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PRINTED AND PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY JONATHAN ROW, SOMERSET, SOMERSET COUNTY, PA.
punfcrtb ijtnro SIgo.
Where, where arc all Oie birds lliat sang
" A lntmlred years ago !
The flowers vhat all in beauty sprang
The lips that smiled,
The eyes that wild
In flashes shone
Soft eyes upon
Where, oh where, arc lips and eyes.
The maiden's smiles, the lover's sighs,
That lived so long ago !
Who peopled all the city street,
A hundred years ago ?
"Who filled the church with faces meek,
A hundred years ago!
The sneering tale
Of sister frail,
The plot that work'd
A brother's hurt,
Where, oh where; are plots and sneers,
The poor man's hope, the rich man's fears,
That lived so long ago ?
Where are the graves where dead men slept
A hundred years ago ?
Who were they the living wept
A hundred years ago ?
Ily other men
That knew not them.
Their lands are tilled :
Their graves are filled :
Yet nature then was just as gay;
And bright the sun shone as to-day,
A hundred years ago ?
Stfltvuttiou nnBSacUf na
BY REV. J. C. S. ABBOTT.
Scio was one of the largest, richest and
most beautiful islands of the Grecian Ar
chipelngo. It contained, at the commence
ment of the Greek Revolution, 120,000
inhabitants. Extensive commerce had
brought to the island the treasures of the
Kast nnd V.t, mid her opulent families,
refined in manners by European travel,
and with minds highly cultivated, afforded
the most intelligent and fascinating socicty
of the East. " Schools flourished upon
the island, and richly endowed colleges
M ere crowded with Grecian youth. The
traveller, lured by the moonlight of that
gorgeous clime to an evening stroll through
the streets of Scio, heard from the dwel
lings of the wealthy Greeks the tone of
the piano and guitar, touched by fingers
t-killed in the polite accomplishments.
Many of these families were living in the
enjoyment of highly cultivated minds
and polished manners, rendered doubly
attractive by all the establishments of
The Grecian revolt extended to this is
land, and Sultan Mahamoud resolved up
on signal vengeance.. He proclaimed to
all the desperadoes of the Bosphorus that
the inhabitants of Scio, male and female,
with all their possessions, were to be en
tirely surrendered to the adventurers, who
would embark in the expedition for its
destruction. Every ruffian of Constanti
nople crowded to the Turkish fleet. The
ferocious and semi-savage boatmen of the
IJosphorus, the scowling, Christian-hating
wretches, who m poverty and crime,
thronged the lanes and the alleys of the
Mo.slcm city; rushed eagerly to the squad
ron. Every scoundrel and renegade up
on the frontiers of Europe and Asia, who
could come with knife or club, was recei
ved with a welcome. In this way a re
inforcement of about ten thousand assas
sins, the very refuse of creation, were
collected, and other thousands followed on
in schooners, aud sloops, and fishing
boats, swelling the number to about fifteen
thousand men, to join in the sack and the
carnage. The fleet dropped down the
IJ.isphorus amid acclamations of Constan
tinople, Pcra, and Scutari, and the rever
berations of the parting rolled along the
chores of Europe and of Asia.
It was a lovely afternoon in the month
of April, 1822, "when this fleet was seen
on the bosom of the .Egcan, approaching
Sio. It anchored in the bay, and imme
diately vomited forth upon those ill-fated
Fhores the murderous hordes collected
for tlu:ir destruction. Who can imagine
the horrors of the night which eusucd I
This brutal mob, phrenzied with licen
tiousness and rage, were let loose with
unrestrained liberty to glut their ven
geance. The city was fired in every di
rection. Indiscriminate massacre ensued.
: Men, women and children were shot
down without mercy. Every house was
entered; every apartment was ransacked.
The scymetar and pistol of the Turk
were every where busy. The frantic
cries of the perishing rose above the roar
of exploding artillery and musketry, and
the clamor of the onset. Mothers and
daughters in their despair rushed into the
Haines of their burning dwelling And
thus, for mx dreadful days and nights, did
y termination continue, till
thecitv and the island of Scio were
Several thousand of the youth of both
sexes were saved to be sold as slaves.
