislature to make provisions to satisfy the
public wants.
The present period is, in truth, the cri
sis of our affairs. Prompt and effective
measures now. to make a moderate addi
tion to our revenue, will restore to Penn
sylvania, for all future time, that proud
position from which she has temporarily
been made to stoop, by a course of poli
cy that never met the approval" of her
people. But the addition must be made
at once. Unless the estimates that have
been presented, shall prove essentially er
roneous, the balance in the Treasury, on
the first of December, 1846, will not ex
ceed one huudred thousand dollars. It
is, therefore, obvious, that, if the receipts
at the Treasury, during the months of
December, 1816, and January, 1847, do
not greatly exceed die receipts of die
corresponding months of any preceding
year, when the amount of outstanding
taxes was greater than it will be then, a
deficit must occur in die means of the
Treasury, to pay the interest, which will
become due on the 1st of February, 1847.
The necessity of the adoption of imme
diate and efficient measures, to guard a
gainst a result which would be so fatal to
die renewed faith and honor of the State,
cannot be too strongly enforced upon the
attention of the Legislature.
Intimately connected with the subject
of our finances, is that of the Banking
system of the State. The evils that have
resulted from the manner in which it has
been administered, and some of those
more essentially connected with its or
Conization and tendencies, have been felt
by all. Yet, it may well be doubted,
whether die whole of the mischiefs which
it has instigated, have been traced back to
their fruitful and pernicious cause. Not
only has it stimulated individuals to ruin,
but States have been led by its seductive
and corrupting influences, into a course of
wild extravagance, and consequent bank
ruptcy. Public debts have been contrac
ted, even die interest of which could
scarcely be met, by the most onerous tax
ation; while, in other caes, die faith of
die government, which ought always to
be held sacred, has been violated in time
of profound peace.
The history of Pennsylvania, since the
beginning of the year 1836, is a painful
illustration of this truth. In December,
1835, when Governor Wolf retired from
office, twr months before the incorpora
tion of die Bank of die United States, the
State debt of Pennsylvania was $24,589,
743 22. It is now, exclusive of the a
mouni received as a deposits from the
the general government, $40,986,393 23,
makin? an increase of the State debt, in
of $16,390,649 90,. notwidi-
.- 1: ' . , .: r
standing die receipt, in the mean time, cf
$2,867,514 78 of surplus revenue from
the United States, and of $3,446,780 21
as premiums for Bank Charters.
In contemplating this startling fact, we
naturally look round for die meritorious
objects of State policy, for which this
vast aggregate of twenty-two and three
quarter millions of dollars, has been ex
pended. We find none of any magnitude. The
main line of Canal and Railway, between
Philadelphia and Pittsburg, had been cora-
rpleted, and was in successful operation.
1 ne Delaware division, the Susquehanna
and North Branch divisions, to the mouth
of the Lackawanna, the AVest Branch di-
vision to Queens' Run, the Beaver divi- ' cy. An unnatural n? or yrircn n 1.1
sionto New Casde, the Franklin lire. ' consequence. Importation mcn-me in
and the French Creek Feeder, were all defiance of any dienpiimung tariff ex
substantiallv finisfctl when Governor j travag-mce invades all the d'partinenU of
Wolf left the the Executive Chair: and ' society indefinite credit inntrs to a
die sum of $31 4.010 09, was all that re- I
mained to be raid for completing them.
The State had rtached a point in her
improvement svstcm, at which the could
hav suspended operations without loss.
The scheme cf direct taxation, to pay
die interest, on the State loans, whic
h hid
been introduced isailrr Corcrnor Wolfs
administration, was admonishing the pro
pie of the inconvenience of a public debt.
