Gazette of the United States & evening advertiser. (Philadelphia [Pa.]) 1793-1794, June 11, 1794, Image 2

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    Tor the Galstti of the United St at fa.
t am surprised Mr. Fenno, that a pa- j
per, intended as you profefs yew's to be, |
for the information of the citizens of the
United States, should have been so
long deficient in defining terms Ynadc use
of in ail the papers in the country,
to which we have no meaning annex
ed that we can depend on.—The terms
Democrat and Democracy—-Aiiilocrat
aod Aristocracy for inltance, have been
Jianded about with odium annexed to each
by different parties,who have endeavored
to o-ain the ears and credit of the citizens;
vou hate Certainly been deficient in your
duty as a public advertiser, in not infotm
in;i your c.ilio'mers wherein consists the
diffe'. once of these hard words ; and left
you (hould continue thus negligent I fend
you what I can collect from my small read
ing on the fubjeft.
Democracy, is derived from ttao Greek
words, Demos, fignifying the people at
large • and Crateia, fignifying Govern
merit ; hence Demotrateia, or as we write
it, democracy, fignifies a government ex
ercised by the whole people.—Aristocracy
in like manner, is derived from two Greek
words, Ariitos, fignifying the bejl; and
Crateia, .Government as above ; hence Ari
stocracy is a government exercised by the
b.jl men among the people. This was the
cafe among the ancients ; when in the
middle ages, the rich and the nobles, by
thsir wealth and power, acqmred an influ
ence over the operations of government,
a {Turned the names of the bejl, and ekercifed
feudal tyranny. Aristocrats were odious
to the commonality, and the nobles be
came objects of teiror and deflation :
from their excess in the abuse of power,
arose democracy. When the number of the
whole community was so moderate as to
admit of their meeting together and tak
ing the affairs of their nation into their
consideration, there was certainly the bell
form of government ; but the happiness
resulting front thus combining the wisdom
of a whole community soon encreafed it
by natural population or the accession of
foreigners, so much as to render the meet
ing of the whole periple expensive, t'ouble
fofflt, and in some instances dangerous.
Hence naturally arose the idea of a Re
presentative Republic, which is in fact a
Democracy, because the whole people elect
their representatives to express their will
in the different departments of govern
ment ; but it ought always to be an Ari-
Jiocracy, where the will of the people is
well exeicifcd ; because they ought to cleft
their be/I men to serve them in the highest
offices of state—and we trust this has been
the cafe in the United States:—For, we
fee a Washington thus ele&ed unani
mously by the whole people, at the head
of the Executive ■, —an Adams his fccond,
and at the head of the Senate ; Senators
and Mcmbersofthe Representative branch,
among whom it would be improper to
make diilinttions, because we suppose that
the will of the whole people conltitutional
ly exercised, has feledted the lejl men with
in their knowledge, in whom tj vest the
high and sovereign powers of the United
States—lf this be the cafe, and certainly
it ought to be such, we have no light to
deny that the United States are governed
by an Arijlocracy, that is by the bejl men,
fele&ed in the different election diitrifts,
by tie governed, and representing their will
in all things which shall come before
the executive and legislative departments ;
Under this idea, well underjlood, our rulers
ought not -to be terrified with the popular
clamor of Arijlocrats and Aristocracy ; for
if ever a people were under such a govern
ment, the United States certainly claim
the pre-eminence of a Real Ari/locretcy ;
that is, a government by the bcjl men among
them, fe pa rated from the people only be
cause of their better ftnifs to fulfill the du
ties imposed on them by their appoint
But what (hall we fay of the people,
who Ailing themselves Democrats are at
tempting to leap into the saddle, and of
their own choice to ifurp the powers not
delegated to them by the whole people ?
Mr. Fenno, I donotchufeto answer this
quefUun at present, I (hall reserve some of
my sentiments on this fnbjeft to a future
paper, but I will just hint, that I think
them the true and odious Arijlocrats, from
thefo!low:ng chaia&eriftic marks:
lft. They chose themfdves in the be
ginning', and did not originate from the
peop'e at largt, as all legal governments
ought to do.
