Lancaster farming. (Lancaster, Pa., etc.) 1955-current, October 21, 1995, Image 32

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Lancaster County
Extension Agent
LANCASTER (Lancaster
Co.) Moldy feeds could be a
problem for many fanners this
year, primarily because of situa
tions that occurred around the time
of harvest
Com dried down very rapidly in
the Add and some of it was too dry
when harvested to pack well in the
When corn has over IS percent
moisture and is piled or stored for
more than about six hours without
being aerated, dried, acid-treated
or ensiled heating, mold develop
ment and mycotoxin formation
This process speeds up under
warm conditions such as occurred
this fall.
Some ear com was put on piles
this fall, waiting to be chopped and
ensiled at a later date. Some of this
com was already moldy by the
time it was chopped and bagged.
Ensiling and healing moldy
com, or adding preservatives to
moldy com will not destroy molds
or mycotoxins that are already
Ammoniation might help
reduce aflatoxins in some situa
tions, but it is not practical for most
farm situations.
About all that can be done is pre
vent the problem from becoming
One way is to feed ensiled feeds
fast enough and frequently enough
to stay ahead of spoilage—while
also limiting intake of moldy
Another way is to dry and aerate
grains, remove fines to improve air
circulation, or acid-treat grains to
retard further spoilage.
Feeding moldy feeds can be
very costly! It affects animals in
various ways, depending upon the
kinds and amounts of molds and
mycotoxins consumed.
Young, unhealthy and stressed
animals are more susceptible. Pigs.
Richard Plotta, county agent in Clinton County, said aoma
com yields are better than farmera thought they would be.
Beane seem to be totally damaged because pods were deve
loping at the hottest, driest part of the summer.
Mark Madden, agronomy agent, Susquehanna/Bradford,
said yields are “not too shabby.” He said isolated terms and
communities are not as good. But crops seem to be resilient.
”We are not Into picking com with field checka at 140 bu.,”
Madden said. “That Is good for our area. The cribs and bams
seem to be full around here.”
Om problem that has become apparent on many farms
Involves moldy feeds. Com dried down very rapidly In the
field, and some fanners found the com was already too dry
Moldy Feeds Can Be Very Costly
hones and poultry are more sensi
tive than ruminants.
Symptoms of mold and
mycotoxin-related problems are
similar to those of many other
problems. This makes accurate
diagnosis more difficult
Symptoms in dairy cattle
include: reduced dry matter
intakes, lower milk production,
poorer conception, enlarged vul
vas. irregular heats, diarrhea,
more ketosis and displaced aboma
sums (DA), and in severe cases,
The affect of mycotoxins can be
As mycotoxins inflict continued
injury to the kidneys, animals dis
play less and less resistance to dis
eases and infections.
Symptoms for other animals can
be similar.
If you have moldy feeds and are
experiencing some of the problems
mentioned above, and you have
ruled out other causes of these
problems, be suspicious of moldy
feeds. These feeds could include
silages. moisture grains and
hay. plus purchased grains, con
centrates and byproduct feeds.
Consult your veterinarian and
nutritionist for advice.
Consider analyzing suspect
feeds for mycotoxins, preferably
before you start feeding them. Use
good sampling techniques for the
reasons mentioned below.
When attempting to predict
mold toxicity of feeds, appear
ances can be deceptive. Feeds that
do not appear to be moldy might be
toxic. Other feeds that are moldy
might be safe to feed.
Moldy clumps of feed might not
contain any mycotoxins. Non
moldy feed, a foot or two away
from moldy clumps, could be
loaded with toxins.
Mycotoxins can also exist in
pockets of concentration scattered
throughout the feed supply. Thus it
is very important to obtain rep
resentative samples for analysis.
Sample three to five different
Harvest Better Than Expected
loads or feedings, and obtain eight
to 12 samples from each.
Mix all of these subsamples
together and submit about 2
pounds fra analysis. Also hold
another 2 pounds in reserve fra
confirmatory analyses, should it
become necessary at a later date.
Sample bagged silage by boring
through the plastic in several loca
tions, and patching the holes sec
urely when done.
Handle samples according to
laboratory recommendations.
One of the main toxins of con
cern for dairy is a fusarium-toxin
known as DON or vomitoxin.