Everr diing indicated tut the further
progress of our Sut? improvement was
to be deferred, till time had tested the
productiveness of the finished works, and
the increasing def lopm'-nt of our resour
ces had invited and justified their further
It was at this time, that the act of 18th
February, 1636, was passed, entided, "an
act to repeal the State tax on real snd
personal property, and to continue and
extend the improvements of the State by
Rail Roads and Canals, and to charter a
State Bank, to be called the United States
Bank." The first sec.ion of this act re
scinded the system of taxes, which had
been devised for the protection of the
public credit while, by other sections,
.more than two millions of dollars to be
received lroin the Bank, were appropria
ted at once to the prosecution . of Com
pany works, and the commencement of
new ones, under the direct charge of die
State. To enable the Commonwealth to
consumate diis wild extension of im
provements, six millions of dollars were
promised as a permanent loan to the
State, an interest of four per cent, and
olhi-r loans at the same rate were to be
made, when required, to the amount of
one million of dollars annually. Under
the impulse of this Act, and of the influ
ence which effected its passage, a new
series of improvements were begun at
once, all of which, after die expenditure
of many millions, now forming part of
the public debt, and the cause of increas
ed taxation, have been abandoned by the
State, and have passed, most of them, into
the hands of companies, which have paid
no consideration for them.
It even seems, that the State has not
limited its gratuities to the works thus
commenced. The Beaver division, and
the Wyoming line, on the North Branch,
embracing forty-three miles of Canal m
actual use, and the French Creek Feeder,
costing together $1,222,927 81, and all
of them finished in 1S35, have been given
away to companies, and leave the State
with a less extended system of improve
ments now, than it had when die Bank
of the United States was chartered.
The progress of these works was mark
ed by the declining credit of the State,
until, after the most desperate resorts,
the sale of a further suspension to the banks
in 1810, and a loan in 1S41, by the
State to herself, by the device of issuing
relief notes the proclaimed bankruptcy
of the Commonwealth forcibly arrested
But the evil did not stop here. When
the works were abandoned, the State
was largely indebted to the contractors, ed.
whose claims were regarded as of prima- These recommendations have special
ry obligation. To satisfy them, a law j reference to applications from existing
wes passed, requiring the sale of die Bank j banks. In my judgment die capital now
stock, and other slocks which were own- j invested in these institutions is amply ad
ed by the State. These stocks, which : equate to the business wants of the coin-
had cost the Treasury nearly $4,200,000 j munity. The times do not indicate tha
were, at a most unpropitious moment, j present necessity of any additional stimu
sacrificed for a fraction more dian $1,- j ius to the spirit of enterprize. and I can
! 405,000. not allow mvself lo hazard, bv any act
However painful these recollections of j of mine.a possible renewal of die excc
pecuniarv loss may le there were at- scs, which we have witnessed eo recent-
tendant circumstances of graver and more ly.
j momentous concern to the patriot. A Pennsylvania combines in an eminent
j new element cf power found its way ' degree the diree great elements of indi
into our elections. The elecdve fran- 1 vidual and national wealth, agricultuture.
chisc was violated and abused the dec-
larations of the public will w.ere disre-
i garded and defied, and the very existence
j of our free institutions was menaced with
revolution and destruction. I allude to
the memorable crisis of 1838, when a
direct attempt was made, by die leaders
of a minority, to usurp the government,
and to substitute their dictation for the
voice of the majority of the people.
These scenes had their origin, bevond
j doubt, in a spirit cf reckless confidence in
the power and corrupting influence of
money to control the State.
Apart from these political considerations
influence of a vitiated paper system
upon die general and ordinary interests
of life, is baneful and pernicious. Hith
erto, dicrc has virtually been nothing in
the organization of Banks to limit the ex
tent and define the character of their ac-
j tion, but the discretion of the directors.
A few individuals, constituting the effi
cient portion of the Boards of management
are. in fact, the depositories of this discre
tion: and as a general rule, subject no
eMions, it
is exercised with primary, if not exciu
stve, reference to the supposed m.c
of the i?ank.
