The Behrend beacon. (Erie, Pa.) 1998-current, September 17, 1998, Image 6
Page 6- The Behrend College Beacon - Thursday, September 17, 1998 For Latino fans, Sosa puts the `Home' By Ken Ellingwood Los Angeles Times SAN DIEGO - From a press box perch at Qualcomm Stadium, Tijuana sportswriter Rafael Gonzalez Martinez pondered the continuing twists in Sammy Sosa's remarkable duel with Mark McGwire for the single season home run record. Despite McGwire's 63rd home run on Inesday, which put him on top once again, Gonzalez knows how his countrymen south of the border want the tale of these duel ing "jonroneros" to turn out. "Mexico hopes Sosa does it be cause he's Latino," said Gonzalez, who covers sports for the respected weekly newspaper Zeta. "He re flects well on Latin people." Though a world away from Sosa's homeland in the Dominican Republic, the border with Mexico is proving an auspicious place for the Chicago Cubs slugger to turn up this week during one of the final legs of the frenzied race. Interest in Sosa is cresting among California Latinos and in sports-crazy Tijuana, where Sosa T-shirts are showing up and many are trumpet ing their heartfelt pride in a fellow Records show CIA funded Program, Dalai Lama in '6os By Jim Mann Los Angeles Times WASHINGTON - For much of the 19605, the CIA provided the Ti betan exile movement with $1.7 mil lion a year for operations against China, including an annual subsidy of $lBO,OOO for the Dalai Lama, ac cording to newly released U.S. intel ligence documents. The money for the Tibetans and the Dalai Lama was part of the ClA's worldwide effort during the early years of the Cold War to undermine Communist governments, particu larly in the Soviet Union and China. In fact, the U.S. government commit tee that approved the Tibetan opera tions also authorized the disastrous Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba. The documents, published last month by the State Department, il lustrate the historical background of the situation in Tibet today, in which China continues to accuse the Dalai Lama of being an agent of foreign forces seeking to separate Tibet from China. The ClA's program encom passed support of Tibetan guerrillas in Nepal, a covert military training site in Colorado, "Tibet Houses" es tablished to promote Tibetan causes in New York and Geneva, education for Tibetan operatives at Cornell University and supplies for recon naissance teams. "The purpose of the program ... is to keep the political concept of an autonomous Tibet alive within Tibet and among foreign nations, princi pally India, and to build a capability for resistance against possible politi cal developments inside Communist China," explains one memo written by top U.S. intelligence officials. The declassified historical docu ments provide the first inside details of the ClA's decade-long covert pro gram to support the Tibetan indepen dence movement. At the time of the intelligence operation, the CIA was seeking to weaken Mao Tse-tung's hold over China. And the Tibetan ex iles were looking for help to keep their movement alive after the Dalai Lama and his supporters fled Tibet following an unsuccessful 1959 re volt against Chinese rule. Tibetan exiles and the Dalai Lama have acknowledged for many years that they once received support from U.S. intelligence. But until now, Washington refused to release any information about the ClA's Tibetan in home run Latino who has carried himself with grace and good humor under hiteuse daily pressure. "Everybody wants Sammy, Sammy, Sammy," said Paulo Aguirre Cortes, who hosts a sports talk show on a Tijuana radio sta tion. Of course, nearly everyone at this week's Cubs-San Diego Padres series is hoping to catch a glimpse of history in the making. (Sosa struck out four times Monday, a day after tying Southern Califor nia-bred McQwire at 62 home runs. After McGwire hit No. 63 Tuesday, Sosa again went hcimer-less.) No other U.S. big-league ballpark sits closer to Latin America than the Padres' home field, and few offer a better vantage for watching how a mere home run race can serve as a prism for cul ture and nationalism - not to men tion the universal glee in seeing records smashed and smashed At jammed news conferences as the four-game series opened here this week, nearly half the questions were delivered to Sosa in his native Spanish- an unusual number and a sign of how Sosamania has taken hold. operations The U.S. intelligence support for the Tibetans ended in the early 1970 s after the Nixon administration's dip lomatic opening to China, according to the Dalai Lama's writings, former CIA officials and independent schol The purpose of the program ... is to keep the political concept of an autonomous Tibet alive within Tibet and among foreign nations, principally, India, and to build a capability for resistance against possible