The young men taken from the literary ;
seclusion and intellectual refinement oi the ;
college of Scio, were sold to the degraded j
servitude of hopeless bondage. The young
ladies taken from the Darlors of their opu-!
lent parent, from ths accomplishments of
highly cultivated life, and who had visi
ted in the refined circles of London and
Paris, who had been brought up as deli
cately, says an English writer, i4as luxuri
ously and almost as intellectually as those
of the same classes among ourselves, be
came the property of the most ferocious
and licentious outcasts of the human race."
It is said that forty-one thousand were
carried into slavery. For weeks and
months they were sold through all the
marts of the Ottoman empire, like slaves
in the South, or cattle in the shambles.
As the fleet returned to Constantinople
from its murderous excursion, the whole
city was on the alert to witne?s the trium
phant entrance. As the leading ship
rounded the point of land, which brought
it into view of the whole city, many cap
tured Greeks were seen standing on deck
with ropes around their necks, and sud
denly they w ere strung up to the bow
sprit and every yard arm struggling in the
agonies of death. And thus, as ship af
ter ship turned the point the struggling
forms of dying men swung in the breeze.
These were the horrid ornaments and tro
phies of barbarian triumph. In view of
them the very shores of the Bosphorus
seemed to be shaken by the explosion of
artillery, and by the exulting shouts of
the millions of inhabitants who thronged
the streets of Constantinople, Pera and
These outrages however terminated the
sway of the Turk over the Grce'c; they
aroused through all Europe an universal
cry of horror and detestation. The sym
pathy of the people was so intense, that
the governments of England and France
could no lomrer refuse to interfere. Their
fleets allied with that of Russia. The
Turkish navy was annihilated at Navari
no, and Greece was free.
TIic Mines of the Union.
Iron, it is said, is found in every State
in the Union. A correspondent of the
New York Gazette, in giving a sketch of
the metalic resources of the United States,
savs that the most valuable iron mine is
oire in Salisbury, Conn., which yields
3000 tons annually. The mines in Du
chess and Columbia counties, N. Y., pro
duce annually 20,000 tons of ore; Essex
county 1500 tons; Clinton 3000; frank
lin 600: St. Lawrence 2000; amounting:
in value to more than 8500,000. The
value of iron produced in the U. States
in 1835 was $5,000,000, m 1837 $7,
700,000. In Ohio 1200 square miles are
nuderlaid with i on. A region explored
in 1838 would furnish iron, 61 miles
lonjr, and 6 miles wide; a square mile
would yield 3,000,000 tons of pig iron,
so that tins district would contain l ,uu,
000,000 tons. By taking from this re
gion 40,000 annually, (a larger quantity
than Emrland produced previous to 1820)
it would last 2700 years! as long a dis
tance, certainly, as a man looks ahead.
The States of" Kentucky, Tennessee, In
diana, Illinois, Maryland, and Virginia,
possess inexhaustible quantities of iron
ore. In Tennessee 100,000 tons are an
nually manufactured. Notwithstanding
our great resources, more than one half of
our euttlerv. hardware, railroad iron, 5:e.,
i still imported from Great Britain. It
is supposed by Geologists that the weekly
supply of gold from our own mines wn
bp pmial to the d'Miand. and that our
mines will yet be more profitable than the
mines of Brazil or Columbia. The most
extensive lead mines in the world are in
Missouri, where the lead region is 70
miles long by 50 wide. These mines in
182G produced 7,500,000 tons, and the
whole produce of the United States was
8,332,105 tons. It has been estimated
that the quantity of iron required in Eng
land for railroads, &c, for the current
year, will be about 1,260,000 tons, which
it is supposed will be equal to all that the
country will produce. The quantity of
lead manufactured in the United States in
1828 was 12,311,730 lbs; in 1829, 14,
541,310; 1830, 8,332,105, 1832,4,281,
876. The copper trade, until within a
year or two, has not been of much impor
tance as thcrcsult of the eflorts made,
were not sucifs to justify our great ope
rations. But now it appears to be attrac
ting a good deal of attention. Whether
the demand for copper stock is a fair in
dex to the value of the copper regions re
mains to be seen.
An Immense Horse. Carter, the Lion
King, "has purchased the largest horse in
England. He has named him 'General
Washington. " He is twenty hands
high, and looks as large as an elephant.