While the business of the country pros
pers, and the spirit of speculating enter-
j prize is stimulated by success, they ex-
tec their accommocaaons itoeraiiy, ana
1 fill die channels of circulation with
"a redundant and depraved curren-
n of indebtedness, til!.
at la-t, the laws of trade, uuo.unging a
j " nature, produce re .ot.on. and i.w
j "h!e artificial mehmery is crus.'e,
(The people of the country are inucjtra
! t the cities; die cu.e arc indebted a-
broa-I, where the promises oi the tins
are not excepted as inonev; and the bank
arc called upon to redeem their notes in
coin. This they can d bv draw
ing in their means, refusing new accomo
dations, and pressing their debtors for
payment. The circulation of the coun
try is suddenly contracted, property is
sacrificed, in many instances without re
lieving the debtor; and his en?rgi'?s art
par-Jizcd by hoptless insolvency.
Such, within the recent memory o all
of u. has been the action of a vitinu-d
tanking system on the faith of the Stato,
the stability of her institutions, and thu
free energies of her people. It has
taught us a grievous lesson of suffering;
but it will not have been altogether un
productive of good, if it Ins impressed on
us the solemn and imperative duly of
guarding against a recurrence of similar
The abuses of the banking system aro
found in many forms; but they are asstii
tially the same in their origin zvA;
excessive issues of paper, and its conse
quent depreciation. To give the power
of manufacturing nvn-.'v. vet ctTictua!U
to limit its exercise, by legislation, is
practically impossible. It is obvious,
diat no enactment can absolutely prevent
die unlawful issue of paper by a bank,
which has die lawful right to issue any.
Returns of bank officers, .however exact
ly prescribed, or honestly mad;-: give no
security for the periods that elapse be
tween them; and inspections of the affairs
of the Banks bv commissioners, which
have been resorted to in other States, are
apt to induce a dangerous reliance on die
vigilance of such officers.
It may be, diat the principle of indi
vidual liability for corporate engagements,
which has recendv been inserted in soms
of our charters, may, when properly ex
tended and made more directly operative,
secure not only the'ereditor from loss, but
the currency from dangerous H actuations.
The experiment should be fairly made in
the case of every Bank that may ask "a
renewal of its charter. That its progress
may be the better tested, I rcsjec'.fully
recommend that the banks be required u
make monthly returns of their condition,
to the Auditor General; and that these be
so arranged, a to present a more com
plete and exact view of their transactions,
than is furnished under the existing law.
This will facilitate the future inquiries of
the Legislature, and die periodical pub
lication of the returns, will secure to su-h
of the banks, as are legitimately
tered, die reward of their faithfulness, ia
die increased confidence cf the public.
I need scarcely add, diat the claims of the
banks to general confidence should be
thoroughlv investigated, aud fully ascer-
; taineu, belore their charters are
' commerce, and manufactures; and thu
j pursuits and industry of her people, are
profitably divided among them. Iler
hills and mountains arc almost every
where filled with inexhaustible supplies
of iron ore, and mineral C02I: and her val
leys abound with water power for pro
pelling machinery, in die miJat of th
finest agricultural regions. She has con
structed, at great cost, a line of improve
ments by canals and railways, ronntcu;;g
the waters of die Adantic with those of
the great West; which not only affords
our ovn citizens a cheap and convenient
modo of transporting dieir prouuets Uj
market, but also benefits die internal
and commerce of a large portion of t-ifl
other States of die Union.
The North and West Branch Canals,
and the Delaware Division, in connex
ion with various improvements owned by
companies, besides opening markets to
the productions of die firmer, furnish
out-lets for our coal and minerals, by
which not only our own citizens are
j supplied, but also those of die neighbor-
ing and Eastern Stales, to the great au-
vantage of both. Manv parts of the
State are also found most favorably
dapted to die growing of wool, auu'er
great sl3pie of nations! independea-f: jl
the successful application of mineipo
to the smelting of iron, has Weu a nf w
impetus, among us. to uits most import-
ant of all the branches of msnufjcMr.
It ia npt surprising, therefore, th?-cur
thriftless extensio