Lancaster farming. (Lancaster, Pa., etc.) 1955-current, November 26, 1994, Image 19

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    NEWARK, Del. A few
/ears ago, here at the University
)f Delaware, we conducted a
esearch project on the protein
imposition of milk and its rela
ionship to blood type in Guernsey
ind Holstein dairy cattle.
We identified the distribution
)f the many different proteins in
nilk among genetically different
;ow families and found relation
ships useful for selection.
The study, which would not
lave happened without the fore
sight of dairy industry leaders
such as Dr. James Deubler, New
own, Atherton Hobler, of Prince
on, N.J., Frank Brown of Port
Deposit, Md. and Harry Haskell,
}f Chadds Ford was conducted
cooperatively between the Dela
ware, Ohio and New Jersey exper
iment stations.
Now, new research in Canada
and Europe has found that these
different protein types in milk
influence the making of cheese,
which has immediate commercial
Overall, we can recognize at
least four major milk protein fam
ilies that make cheese, including
Alpha-s-1 -casein, alpha-s-2-casein,
beta-casein, kappa-casein; and at
least four major milk protein fam
ilies that do not make cheese-beta
lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin,
immunoglobulin, serum albumin,
which remain in the whey on
cheese making, unless a whey
cheese, such as ricotta, gjetost or
mizithra, is made.
Each of these protein families,
except the last two, are subdivided
into at least two and as many as
six genetic variants and their com
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Milk Protein
These are based on small but
significant differences in their
amino acid composition, which
cause them to behave differently
on contact with digestive enzymes
in the gastro-intestinal tract as
well as under cheese-making con
ditions with the rennet enzyme.
Kappa-casein* for example, has
the genetic variants A, B, C and E;
therefore, cows or goats or sheep
can have in their milk the follow
ing 10 protein genotypes; AA, AB,
AC, AE, 88, BC, BE, CC, CE.
These genotypes are actually found
in the various cattle breeds and
families in different frequency.
Among these 10 types, the BB
seems to have specific commer
cial value. When eight European
dairy cattle breeds were tested, it
was discovered that they differ
significantly in the BB type:
French Normandy, 44 percent;
Jersey, 38 percent; Brown Swiss,
28 percent; Tyrolian, 23 percent;
Gelbvieh, 23 percent; Danish, 11
percent; Simmental, 6 percent;
and Holstein, 2 percent. ..
The type AA was distributed
with opposite frequency among
these breeds. This is commercial
ly interesting, because milk not
only has differences in fat, pro
Research Reveals Potential
tein, lactose, mineral contents,
but varies in the percentage of
casein in total protein, which
determines how many pounds of
cheese are possible form 100
pounds of milk. Furthermore,
during cheese making, significant
factors include the time it takes
to precipitate the casein, the time
it takes to firm the curd, the
degree of curd firmness and the
overall yield.
It has been determined that the
kappa-casein BB cows, as com
pared to AA, have milk that has a
24 percent shorter cheese precipi
tation time, 51 percent shorter
curd firming time, 85 percent bet
ter curd firmness, 0.2 percent
units higher casein content and 5
percent higher cheese yield. The
other types of C and E also are
inferior to 88.
It has also been found that
beta-lactoglobulin BB cows have
3 percent more casein in their
milk and a higher cheese yield
compared to AA type cows, thus
making beta-lactoglobulin as
interesting for cheese making as
Again, the distribution for
these BB types among European
dairy cattle breeds differs signifi-
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Lancaster Farming, Saturday, November 26, 1994-Al9
cantly: Danish, 74 percent; Jer
sey, 40 percent; Holstein, 35 per
cent; Brown Swiss, 34 percent;
Gelbvieh, 31 percent; French
Normandy, 27 percent; and Sim
mental, 26 percent. The other
milk protein families and their
genetic types are still waiting for
research to be better understood.
There is some discussion under
way to include these genetic types
in herd sire-selection programs
and in milk payment plans. But
routine rapid testing methods need
to be developed first. Meanwhile,
it is because of these long-year
studies, including the one here at
the University of Delaware, that
we now have milk payment and
id Com Performance Trials
while combining outstanding standability,
drydown and drought tolerance
Rill Season Maturity. 4584 delivers
exceptional gram quality and a 5 4% yield
advantage over the mean It provides excellent
standability and early vigor, as well as disease
So devote your resources wisely by choosing a
field proven Funk’s G® brand hybnd. Contact a
Hoffman sales representative for help in choosing
the nght vanely for your operation
sire proofs that include protein or
solids-not-fat and somatic cell
counts. These factors have served
as a reward and incentive for dairy
farmers to select in a specific
direction, which also benefits
processors and consumers through
a better product.
The combination of protein
and somatic cell count is espe
cially important, because with
low somatic cell count, the cheese
yield is higher than it is from the
same milk, when the somatic cell
count is high. Paying critical
attention to the types, not just the
amount of protein in milk, means
differences in profitability for the
cheese maker and, ultimately, for
the dairy farmer.
It does
a body