political developments inside Communist China The Dalai Lama wrote in his au tobiography that the cutoff in the 1970 s showed that the assistance from the Americans "had been a re flection of their anti-Communist policies rather than genuine support for the restoration of Tibetan inde pendence." The newly published tiles show that the collaboration between U.S. intelligence and the Tibetans was less than ideal. "The Tibetans by nature did not appear to be congenitally in clined toward conspiratorial profi ciency," a top CIA official says rue fully in one memo. The budget figures for the ClA's Tibetan program are contained in a memo dated Jan. 9, 1964. It was evi dently written to help justify contin ued funding for the clandestine in telligence operation . "Support of 2,100 Tibetan guer rillas based in Nepal: $500,000," the document says. "Subsidy to the Dalai Lama: $180,000." After listing sev eral other costs, it concludes: "Total: $1,735,000." The files show that this budget request was approved soon afterward. A later document indicates that these annual expenses continued at the same level for four more years, until 1968. At that point, the CIA scrubbed its training programs for Tibetans inside the United States and cut the budget for the entire program to just below $1.2 million a year. In his 1990 autobiography, "Freedom in Exile," the Dalai Lama explained that his two brothers made contact with the CIA during a trip to India in 1956. The CIA agreed to help, "not because they cared about Tibetan independence, but as part of their worldwide efforts to destabilize World and Nation 3 more to quit; By Rita Ciotti Newsday Three dozen newspapers had al ready called for President Clinton's resignation but Monday, one of the largest, USA Today, and two other influential voices, the Philadelphia Inquirer and the Atlanta Journal-Con stitution, raised the volume by add ing their names to the list. "Bill Clinton should resign now," said an editorial in USA To day, which has a national circulation of 2.1 million. In contrast, in an editorial head lined: "City to Bubba: Hang in there," the New York Daily News told Clinton to "finish the job you were hired for. - The Miami Herald condemmed Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr. "This was and is a political lynching," said the paper. But are such editorials just add ing to the noise about a story the pub lic is telling pollsters it wants to go away? Or are they a warning of rip tides for the White House? "After a weekend like this people are looking for all sorts of barometers to what people are thinking. There is some distrust of polls, so institutional opinions like that of newpapers tend to gather weight over time," said Joe Stroud, who was editorial page edi- all Communist governments," the Dalai Lama wrote. "Naturally, my brothers judged it wise to keep this information from me. They knew what my reaction would have been." The Dalai Lama also wrote re- US intelligence memo gretfully in his book that the CIA had trained and equipped Tibetan guer rillas who conducted raids into Tibet from a base camp in Nepal. The effect of these operations "only resulted in more suffering for the people of Tibet. Worse, these ac tivities gave the Chinese government the opportunity to blame the efforts of those seeking to regain Tibetan in dependence on the activities of for eign powers _ whereas, of course, it was an entirely Tibetan initiative." Lodi Gyari, the Dalai Lama's personal representative in Washing ton, said last week that he had no knowledge of the ClA's $lBO,OOO-a -year subsidy or how the money was spent. "I have no clue whatsoever," Gyari said. Speaking more generally of the ClA's past support for the Ti betans, Gyari acknowledged: "It is an open secret. We do not deny it." The CIA has long resisted efforts to disclose information about its Ti- betan operations. Warren W. Smith Jr., author of a recent book on the history of Tibet, said he believes that the newly pub lished documents are the first to de scribe the ClA's Tibetan operations. Until now, information about the CIA plans has come from "(Tibetan) exiles and a few old CIA agents," Smith said. "None of the agents in volved would know detailed infor mation about things like the budget." The documents provide no de tails about the $lBO,OOO-a-year sub sidy to the Dalai Lama. But they sug gest that the money was used to pay for the staff and other costs of sup porting his activities on behalf of the Tibetan people. The same 1964 memo speaks of "continuing the support subsidy to newspapers call for Clinton others defer decision tor of the Detroit Free Press for 25 The growing number of editori years. "It does tend to snowball. In als about what consequences Clinton some ways these controversies take should face will likely prompt even on a life of their own." more editorial boards