He is a black gelding, beautifully dappled
his mane is nearly four feet long; his
tail sweeps the ground; he is perfectly
formed, and is regarded as one oi tne n
nest specimens of the horse ever seen in
i Great Britain. He is only six years old;
a, he will be exhibited shortly in London,
TUBSDAIT, DECEMBER 2, 1845,
The following is an mcription on
tombstone in Massachusetts.
It is beau-
"I came in the morning it was spring;
And I smiled;
I walked out at noon it was summer;
And I was glad;
! I sat me down at even it was autumn;
j And I was sad;
I laid me down at night it was winter;
And I slept.
From the JSTew Orleans Picayunt.
We were the witnesses of a ludicrous
incident which occurred in this city a few
days since, for relating winch we crave
the indulgence of the gentleman uirecuy
concerned deeming it too good a joke to
While sitting at our desk and laboring
assiduously with pen, scissors and paste,
to make out a readable paper for our pa
trons, we were suddenly "frightened from
our propriety" by the hasty entrance oi
gentleman, exclaiming -ror uw a
sake help me to see what's the matter!
I've got some dreaami tning scorpiuu ui
taraniuia m me cg ui t ""
On irk nuick help ine !"
We instantly rose lrom our chair, nan
frhfpnpd ourselves. Our Inend had
broken in so suddenly and unexpectedly
upon us, and was so wonderfully agitated,
. - ail 1 1
that we knew not whether he was inuecu
in his senses or not. We looked at him
with a sort of suspicion mixed with dread,
and hardly knew whether to speak with,
or seize and confine him lor a madman
The latter we came near attempting.
There he stood quivering and pale, with
one hand tightly grasped upon a part of
his pantaloons just in the hollow ot the
"What's the matter !" at last asked we.
"The matter !" he exclaimed, "oh help
me ! I've got something here, which just
ran up my leg ! Some infernal scorpion
or lizzard, I expect ! Oh, I can't let go;
I must hold it. Ah, there !" he shrieked,
"I felt it move just then ! Oh, these pants
without straps ! I'll never wear another
pair open, at the bottom as long as I live.
Ah I feel it again!"
"Feel what ?" we inquired, standing at
the same time at a respectable distance
from the gentleman; for we had just been
reading our Corpus Christi correspon
dent's letter about snakes, tarantulas, and
lizards, and began to imagine some dead
ly insect or reptile in the leg of our
friends "unmentionables," as they are
"I don't know what it is," answered
the gentleman; "help me to see what it is.
I was just passing that old pile of rubbish
there in front of your office, and felt it
dart up my leg as quick as lightning, and
it stopped just here, where I have my
hand," and he clenched his fist still more
tightly. If it had been the neck of an
anaconda we believe he would have
squeezed it to a jelly.
By this time two or three of the news
bovs had come in; the clerks and packing-
boys hearing the outer', stopped work
ing and editors and all hands stood around
the sufTerer with looks of mingled sym
pathy and alarm.
"Bring a chair, Fitz," said wc, "and let
the gentleman be seated."
"Oh, I can't sit !" said the gentleman;
"I can't bend my knee ! if I do it will
bite or sting me; no, I can't sit!"
"Certainly you can sit," said we; "keep
your leg straight out, and we'll see what
Well, let me give it one more hard
squeeze; in crusn u io m-aiu, caiu
and again he put the force of an iron vice
upon the thing. If it bad had any life by
this time, this last effort must have killed
it. He then cautiously seated himself
holding out his leg stitf and straight as a
pokcr. A sharp knife was procured; the
pants were cut open carefully, making a
hole large enough to admit a hand; but he
discovered nothing. We were all look
ing on in almost breathless silence to see
the monstrous thing whatever it might be;
each ready to scamper out of harms way
should it be alive; when suddenly the gen
tleman became more agitated than ever.
"Bv heavens!" he exclaimed, "its inside my
drawers. Its alive I feel it! Quick!
p-ive me the knife again !" Another m-
cision was made, in went ine genue
man's gloved hand once more, and, lo, out
o . -i -1-
came ins wife s stocking :
How the stocking ever got there we
are unable to say; but there it certainly
was; and such a laugh as followed, we
W-n't beard for many a day. Our friend,
we know, has told the joke himself and
must pardon us for doing so. i ho this
;a ii nhrmt a sTontiNG. we assure our
readers it is no "yarn."