2d. They will rot fuffer the people, or
any part of them to fend representatives
amongll them ; one of their fundamental
rules being, that a great majority of their
gjodfeives ftiali be ntCefl'ary to the induaion
of every member. -•
Having never corafponded with you
before, I am yet to leain what reception
you will give to my fir it attempt ; I (hell
hereafter judge of the propriety of fending
you some further observations on political
fubjefis. A CITIZEN.
Lancajler County, June 4, 1794-
BRUSSELS, April 13.
Our generals, as well as thole of the
enemy, appear to have waited the presence
of the Emperor, to begin their operati
The French, under the command of
general Pichegru, continue to form a vast
camp near Cambray. All their forces are
colle&ed in that point with the utmofl ac
tivity, and they have taken the greater
part of the garrisons, excepting only those
which are mod strongly threatened by the
allies, lle-inforcements are hourly arriv
ing at Cambray, from every part of France,
amongst the latter, has been a body of
cavalry, to the amount of zoo men, con
fiding of a regiment of carabineers, of the
hussars of Chamborant, and a corps of
As to the grand combined army, Under
the prince of Cobourg, it is (till concen
tered beyond Valenciennes and Quefnoy.
The greater part of the forces in the pio
vince of Tournay arc marching with the
utmost diligence to that quarter ; these
circumstances cause it to be believed that
a general and decisive action may daily be
On the 6th inft. a large body of the
Conventional troops, advanced from Lisle,
to reconnoitre our politions between the
town and Tournay. They "advanced to
Baifienna, within two leagues of the lat
ter place, and a conflict in which
the dragoons of Latuiir greatly ditlin
guifhed themselves. The French, how
ever, accomplished their objedf, and re
tired in good order.
April 15.
His majefly the empetor and king quit
ted this city, yesterday morning to repair
to the army. During his Ihort stay heie
he gave the people the molt affe&ing proofs
of his love, receiving the petitions of the
lowed of his fubjefts, and walked atjlongft
them in the Park and other places, unat
tended by any guards. • His majesty paid
frequent visits to the hospitals, especially
the military ones, to fee that the soldiers
were properly attended to, and visiting
every bed, consoling the invalid warriors
for their refpeftive misfortuns. In fine,
he conduced himfelf in such a manner as
to gain universal love, and his departure
has occasioned the deepest reget.
MANHEIM, April 8.
We learn that the lines drawn by tTie
French at Germerftieim are entirely finish
ed, together with the entrenchment? which
they are raising on the heights frora New
ftadt to Weiffembourg. At Spire they
have destroyed all the buildings belonging
to the clergy, and mean to destroy the ca
thedral, the top of which has already been
'pulled down.
VIENNA, April 2.
A kind of Jacobin Club having been
held in this city, the members of it have
been tried and are now undergoing their
punillimeur. These reformers have been
for the mo ft part sentenced to a public
whipping, and a year's imptifonment, at
the end of which time they are to be ba
nished. Some priells arc iufpe&ed of be
ing concerned with the Club.
" This day arrived here his imperial
majesty the emperor, and was received
with the most unequivocal demonftratioris
of loyalty and love. The whole town is
to be illuminated to night, and resounds
every where with the loudest acclamations
of " long live Francis 11. our dearly be
loved Sovereign." To-morrow if the
weather permits, the emperor is to review
that part of the ai-my which is already en
camped ; and next Thursday or Friday
wr opeiations will begin. * ,
"The Carmagnols are encamped be
tween Landrecy and Guise, between 80
and lco,ooo inen strong. As our grand
army is fupericr to theiPs not only in overy
military accompllflitnent, but aifo (which
has never yet been the cafe) in numbers ;
we wt'Srtain the mod confident hopes, tnat
unleft the Republicans should think pro
per to avoid a battle, one of the compleat
eft victories rruilt crown the attack, which
in all probability before the end of this
week will be made againlt them."