to take a stand. There is some distrust of polls, so institutional opin ions like that of newspapers tend to gather weight over time Among the papers favoring res ignation are the New York Post, Den ver Post, Des Moines (Iowa) Regis ter, Orlando (Fla.) Sentinel and the Seattle Times. "If I were in the White House I would be concerned that some news papers have called for resignation or impeachment," said Creed Black of Miami, a journalist who in his 40-year career was the editorial page editor of the Philadelphia Inquirer, president of the American Society of Newspaper Editors and the head of publisher and editorial writing associations. Black said the editorials at this stage aren't really reflecting public opinion but helping to form it. "The newspapers are leading and inform ing and molding public opinion right now," he said. Tibetan the Dalai Lama's entourage at Dharamsala," the city in northern In dia that has served as the Dalai Lama's headquarters and the seat of the Tibetan government-in-exile. A brief internal history of the ClA's Tibet operations shows that the Eisenhower administration first for mally approved covert support to the Tibetan resistance in September 1958, at a time when the Tibetans were conducting guerrilla raids against Chinese army units. The U.S. intelligence operations were overseen in Washington by the executive branch's top-secret "303 Committee." On May 20, 1959, only a few weeks after the unsuccessful Tibetan revolt, the 303 Committee approved the first covert support spe cifically for the Dalai Lama, who had just arrived in India. These covert CIA programs were re-approved sev eral times during the 19605. In 1964, the CIA decided that one of the main problems facing the Tibetans was "a lack of trained of ficers equipped with linguistic and administrative abilities." The files show that the Tibetans were keeping close track of U.S. policy toward China. In fact, they sometimes had a better sense of what Washington was about to do about China than did the rest of the world. On Dec. 6, 1968, a month after Richard Nixon was elected president but before he took office, the Dalai Lama's brother told a senior State Department official that the Tibetan exiles were afraid "of an accommo dation the United States might make with the Chinese Communists." Undersecretary of State Eugene V. Rostow told him not to worry. Rostow said that "we (the United States) would not make any accom modation with the Chinese Commu nists at the expense of Tibet." Over the next four years, the Nixon administration carried out its opening to China, and the ClA's Ti betan operations were shut down. The U.S. government now pro vides some financial support for Ti betans, but openly and through other channels. In recent years, Congress has approved about $2 million annually in funding for Tibetan exiles in In dia. Congress has also urged the ad ministration to spend another $2 mil lion for democracy activities among the Tibetans. Joe Stroud, former editorial page editor of the Detroit Free Press "We have some voices for resign ing immediately, some for letting the impeachment process play out and there are others who think that Ken Starr and the independent counsel law are the problems," said Mike Zuzel, an editorial writer at The Columbian in Vancouver, Wash., describing the debate at his paper over what stand to take. While almost any sampling of editorial opinion will show severe dis approval for Clinton's behavior, most are saying it is just too soon to take a Study finds 'Gulf War Syndrome' symptoms in soldiers who weren't there By David Brown The Washington Post The physical complaints known as "Gulf War syndrome" are not only common among Gulf War veterans, they're also frequently reported by soldiers who never went to Iraq, Ku wait or Saudi Arabia, according to new research. The fatigue, moodiness, memory problems and musculoskeletal pain many Gulf War veterans complain of are not likely to be explained by toxic exposures, exotic infections or other "risk factors" peculiar to the war, a team of epidemiologists report in Tuesday's Journal of the American Medical Association. Epidemiologists from the federal Centers for Disease Control and Pre vention (CDC) in Atlanta surveyed four Air Force units in 1995 and found that 45 percent of Gulf War veterans had chronic physical complaints. However, about 15 percent of soldiers who had never been deployed to the Gulf had the same problems, the re searchers found. Further, people reporting illness showed nothing unusual on physical examination or laboratory testing, and the Gulf War veterans among them had nothing notable in common, such as military occupation, exposure to combat, or the place where they had spent most of their tours. Altogether, the study "suggests that the multisymptom illness we ob served ... is not unique to (Gulf