Railroad Accident. At N. Orleans,
on the 5th instant a - Frenchman, whose
name is unknown, lost his life by attempt
ing to pass from onecar to another while
the train was in motion. Falling to the
ground, the wheels of the train passed a
rross both his legs below the knees, lace-
mlnrr ibem in a most shocking manner.
He also received 3 severe and fatal wound
upon the right temple, -m
Iron War Steamers.
FROM THE PITTSBURO MORNING PUSJ.
A few weeks since, in directing pub
to the advertisement ot tne .
Postmaster General inviting
proposals for t .
r York and j iy
nmtoinn in I
mail service between New
(Jnlvpston. Texas, we took occasion to
urge upon thejboat-builders of this city fc
others the importance of securing the con
" J 7
tract & building the required vessels. 1 lie
vessels,it will be borne in mind, are to be of
the most substantial kind, & so constructed
constructed that they can be used by the
Government, when necessary, as war
vessels. Of course it would be best to
build them of iron, and would give anoth
er opportunity for a display of Pittsburg
skill in the construction of iron steamer.
We remarked at the time that the iron
vessels already built by our enterprising
and ingenious mechanics had done much
for Pittsburg, in proof of which wc take
great pleasure in directing the attention
of our readers to the remarks of the edi
tor of the "Military and Xaval Chroni
cle" a paper printed in New York city,
aud devoted exclusively to military and
naval affairs, The editor, it would seem
has recently been in our city, and whilst
here visited the iron war steamer now
constructing under the direction of Capt,
Hunter. The compliment paid to the
capacity of our friend Captain Hunter is
well merited; he is highly esteemed in
this community as a gentleman of extend
ed scientific acquirements and greatly de
voted to his profession. But let the edi
to. speak for himself;
Iron War Steamers, Wc have on
several occasions called the attention of
our numerous military readers to the im
portance of this class of vessels for the
protection of our prominent harbors, not
only on the Atlantic coast, but also on the
shores of our great inland seas.
.Wc had the gratification of visiting
not long since, while sojourning at Pitts
burg, in the State of Pennsylvania, the
iron war steamer now being constructed
under the direction of Captain William
W. Hunter, of the United States Navy.
It is contemplated that this vessel will be
ready for sea in the early part of the
spring of 1816; and it is hoped that the
Navy Department will direct her com
mander to visit all the principal cities on
the Atlantic coast, in order that the peo
ple here may witness the capabilities, to
some extent, of that great section of coun
try lying west of the Alleghany Mount
ains. It would indeed be a novelty to
behold in the waters of New York
large war steamer of eleven hundred
tons burden, barque rigged, built on the
head waters of the Ohio, more than two
thousand miles from the ocean. Her
model is of surpassing beauty, and we
hazard the opinion that there are few if
vessels now in our navy mai win
outsail her, even while under canvass
without the aid of her steam power.
"When completely equipped for ser
vice, armament all on board, her draught
of water will be thirteen feet, enabling
her to cross the bar at the mouth of the
Mississippi at all times. On her spar-
deck are to be four sixty-fo r pounders,
mounted on carraiges, fitted in open box
es, which revolve on pivots, enabling
them to bear upon any quarter of the
compass in an incredibly short space of
time. The guns are Paixhan, and will
weigh 19,000 pounds each. The gun
deck is pierced for a side battery of thirty-two
pounders. Her machinery and
motive power are below the water line,
and consequently completely protected
from the fire of the enemy. She is to be
provided with Captain Hunter's sub
merged propellers, including the recent
valuable improvements added thereto by
the talented inventor. We are not of the
number who believe that steam can be
applied to men of war as to entirely su
persede the use of sails, fiom the fact of
the impossibility of carrying sufficient
fuel for long voyages; but we do not per
ceive why sails and steam may not har
monize with Hunter propellers, the
buckets being so constructed that they
shut into the sides of the vessel so soon
as the engine is stopped, retarding not in
the least Ihe headway of the vessel while
' "Captain Hunter is a gentlemen of ex
tended information; arrived at that period
of life when the powers of the mind are
in full vigor: an ornament to the profes.
sion he has adopted; and if his life should.
be spared for a few years to come, he
will render essential services to his coun
try, bv converting the iron mountains of
the AVest into floating batterries for the
defence of that banner of freedom which
is dear to us, a birthright priceless when
compared to the blood shed in days gone
by, that we, our children, and our chil
dren's children might repose in safety
under its ample folds."
