Lancaster farming. (Lancaster, Pa., etc.) 1955-current, October 21, 1995, Image 32
GLENN A. SHIRK Lancaster County Extension Agent LANCASTER (Lancaster Co.) Moldy feeds could be a problem for many fanners this year, primarily because of situa tions that occurred around the time of harvest Com dried down very rapidly in the Add and some of it was too dry when harvested to pack well in the silo. When corn has over IS percent moisture and is piled or stored for more than about six hours without being aerated, dried, acid-treated or ensiled heating, mold develop ment and mycotoxin formation occurs. This process speeds up under warm conditions such as occurred this fall. Some ear com was put on piles this fall, waiting to be chopped and ensiled at a later date. Some of this com was already moldy by the time it was chopped and bagged. Ensiling and healing moldy com, or adding preservatives to moldy com will not destroy molds or mycotoxins that are already present Ammoniation might help reduce aflatoxins in some situa tions, but it is not practical for most farm situations. About all that can be done is pre vent the problem from becoming worse. One way is to feed ensiled feeds fast enough and frequently enough to stay ahead of spoilage—while also limiting intake of moldy feeds. Another way is to dry and aerate grains, remove fines to improve air circulation, or acid-treat grains to retard further spoilage. Feeding moldy feeds can be very costly! It affects animals in various ways, depending upon the kinds and amounts of molds and mycotoxins consumed. Young, unhealthy and stressed animals are more susceptible. Pigs. Richard Plotta, county agent in Clinton County, said aoma com yields are better than farmera thought they would be. Beane seem to be totally damaged because pods were deve loping at the hottest, driest part of the summer. Mark Madden, agronomy agent, Susquehanna/Bradford, said yields are “not too shabby.” He said isolated terms and communities are not as good. But crops seem to be resilient. ”We are not Into picking com with field checka at 140 bu.,” Madden said. “That Is good for our area. The cribs and bams seem to be full around here.” Om problem that has become apparent on many farms Involves moldy feeds. Com dried down very rapidly In the field, and some fanners found the com was already too dry Moldy Feeds Can Be Very Costly hones and poultry are more sensi tive than ruminants. Symptoms of mold and mycotoxin-related problems are similar to those of many other problems. This makes accurate diagnosis more difficult Symptoms in dairy cattle include: reduced dry matter intakes, lower milk production, poorer conception, enlarged vul vas. irregular heats, diarrhea, more ketosis and displaced aboma sums (DA), and in severe cases, death. The affect of mycotoxins can be cumulative. As mycotoxins inflict continued injury to the kidneys, animals dis play less and less resistance to dis eases and infections. Symptoms for other animals can be similar. If you have moldy feeds and are experiencing some of the problems mentioned above, and you have ruled out other causes of these problems, be suspicious of moldy feeds. These feeds could include silages. moisture grains and hay. plus purchased grains, con centrates and byproduct feeds. Consult your veterinarian and nutritionist for advice. Consider analyzing suspect feeds for mycotoxins, preferably before you start feeding them. Use good sampling techniques for the reasons mentioned below. When attempting to predict mold toxicity of feeds, appear ances can be deceptive. Feeds that do not appear to be moldy might be toxic. Other feeds that are moldy might be safe to feed. Moldy clumps of feed might not contain any mycotoxins. Non moldy feed, a foot or two away from moldy clumps, could be loaded with toxins. Mycotoxins can also exist in pockets of concentration scattered throughout the feed supply. Thus it is very important to obtain rep resentative samples for analysis. Sample three to five different Harvest Better Than Expected loads or feedings, and obtain eight to 12 samples from each. Mix all of these subsamples together and submit about 2 pounds fra analysis. Also hold another 2 pounds in reserve fra confirmatory analyses, should it become necessary at a later date. Sample bagged silage by boring through the plastic in several loca tions, and patching the holes sec urely when done. Handle samples according to laboratory recommendations. One of the