Lancaster farming. (Lancaster, Pa., etc.) 1955-current, December 19, 1981, Image 57

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    Education is
WOOSTER, Ohio - One of the
major environmental problems
created by urbanization is what to
do with tons of waste generated
daily by cities and towns. It’s
estimated that more than 8 million
tons of municipal sewage sludge
will be produced in the nation in
The application of stabilized
sludge to cropland offers an at
tractive and economical disposal,
alternative for many cities, and
the key to acceptance of land
application hinges on public
Robert H. Miller, professor of
agronomy at Ohio State, said
educational programs by a team of
faculty from Ohio State and the
Ohio Cooperative Extension
Service have helped many cities in
the Buckeye State establish suc
cessful land application systems.
Currently, more than 80 cities
generating 30 percent of the state’s
total municipal sewage sludge are
applying the sludge to agricultural
Miller, speaking during the
annual meeting of the American
Society of Agronomy, said com
munity acceptance of land ap
plication of municipal sewage
sludge is dependent upon carefully
planned educational programs
before land application begins.
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To insure that our salesmen see
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2313 Norman Rd., Lancaster, PA 17601
Phone: 717-397-5152
Hours: Monday thru Friday 7 to 4
Sat. 7:30 to 12:00
key to successful land disposal of sewage sludge
He said an interdisciplinary
educational program was started
in Ohio in 1974. It has paid big
dividends and can serve as a model
for other states considering land
application of sewage sludge.
Educational program should be
designed to reach every group and
individual directly involved in land
application. Programs should be
tailored to the target audience—
these include key members of the
agricultural community, land
owners, city officials, local health
officials, community leaders, the
press, and . interested citizens
concerned about the relationship of
sludge disposal, and en
vironmental quality.
Miller said the education
programs must present a complete
picture of any potential problems
as well as the advantages of land
disposal of sewage sludge. City
officials must understand the
management systems necessary to
- assure success of land application
for their own municipality. It is
essential that program par
ticipants be fully prepared to
provide candid answers to any
Ohio, the nation’s sixth most
populous state has a number of
major metropolitan areas.
Although it is a highly in
dustrialized state, agriculture is
still a very important industry and
protection of agricultural lands is
of major concern.
In addition to the team approach
to public education, Ohio scientists
and Extension specialists have
developed and published a set of
guidelines for the stabilization of
sludge, cropland application rates,
heavy metal limitation*, and
BELTSVILLE, MD - Windmills
can provide an economical energy
source for dairy farms, according
to Dr. Herschel H. Klueter,
agricultural engineer, with the
U.S. Department of Agriculture, in
a paper presented at the recent
Small Wind Turbine Systems
Symposium at Boulder, CO.
The best uses of wind energy for
a dairy farm, according to Klueter
of USDA’s Agricultural Research
Service, are to heat the water
required for washing cows and
milking equipment, and to cool the
milk for storage. Since both
cooling and heating capacity can
be stockpiled in the form of ice and
hot water, these are ideal uses for
conversion of wind power.
Many dairy farms in the U.S. are
found in areas with “good” wind—
the Upper Mississippi and the
Great Lakes. And the use of energy
on a dairy farm is constant
throughout the year, another
reason these farms are a good
choice for wind energy use.
This new application for wind
power utilizes readily available
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Dairies can harness wind
for efficient energy
Lancaster Farming, Saturday, December 19,1981—821
management considerations.
Now in its third revision, “The
Ohio Guide for the Land Ap
plication of Sewage Sludge”
(Cooperative Extension Service
Bulletin 598), has proven a useful
management manual for cities in
Ohio and other states planning to
change their sewage disposal
technology. Old-fashioned ice
banks and ice water plate coolers
can be easily converted to harness
wind energy. A compressor freezes
water during windy periods to save
for later use, said Klueter of the
Agricultural Equipment
Laboratory at Beltsville
Agricultural Research Center.
Energy efficiency can be in
creased by pre-cooling the milk
with the incoming tap water by
using a simple heat-exchanger.
Also, the water used to cool the
compressor can be utilized since it
is discharged at a temperature of
about 37°C (100°F). This tem
perature is ideal for washing the
cow’s udders and milking equip
ment the main uses of warm
water in a dairy operation.
To test this new use of wind,
energy, Karman Science Cor
poration in cooperation with USDA
installed a wind turbine at the
Colorado State University dairy
farm in 1977. A hoop-shaped,
vertical-axis rotor was used to
power the generator. It measured
30-feet high, 20-feet wide, and was
mounted on an eight-foot-high
tower. Since the experimental
dairy farm in Colorado is not in a
good wind area, the power supplied
by the windmill was supplemented
by power from the utility com
pany. Nonetheless, the ex
perimental equipment showed that
the use of wind power for dairy
farm heating and cooling is
technically feasible.
Several features would improve
Like money in the tank
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Liquid hog manure can
save you several thousands
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fertilizer costs That s why
it pays to invest m Calumet
Pick the tank size that his
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“An open and honest approach is
essential,” Miller concluded, “to
foster understanding, eliminate
any distrust, and to minimize
concerns, emotion, and con
troversy about land application of
sewage sludge.”
the efficiency of the system,
Klueter observed. If a variable
speed windmill were attached to a
variable speed compressor, the
wind energy could be efficiently
used to power the compressor
directly. Also, to be effective, the
size of the wind turbine would be
correlated with the size of the
dairy herd, he added.
Other uses of wind power that
were studied by the U.S. Depart
ment of Agriculture included
utilization of windmills for heating
of buildings, for apple cooling and
storage, for crop drying, for
irrigation and for use in food
processing. Of all the wind energy
applications studied, use for dairy
farms and for irrigation appear to
be the most promising, said
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