A Patriarch Gone! Mr. Andrew
Snyder died at Intercouse, in Lancaster
county, Pennsylvania, on the 1st instant,
in the hundred and thirtieth year of
his age. He was a soldier of the Revo
lution, and a highly respectable citizen;
and was perhaps the oldest man in Penn
sylvania. . .
Froni the Xalchez Free-Trader.
The Origin or the Prairies.
In lately passing through the prairie
country we were at some pains in search-
inn- fnr crpnlmrirnl facts b which tO 3C-
-. , .
! couni ior me lorinaiiuii ui uitac t
ains and their destitution of timber.
he result has satisfied us that they were
once covered with water, either as the
bottoms of lakes, running streams, or in
the same manner of the everglades of Flor
ida. The upper stratum is loose sand or
dark loam, such as forms the bottom of
lakes and rivers or contiguous marshes;
the next is sand, clay, and pebbles of ,
large size, bearing evidence of having '
been rolled about by the action ot the wa
ter, and deposited in their present posi- ;
tion by the same agency. Large num
bers of fossil shells, of fresh water forma
tion, are found in every direction and
stratum. Besides these, large erratic
blocks of granite; sometimes many feet
in circumference and many tons in weight
and other transported fragments, are to be
met with scattered over all the prairies; .
and, on the southern shore, of the lakes, j
wherever the superfic al sand and gravel
have been removed from the rocky strata
straight parallel furrows appear ploughed j
in their smooth surface, running in a :
general southern direction, and always
preserving their parallelism. j
The only rational mode of accounting
for the appearance of these transported
fragments, as no formations of a similar
nature exist south of the great lakes, ap- i
pears to us to be through the agency of j
water and ice. During the submergence ',
of these vast held?, when the lakes must
have disembougued themselves through
the Gulf of Mexico, these huge boulders
were caught up by the ice, firmly imbed
ed in it, and driven off. by the northern
blasts or streams into a more southern cli
mate, and when the ice melted in spring,
they were deposited where they now arc
found. This is to us the only means of
accounting for their appearance, as well
as parallel furrows in the rocks on the
southern shores of the lakes. By what
agency this state of affairs was changed,
whether by the upheaving of the prairies
from the action of internal fires, or their
gradual filling up by the annual deposi
tion of the loose detritus washed down
by the streanr or deposited from the melt
ing ice, it is useless to speculate. But as
the whole of the alluvial lands of the val
ley of the Mississippi are of comparative
ly recent formation, it is not impropable
that the waters of the great lakes washed
the bases of the hills on both sides of the
Mississippi, and that the whole interven
ing space, now so fertile and fruitful, was
then a dark rolling stream of liquified.
mud. To us it appears tbat the whole
west is the richest field for the geologist
in the world, and none more so than
those portions of the conntry lying be
tween the lakes and the Ohio.
Detroit is one of the oldest cities in the
Union having been founded by Antoine
de la Motto Cadillac, under commission
of Louis ATV, of France, in 1701 one
hundred and forty-four years ago. It was
first visited by the Roman Catholic Mis
sionaries in 1620, and the French lan
guage is still commonly spoken there.
In most respects art lias done less lor the
city than nature, and this remark is es
pecially true, if the whole field of vision
be included, as viewed from some favor
able ai;d elevated point. As v-ou ap
proach the city from Lake Eric, a scene
of calm and quiet beauty comes over the
mind, as you view the old French settle
ments on Ihe Western margin of the
broad and noble stream, and the fertile
and cultivated islands which repose in
the clear waters on the East. Here are
pasture-grounds covered with grazing
flocks and herds, and meadows, and fields
of standing grain, and farm-houses, tnd
splendid mansions. Detroit itself is situ
ated on the south-west bank of the river,
on a plain which extends along the stream
and the lakes, and for many miles back
into the country. This belt of land is
elevated about 30 feet above the surface
of the water. The surrounding country
though not aflbrding the most generous
soil, with proper cultivation, will abun
dantty repay the toil of the husbandman. It
is especially adapted to grazing. Most of
the farms in the neighborhood are in the
hands of the French, and their decend
ants, Accident on the Western Rail
road. The freight train of cars from
Springfield for Albany ran over an ox in
West Springfield on Friday morning,
which threw the engine and fourteen of
the cars ofT the track, some of which
were badly broken.