main toxins of con cern for dairy is a fusarium-toxin known as DON or vomitoxin. Zearalenone and aflatoxin may be a problem too. If you have horses or mules check for fumonisin or B 1 toxin; they are very sensitive to it Pigs are sensitive to all of these. If you have moldy feeds there are several things that can be done. First of all, consult with your veterinarian and nutritionist Anal yze suspect feeds. Reduce feeding rates. Remove ensiled feeds at a rate rapid enough to keep ahead of spoilage, even if it means feeding two or three herds Cram one silo. Keep ensiled feeds Crash by feed ing it more often, by frequently removing old feed from bunks and mangers, and by maintaining a well-sheared face on horizontal silos. Do not give moldy feeds to young animals, pregnant animals, and cows in early lactation. Also remember that horses, pigs and chickens are more sensitive to molds than ruminant animals. Moldy feeds have less energy than indicated on forage test reports. Digestibility and intakes also are reduced. To compensate for this, dis count the energy values on forage test reports by 5 percent to 8 per cent and increase the energy densi ty of the ration. Include bentonite or aluminosil icate in die radon to help reduce (Continued from Page A 1) when they harvested It, and the silage d,id not pack well In the silo. You will want to read the column “Moldy Feeds Can Be Very Costly” by Glenn Shirk, Lancaster County dairy agent, In this issue. r The cover photographs were both taken late Monday after noon at the comer of Pioneer and Book Roads, northwest of Lampeter In Lancaster County. The combine Is run by Doug Rohrer on Linn Moedlnger’s farm along Pioneer Road. The Amish com picking picture was taken from Book Road with the Samuel and David King farm In the background. In the photo on this page, Rohrer fills the truck with shelled com In front of Moedlnger’s bam. Photo* by Evaratt Nawawangar, man aging adttor. the effects of mycotoxins. Where practical, ammoniatkm can be used in an attempt to destroy some of the aflatoxins. Mifflin County’s new Farm Bureau president Mark Ellin ger of Lewistown, left, stands with treasurer and member ship processor Pauline Click of Belleville and secretary Janice White. Both were re-elected. Farm Bureau Field Services Director Emphasizes GAIL STROCK Mifflin Co. Correspondent LEWISTOWN (Mifflin Co.) —“You don’t have to grow up on a farm to understand and appreciate agriculture,” said Ali son Cowen, Pennsylvania Farm Bureau’s director of field services. Cowen spoke at the Mifflin County Farm Bureau annual meet ing the end of September. Raised in Queens. New York City, Cowen told her city-to country story and finished by emphasizing education. “Give people the opportunity to learn about your occupation,” she In severe cases, discard moldy feeds, because good herd perfor mance is worth much more than the value of moldy feeds. Education said, giving timely advice just before Farm/City Week, Cowen spoke to the group as part of their annual business meet ing. In the election of directors, Glen Martin of Bratton Township, Mike Goss of Oliver Township, and Dave Stuck of Union Town ship directors were re-elected to serve three-year terms. State Director Wayne Freeman honored Membership Chairman Ken Loht of McClure with a certi ficate for signing 26 new members in 1995. Elrose Glick of Belleville received recognition for obtaining 11 new members. Recognition was given to Gloria Goss of McVeytown for serving as ag in the classroom coordinator, Gail Strock for serving as county infor mation director, and Ken Loht for obtaining goal as membership chairman. Elrose Glick, Ken Loht, Mark Ellinger, and Gail Strock also received star awards from the Pennsylvania Farm Bureau (PFB) office in Camp Hill. Governmental Relations Direc tor Mark Ellinger reported on national and state legislative activ ity. Dave Stuck conducted the pol icy development session. At the board of director’s reor ganizalional meeting, Mark Ellin ger of Lewistown was elected president, replacing Stan Dunk of Vira who had served as president for three years. Dave Stuck of Belleville was re-elected as vice president while Janice White of Reedsville will continue as secret ary for the organization. Pauline Click of Belleville will continue as treasurer and membership processor. Board members Elrose and Pauline Glick and Mark Ellinger will serve as voting delegates to the PFB convention in Hershey on Nov. 13-15.