PARIS, April 13.
Letters from Strasbourg, read in the
Jacobin Club, speak of an advantage ob
tained over the enemy in the territory of
Deux Ponts, by which the Republic had
acquired cattle, warlike fiores, and 800
gold medals with the effigy of Capet. —
The vigorous measures of Gen. Dieche,
m;de the Aristocrats and Batiditti on the
other fide the Rhine tremble. There
was every profpeft of a fruitful hal
ve ft.
LONDON, April 14 —19.
The Lords having adjourned on the
last day the Slave trade bill was to have
come on, without making any order re
fpe&ing that business, it of course drops
unless some Pcci iTiall formally move its
The accounts brought by yesterday's
mails aie not deciiive refpedling the ope
rations of the PrufTian troops, but only
confirm their having received orders from
Berlin to halt until further notice*
There is not the leait appearance of
any negociation 011 the itapis sot a peace
at preftnt.
Since the Polish General Ivofciusco's
entranceinto Cracaw, he has taken an in
ventory of the gold and lilver in the
churches and royal castles; his revolu
tionary ,tribunal consists of 14 membeis;
since then the Confiitution of the ift
ps May, 1791, has been solemnly ac-<
knowledged by oath in the church of Ma
rienborn 1 tjx* proctflion went there at
tended by military music.
The Universal, publiilied from this
quarter enjoins the hig'hcit refpedt fcr
the Austrian territory ; and though the
Polish reformers have feize3 some Impe
rial magazines ; they have sent a very ci
vil mefTage to the Auilrian commandants,
a(Turing them of an an ample indemnifi
cation ; they are said to be furnilhed with
money from France.
The revolutionary spirit has spread in-,
to several other parts of the Republic ;
where many of the disbanded regiments
have risen in arm:'. The Caitcllan Rimie
fwyfky, was tried by the Revolutionary
Tribunal at Cracaw, and hanged in the
market-place on the fame day.
Bodies of Ruffians and Prussians, to
the amount of 25,000, men being on
their maichto Cracaw, where the malcon
tents have not above 6 or 7000 men bad
ly provided with artillery, their difperiion
was daily expected. Several notes have
passed between the Permanent Council,
and the Ptuffiau Minister, 011 the subject
of difturbanccs, and a Court is opened to
try offenders as fall as they are appre
There is a gentleman in town who was
formerly Secretary to General Washing
ton, and left Pans no longer ago than the
I ith inft. He wag witness to the execu
tion of Danton, slnd the other confpira
torsj and iayf, th?re was nq kind of tu
mult during the ceremony. Paris is now
tolerably well supplied with provisions ;
and it appears, that the fleet of veflels
which lately caused an alarm for the fafe
ty of. Jersey was only a very large fleet
of coaltiog veflels, carrying provisions for
the supply of Paris. About 10,000 ca
valry set out, ou their march from Paris
on the 9th instant to reinforce the North-
era army.
However obnoxious Dr. Piieillcy's po
litical and religious tenets may be, Go
vernment has Ihowii so little resentment
upon account of them, and so much re
fped for his talents as a Philosopher, that
we are allured, Lord Hawkelbury has
granted a prcteaion to the (hip in which
the Doctor fails, in cafe Hie should meet
with any of the Algerine corsairs.
The King of Pinfiia, to JfaveTiimfelf
from tlie further censure of every ingenu
ous mind, has transferred M. de la Fay
ette and M. de Maubourg -to an Aullrian
dungeon ; and fortius ast he jultifics ht'm
felf by faying, that they were originally
the prifoiters of the Emperor; M. de
Lameth and M. de Pufy are dill i n Pu,f
fia, hut whether closely confined or re
maining an account of their health bein-v
demoifheil, we cannot fay.
A Congress of all the Italian States
is opened at Milan, to concert meafur-es
for the common defence ; all the deputies
had arrived except the Neapolitan Mini!
ter ; their object is the,railing an army oi
40,CC0 men ; Venice icfufts to join thii
coalition, and Parma will not grant an«
contribution towards the war.