A Culinary Hope Blighted. A sto
ry has b2en going the rounds of the pa
pers that tame ducks can be made equal
in flavor to canvassbacks, by feeding them
on celery occasionally, but, unfortunately
for the success of the experiment, the
ducks wont cat the celery !
The number of hacks in New York is
said to be 208; cabs 250, and omnibusscs
Vol. 4.-No. 3.
The following if from a very useful
' book just published in Louden, called the
"Statistical Companion to the Pocket
Book, by C. R. Weld, Esq.
rortLATlON OF THE GLOBE.
CLASSIFICATION OF MANKIND ACCORDINli
TO THEIR RELIGIONS.
Christianity in all its bran-
CLASIFICATION OF MANKIND ACCORDING
TO THEIR LANGUAGES.
The researches made by Balbi for th
construction of his villus Klhnortiph'
rquc, have led him to set down the num
ber of known languages as 2000 at least;
but the imperfect state of ethnography, he
states, has allowed him to class only bGO
lari'iiages, and about 5000 dialects; of
which number, 1 13 languages belong lo
Asia, 53 to Euronn, 115 to Africa, 117 to
Oceanica, and 422 to America.
According to Humboldt there are 38,
500 Vegetable Species, viz; G500 in A
ria, 7000 in Europe, 3000 in Africa,
5000 in Oceanica, and 17,000 in Amer
ica. POPULATION OF CITIES ACCORDING TO THE
Alexandria, 60,000. Amstcrdam,207,
000. Antwerp, 75,000. Athens, 26,
237. Berlin, 200,707. Berne, 20,500.
Bombay, 230,000. Brussels, 107,000.
Calcutta. 230,000. Christiania, 25,000.
Constantinople, 5000,000. Copenhagen,
122,000 Dublin, 375,000. Edin
burgh, 160,000. Florence, 99,100.
Genoe, 115,500. Hamburgh, 123,000.
Jerusalem. 10,000. London, 1,870,727.
Leipsic, 17,500. Lisbon, 580,000. Mad
rid, 230,000. Morrocco, 80,000- Mex
ico, 138,000. Munich, 108,537. Na
ples, 350,000. New York, 310,000.
New Orleans, 40,272. Paris, 909,126.
Petersburg, 469,720, Pekin, 2,000,000.
Pclermo, 140,000. Rome, 148,903.
Stockholm. 83,883. Stuttgart, 39,5000.
Turin, 101,000. Vienna, 333,000,
A neiv Railroad Completed.
The completion and opening of ths
Old Colony Hatroad, from Boston to
the ancient town of Plymouth, in Mass
achusetts, was eelebratcd on Saturday
last, The route passes through the town
of Dochcstcr, on its seacoast border, cros
ses the Neponset river near its mouth
i passes through the villages of Quincv and
Braintree, and thence proceeds through
or near the villages of South Weymouth,
Centre and South Abingtcn, a portion of
Hanson, a corner of Halifax, and the vil
lage of Kingston, to its termination in
Plymouth, a distance of thirty-seven
A large company of stockholders and
invited guests left South Boston at ten o
clock and reached Plymcu.h m about two
hours and a half. They were cordially
received by the citizens of that hospitable
town and escorted to the Pilgrim Hall,
where a collation was in readiness. The
lion. Nat. Morton Davis presided, and.
! after the repast had been dispatched, a
j mJmbcr of toasts were given, interspersed
! witbi bripf and annronriat? addresses by
j the President of the day, the Hon. John
Quinsey Adams, the Hon. Daniel Web
ster, and other guests. Every thing went
off well, and the party returned to Boston
in the evening, much gratified with their
It is about a twelyen o sth since the a
bove work was commenced, and it has
been campletcd at a cost less than the
capit .l of the company, which i3 a mil
lion of dollars. This constitutes the sev
enth of the main lines of railroad which
now radiate from the city of Boston as a
common centre, measuring in all, with
their branches, more than eight hundred
miles in extent, and some of them des
tined to be soon much further extended.
The census jost completed in New
York city, thaws the occupations of the
Number of Inns and Taverns
Farmers and Agriculturalists
Phraicbns and Surgeons
Compensation paid to Clrrgy
heap of ruins. - . J . ' ana mvn stui w vwtu