War) service," the authors of the study wrote. Soon after the end of the Gulf War in 1991, numerous soldiers - pri marily in reserve and National Guard units - reported they were suffering from an illness characterized by tired ness, difficulty concentrating, muscle and joint pain, and, less commonly, diarrhea, skin rashes and breathing problems. Some believed they had transmitted the problems to family members. The number of people with such complaints is unknown, although in recent years about 100,000 people (out of 697,000 deployed to the Gulf) have signed up for medical exams offered by the federal government. Several large-scale epidemiological studies are underway to determine the exact prevalence and severity of chronic illness in Gulf War veterans. In the new study, the CDC re searchers defined the "chronic multi system illness" as the presence, for at least six months, of at least one symptom from at least two of the fol lowing categories: fatigue; mood and cognition problems; and muscle or joint pains. Mood and cognition prob lems included feelings of depression, difficulties concentrating or finding words, and insomnia. The researchers surveyed mem bers of four units: two Air National Guard detachments in Pennsylvania position on what the consequences should be for the president. "You are not just talking about Bill Clinton here. You are talking about the insti tution of the presidency," said Margaretta Downey, editorial page editor of the Poughkeepsie (N.Y.) Journal. "It is not something you re spond to with a gut reaction." How ever, she added, the fast-moving events are being monitored closely. "That doesn't mean that next week we won't make a decision," she said. Tuesday's edition of the Long Island, N.Y., newspaper Newsday warns in its editorial against hasty calls to judgment. "We're not pre pared to agree that the president should remain in office come hell or high water," the editorial says. "But we think those who have called for his immediate resignation are trying to avoid one of the people's funda mental responsibilities in this demo cratic society ... Demanding his res ignation, at least at this stage, is ask ing him to take all of us off the hook, not to mention a queasy Congress." (including one that was among the first units in the nation to report an outbreak of Gulf War syndrome), and two units in Florida, one reserve and one active-duty. In all, about 1,200 Gulf War veterans, and about 2,600 servicemen who had never gone to the Gulf, were queried. Forty-five percent of Gulf War veterans fit the case definition for the illness, with 39 percent having mild or moderate cases, and 6 percent se vere ones. In the non-deployed group, 15 percent had complaints fitting the definition, but only 1 percent were severe The researchers also examined 158 members of the original Pennsyl vania unit that had reported illness soon after the end of the war. Even though nearly two-thirds were ill, the exams were most notable for the gen eral paucity of abnormal findings, the researchers write. The scientists also tested the soldiers' blood and body fluids for about 30 different patho genic microbes, as well as for evi dence of exposure to anthrax and botulinum toxin vaccines that some Gulf War soldiers received. A few people tested positive, but they were as likely to be in the healthy as the unhealthy group. "It is clear that the distribution of cases among (Gulf War) veterans and non-deployed personnel in this study cannot easily be explained by risk factors unique to Southwest Asia," the researchers concluded. What could explain the unusual distribution of the chronic illness? "Stress comes to mind as some thing that could plausibly have had more of an effect on people who went to the Gulf than people who did not, but which could be present in both groups," said Keiji Fukuda, a CDC physician and epidemiologist who led the study. "That's an easy example." He added, however, that the study did not finger psychological stress as the cause of the symptoms (as some other scientific experts have). Although the researchers found no higher prevalence of pre-deploy ment medical problems in the ill vet erans than the well ones, Fukuda said there may be other variables research ers should consider. Some observers think that Gulf War syndrome represents the usual health problems in the population that have been magnified by widespread attention to a "mystery" illness. There is indirect evidence for this theory in the study. Of the more than 3,700 sol diers surveyed, 99 percent reported at least one symptom as a "current health problem," suggesting that symptoms in general are very prevalent. Of the four units sampled, symptoms were most prevalent in the original Penn sylvania Air National Guard unit, which has been the object of much media attention and several scientific studies in recent years.