The Polilh Biigade of Madalinflci, haa
escaped the clutches of the Ruffians, and
forced its way into the Fitffian t'trr'tort,
lor the purpose of serving there. The Ruf
fian Carabineers arrived too late to cut off
their retreat.
We have great reafen to doubt the
truth of the report of the French fleet,
being at fca ; as none of our cruif.u
have seen or heard of arijr such circum
On account of some extraordinary na
vfol preparation now making at Dunkirk,
the following fleet has been afiembled iu'
the Downs, to be ready soT any enter,
, Guns.
Leopard, 50 Admiral Peyton.
Thunder, 74 Capt. Eert;e,
Arrogant, 74 Capt. Whitfhed,
Pallas, 36 Capt. Bentick,
Aurora, 32 Capt. EfEngton,
Daphae, 20 Capt. Sotheiby,
Serpent, 16 Capt. Ixe,
Fsrrett, • 14 Capt. Nowall,
Falcon, 14 Capt. Baflptr,
Amphitrlte armed ffiip 20, Capt. Bow-
y r*
The Echo, Nicol, from Jamaica to
New-York is loft in the Gu'ph of Florida.
French Co ps B'lU.
The Chancellor of the Exchequer mov r
ed the order of the day, for the second
reading of the French corps bill, winch
enables the fubjt 6ls of France to enlist as
foldiets jn regiments to fevve upon the
continent of Euiopf, and other parts,
and which empowers his Majefly to grant
cominiffions to French fubje&s.
After feme debate,
The queftioti was then put, and the
house divided—The numbers were,
For the second reading, 105
Againlt it, - 21
Majority, 84
The bill \v;:s rerd a second time, and
committed for Monday ntxt.
Seflion of the 26th Germinal, (15 April.)
Barrere. Since the last victories of the
Republic ovej the tyrants,-we have felt
the importance of the conqutft-of Oiteig
lia, a port in tTie Mediterranean, from
■whence the tyrant of §ardinia interrupted
our trade and infuhed ojir navy.
Grtat many obllacles were to be over
come in erdcr to artive at Onciglia. It
was neceffarjrtd pass through.ths territory
of Genoa. they, nppofe4 us with
diplomatic arguments. But thip webb of
lies and cunning has to difapppar before
the eternal rights ofnationc, and before
the imperious wants of liberty. :
The committee have done iheir duty
in pafiing a refutation on the 19th Veil
tofe, with refpedt to the conquest of
Oneiglia, the plan of the marrh of the
aimy of Italy was formed and Ihe execu
tion entrusted to the firmnefs of those re
preftntat:ve3 who had led the troops to
tlie recapture of Toulon.
Previous to their march th«y iiTued a
proclamation worthy of the Ficneh pec
ple and of the National Convention, and
gave thereby to our politics the; chara&er
of the maj?;lv of the people, snd of its
impartial und inflexible juftiee.
The following they write us from Oneg
liaon the 10th Germinal (April 8.) The
Republic lives upon victories i you may
announce to her the capture <>!' Oneglia,
the principal communication ot the Saidi
nian tyrant with Sardinia : thi Republi
cans have performed this with that con*
rage and energy which makes all Europe
tremble : The blood of the ff'ldiers of li
berty has been spared : We had not one
killed ; and only a few (lightly wounded.
The aiti'ery had not time to fend their
thunderiipoii the Brigands i f Oneiglia;
but thev have done wondu s of courage
and ability in dragging t heir cannon on
almofft inaccessible mountain}.
Italy (hall inform Europe of the vir
tues as wc. Il 33 of the vjlour < f the armies
of the Republic : We were obliged for a
n • •
ihon t time to occupy part of the territory
of Genoa : it belongs to the people who
inhabit it to make known to the vrorld
the fubliine conduit of the L'terch Repub
licans : they will tvil yo-.i, thr.t the dflr
firndersot their country, fatigued, and do
firous of r.iting themfelv 's, did not dare