Zearalenone and aflatoxin may be
a problem too.
If you have horses or mules
check for fumonisin or B 1 toxin;
they are very sensitive to it Pigs
are sensitive to all of these.
If you have moldy feeds there
are several things that can be done.
First of all, consult with your
veterinarian and nutritionist Anal
yze suspect feeds. Reduce feeding
Remove ensiled feeds at a rate
rapid enough to keep ahead of
spoilage, even if it means feeding
two or three herds Cram one silo.
Keep ensiled feeds Crash by feed
ing it more often, by frequently
removing old feed from bunks and
mangers, and by maintaining a
well-sheared face on horizontal
Do not give moldy feeds to
young animals, pregnant animals,
and cows in early lactation. Also
remember that horses, pigs and
chickens are more sensitive to
molds than ruminant animals.
Moldy feeds have less energy
than indicated on forage test
reports. Digestibility and intakes
also are reduced.
To compensate for this, dis
count the energy values on forage
test reports by 5 percent to 8 per
cent and increase the energy densi
ty of the ration.
Include bentonite or aluminosil
icate in die radon to help reduce
(Continued from Page A 1)
when they harvested It, and the silage d,id not pack well In the
silo. You will want to read the column “Moldy Feeds Can Be
Very Costly” by Glenn Shirk, Lancaster County dairy agent, In
this issue. r
The cover photographs were both taken late Monday after
noon at the comer of Pioneer and Book Roads, northwest of
Lampeter In Lancaster County. The combine Is run by Doug
Rohrer on Linn Moedlnger’s farm along Pioneer Road. The
Amish com picking picture was taken from Book Road with
the Samuel and David King farm In the background. In the
photo on this page, Rohrer fills the truck with shelled com In
front of Moedlnger’s bam. Photo* by Evaratt Nawawangar, man
aging adttor.
the effects of mycotoxins.
Where practical, ammoniatkm
can be used in an attempt to
destroy some of the aflatoxins.
Mifflin County’s new Farm Bureau president Mark Ellin
ger of Lewistown, left, stands with treasurer and member
ship processor Pauline Click of Belleville and secretary
Janice White. Both were re-elected.
Farm Bureau Field
Services Director
Mifflin Co. Correspondent
Co.) —“You don’t have to grow
up on a farm to understand and
appreciate agriculture,” said Ali
son Cowen, Pennsylvania Farm
Bureau’s director of field services.
Cowen spoke at the Mifflin
County Farm Bureau annual meet
ing the end of September.
Raised in Queens. New York
City, Cowen told her city-to
country story and finished by
emphasizing education.
“Give people the opportunity to
learn about your occupation,” she
In severe cases, discard moldy
feeds, because good herd perfor
mance is worth much more than
the value of moldy feeds.
said, giving timely advice just
before Farm/City Week,
Cowen spoke to the group as
part of their annual business meet
ing. In the election of directors,
Glen Martin of Bratton Township,
Mike Goss of Oliver Township,
and Dave Stuck of Union Town
ship directors were re-elected to
serve three-year terms.
State Director Wayne Freeman
honored Membership Chairman
Ken Loht of McClure with a certi
ficate for signing 26 new members
in 1995. Elrose Glick of Belleville
received recognition for obtaining
11 new members. Recognition
was given to Gloria Goss of
McVeytown for serving as ag in
the classroom coordinator, Gail
Strock for serving as county infor
mation director, and Ken Loht for
obtaining goal as membership
chairman. Elrose Glick, Ken Loht,
Mark Ellinger, and Gail Strock
also received star awards from the
Pennsylvania Farm Bureau (PFB)
office in Camp Hill.
Governmental Relations Direc
tor Mark Ellinger reported on
national and state legislative activ
ity. Dave Stuck conducted the pol
icy development session.
At the board of director’s reor
ganizalional meeting, Mark Ellin
ger of Lewistown was elected
president, replacing Stan Dunk of
Vira who had served as president
for three years. Dave Stuck of
Belleville was re-elected as vice
president while Janice White of
Reedsville will continue as secret
ary for the organization. Pauline
Click of Belleville will continue
as treasurer and membership
Board members Elrose and
Pauline Glick and Mark Ellinger
will serve as voting delegates to
the PFB convention in Hershey on
Nov. 13-15.